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ANS230 Exam 1
Terms in this set (120)
the provision of all indispensable nutrients in adequate amounts to insure proper growth and maintenance of body functions
prehension, ingestion, digestion and absorption of nutrients
Father of nutrition?
Antoine Lavoisier; established the chemical basis of nutrition in a respiration experiment
catabolism+anabolism; interconversion of nutrients to supply energy
breakdown of nutrients - generates chemical energy and heat
assimilation of new chemicals for structure and function - uses energy
utilizing a nutrient to generate ATP, CO2 and H2O
1st law of thermodynamics
matter and energy are always conserved. cannot be created or lost
Ways to group nutrients...
-by whether they provide energy to the body
-by how much is needed in the diet
-by whether their chemical structure contains carbon
[energy, necessity, Carbon]
Which nutrients yield energy?
Carbs, Proteins and Lipids
Which are the organic nutrients?
organic means they have carbon present.
so Carbs, Proteins, Lipids and Vitamins
-Carbs, Proteins, Lipids and maybe water
-Vitamins and Minerals
'conditionally essential' =
nutrients that are essential at a specific stage of the life cycle
Indispensable vs. Dispensable nutrients
both essential. Indispensable must be provided in the diet and cannot be synthesized.
Dispensable can be synthesized and does not need to be included in diet.
Plant vs. Animal tissues
Plants= greater % of carbs
Animal= greater % of lipids and proteins
Plants store energy as...
Animals store energy as...
Function of Proteins in animal tissues:
form structure of muscle, skin, hair, feathers. also function as enzymes
Function of Proteins in plants:
function as enzymes in whole plants. some structural and storage role
4 similarities between plant and animal cells:
3 things only plant cell has..
Functions of Nutrients?
1. provide energy (carbs, proteins, lipids)
2. promote growth and maintenance of body tissues (proteins, lipids, minerals, and water)
3. regulate and control body processes
Structural role of Proteins?
P- muscles, cells, connective tissue, bone
M- Ca and P
L- lipoproteins, cell membranes
C- glycoproteins, connective tissue
Regulatory function role of nutrients?
Na, K, Cl fluid balance to maintain conc. gradients (PMF)
amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gm water by 1 degree centigrade
____ is the most critical nutritional need
Nutrients provided from breakdown of body tissues =
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
the rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to keep vital functions going, such as breathing and keeping warm.
Smaller Mass : ___?___ BMR
Protein nutrient requirements?
15-18% of diet
Minerals and Vitamins requirements?
~2-4% of total diet
As Fed vs. Dry Matter
AF is DM+water so it will always be greater.
monosaccharide. aka dextrose.
broken down to produce energy.
most abundant in nature
AKA dehydration rxn. a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule
A chemical reaction that breaks apart a larger molecule by adding a molecule of water.
breaks disaccharide and splits water molecule.
Maltose vs. Lactose
Maltose has an alpha(1->4) bond
Lactose has a beta
Most abundant disaccharide in nature?
2 types of polysaccharides? Name some.
1. storage - contain alpha-glucose units. (starch, glycogen, and amylopectin)
2. structural - contain beta-glucose units. (cellulose and chitin)
Amylose and amylopectin =
starch (storage polysaccharides)
storage polysaccharide found in animals. stored in liver and muscle.
=fiber. insoluble. ruminants and insects CAN digest cellulose (other animals cant).
Chemical markers of Blood types are...
oligosaccharides w/ 3-4 sugar units
What is the H antigen?
precursor CHO. attached to lipids or proteins on the outer surface of red blood cells.
Blood antigens code for addition of ___ to H antigen.
A- N-acetyl galactosamine
O- no addition
3-C Products of Glycolysis
DHAP, G3P, and Pyruvate.
Where does glycolysis take place?
Absorptive period and
Post absorptive period
Nutrients enter the blood and lymph from the GI tract.
Oxidation of available glucose for ATP.
During Absorptive period, 50% of glucose absorbed is...
-oxidized to produce ATP via glycolysis, krebs and ETC
-converted to triglycerides/fat
-stored as glycogen in skeletal muscles and hepatocytes
Most glucose entering hepatocytes is converted to ____
Most dietary lipids are stored in..
Post Absorptive Period:
absorption of nutrients from GI tract is complete.
Energy needs must be met by fuels in body reserves.
breakdown of liver glycogen.
Body fuel sources:
glycogen, fatty acids from fat tissue, lactic acid produced anaerobically, ketone bodies
Nervous system and RBCs need...
glucose for ATP
triglycerides --> glucose
oxidation of fatty acids
oxidation of lactic acid
oxidation of amino acids
oxidation of ketone bodies
________ convert fatty acids to ketone bodies
hepatocytes (in liver)
Gluconeogenesis occurs in...
Liver (85%) and Kidney (15%)
synthesis of glucose from non-carb precursors
Gluconeogenesis hormone effect
increased glucagon and epinephrine.
increased glucocorticoids (promote mobilization of body tissue)
Gluconeogenesis precursors used.
glucogenic amino acids (Cats)
synthesized in pancreas.
stimulated by increased glucose concentrations.
cause glucose storage.
synthesized by pancreas.
stimulated by a reduction in glucose concentrations.
starts glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis**
synthesized by the adrenal gland.
causes immediate glycogenolysis.
'fight or flight' situations
Insulin is synthesized...
Glucagon is synthesized...
Epinephrine is synthesized...
by the adrenal gland
Tissues in which insulin facilitates glucose uptake: (5)
insulin-regulated glucose transporter?
Tissues in which insulin does not facilitate glucose uptake: (6)
Monosaccharides are classified based on...
number of carbons.
Triose, Tetrose, Pentose, Hexose...
Disaccharides to know;
Maltose, Lactose, and Sucrose
made of NAG.
polysaccharide. prevents clotting in bloodstream.
part of group called glycosaminoglycans
in Ruminants, animal provides ______ and microorganisms provide...
-volatile fatty acids and protein
Rumen microbe percentages:
Products from rumen microbes USED BY HOST ANIMAL
SCFA(short-chain)/VFA, Microbial cells, LCFA
Products from rumen microbes NOT USED BY HOST
CO2, NH3, CH4, Heat, H2S
Short-chain fatty acids to know
acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid
SCFAs absorbed from rumen into portal blood provides _____ of ruminant's energy needs
High starch diets:
SCFA and Lactic acid production.
Decrease in rumen pH.
Disruption in ruminal function.
Clinical: pH<5.0 (increased lactic acid, metabolic acidosis, microbial death)
Associated problems; parakeratosis, liver abscesses, laminitis
How do you prevent rumen acidosis?
reduce grain intake. feed additives (buffers, ionophores)
Ruminants have reduced fluctuation of glucose homeostasis because...
-eat more constantly than monogastrics
-continuous VFA production
-continuous digesta flow
Sources of glucose precursors? (4)
50% forage + 50% grain
Source of glucose= 25% diet, 75% gluconeogenesis
Major energy storage form in animals?
Lipids consist of...
energy-dense hydrogenated carbons
Lipids are oxidized for...
biosynthesis, work or heat
Types of fats:
1. Simple fats
Simple fats -
exist as single molecules.
fatty acids = simplest form
carboxylic acid group (-COOH)
Types of Complex fats (3)
critical for membrane function. most abundant in biological membranes
water insoluble. critical part of nervous system
fats + proteins. transport fats in the blood. HDL and LDL
having both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region
CHO, Fat, Amino acid metabolism produce ____
acetate. used to make chem energy via TCA cycle
3 C Fatty acid ex.
4 C Fatty acid ex.
8 C Fatty acid ex.
Propionic acid -> propane
Butyric acid -> butane
Caprylic acid -> octane (gasoline)
3 C fatty acid.
microbial action in gut
4 C fatty acid.
microbial action in gut.
used as energy in cells.
8 C fatty acid.
made in the body.
Addtl properties that determine fatty acid function
Location of double bond
Fatty acid chain length info;
longer the chain=more solid the fat.
volatility decreases with chain length.
Unsaturated fatty acids have...
double bonds. and lower melting point.
(Saturated don't have)
essential nutrients must be...
obtained from diet (body cant produce)
What are the groups of essential nutrients?
Protein, Carbs, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals, and Water
These reactions usually release heat as energy and result in the breakdown of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances
What percentage of the US population are farmers today?
The function of nutrients are to:
provide energy, regulate and control body processes, promote growth and maintenance of body tissues
Crude fiber is mainly the...
indigestible portion and contains cellulose and lignin
Proteins, lipids and carbs can best be described as:
Plants store energy as ______
Animals store energy as _____
When compared to expressing nutrients on a Dry Matter basis, nutrients in a feed expressed on an As Fed percentage will always be:
lower because water is included
Fat soluble vitamins?
Vitamin A, D, E, K
The concentration of a nutrient is greater when expressed on a....
100% dry matter basis. because the water has been removed but the amount of nutrient is the same.
The main constituents of a plant cell wall include:
hemicellulose and cellulose
the difference between animal fat and vegetable oil is:
vegetable fat has more double bonds
one advantage of including fat in diets is:
they increase the Mcal/kg of diet DM
Protein quality refers to:
amino acid profile relative to animal requirements
the plant cell consists mainly of:
sugars and proteins
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