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70 terms

MicroBiology MidTerm

STUDY
PLAY
microbiology
scientific study of microorganisms and their effects on other organisms
eukaryote
"true nucleus". have a nucleus AND membrane bound organelles
prokaryote
"before nucleus". Unicellular microorganisms that do not have nucleus or organelles BUT still has DNA strands, generally enclosed by peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall and reproduce by asexual binary fission
morphology
scientific study of shape and form without regard to function
3 primary shapes of bacteria cells
1. spherical
2. rod-shaped
3. spiral
Cocci
spherical. Ex. staphylococcus aureus - skin abscess
Bacilli
rod-shaped. Ex. salmonella typhl - typhoid fever
Spiral - 3 types
1. vibrios - comma shaped
2. spirilla -helical
3. spirochetes - helical
pleomorphic
bacteria that DO change shape
monomorphic
do not change shape. Genetically most bacterial cells are monomorphic
Arrangements - when COCCI and BACILLI divide they remain attached to one another in arrangements
when COCCI and BACILLI divide they remain attached to one another in arrangements
Arrangements of Cocci
a. Diplococci - pairs after dividing
b. strepto -chain-like patterns
c. tetrads - divide in 2 planes and remain groups of 4
d. sarcinae - divide in 3 planes and remain attached n cube-like groups of 8
e. staphylococci - cocci that divide in multiple planes and form grape-like clusters
Arrangements of Bacilli
a. diplobacilli - rod shaped bacteria that divide across their short axis and remain in pairs
b. streptobacilli - bacilli that divide across their short access and remain in chains
c. coccobacilli - rod shaped bacteria that are oval and look like cocci
External to Cell wall - glycocalyx
many prokaryote secretes a sticky, gelatinous coating that surrounds that cell wall
Glycocalyx Capsule
1. ONLY when is is organizes and firmly attached externally to the cell wall
2. enhances virulence - ability to cause disease
3. ex. streptococcus pneumoniae - causes pneumococcal pneumonia
phagocytosis
cell eating
Glycocalyx Slime layer
glycolcalyx is unorganized and only loosely attached to the cell wall yet stlll resists phagatosis
motility
motility - motion via flagella
attachment
via pili/fimbriae
motility for spirochetes
axial filaments - bundles of fibrils that arise at ends of cell beneath an outer sheath and spiral around the cell
bacteria
prokaryote organism
Chlamydia
bacterial nonmotile, obligate intracellular parasite
Rickettsia
bacterial obligate intracellular parasite - causes typhus fever via an insect vector
mycoplasma
bacterial CELL with no bacterial cell wall and are the smallest of the free-living bacterial cells
fungal organism
eukarytic organism from Kingdom Fungi
yeasts
unicellular eukarytic organism with distinct nucleus from Kingdom Fungi
molds
multicellular eukarytic organism with distinct nucleus from Kingdom Fungi
protozoa
unicellular eukaryotic first-formed animals from Kingdon Protista
viruses
submicroscopic, acellular, obligate intracellular parasites protected by a capsid protein coat that contain nucleic acid core (EITHER DNA or RNA)
prion
infectious PROTEIN that is resistant to most procedures that modify nucleic acids. Causes CJD
3 Domain system
1. Bacteria - prokaryote
2. Archaea - prokaryote
3. Eukarya - fungus, protozoa
5 Kingdom system
1. Prokaryote
2. Protista - protozoa
3. Fungi - yeast, mold
4. Plant
5. Animal
taxonomical hierarchy
1. Domain
2. Kingdom
3. Division
4. Class
5. Order
6. Family
7. Genus
8. Species
Father of microbiology
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
microbiology
study of small organisms
bacteriology
study of bacteria
mycology
study of fungi
virology
study of viruses
3 Domains ARch BAC-EUK
3 domains are: Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya
8 DOMAIN KINGDOMS DIVide CLASS ORDER to FAMILY GENUS and SPECIES
Hierarchy: Domains-Kingdoms-Division-Class-Order- Family-Genus-Species
Pro No Nuc Yo DaNA
Prokaryote have no nucleus yet have DNA.
ProCell PEPTo DoGly
Prokaryote have cell walls made of peptidoglycan
EUK Nuc w/ bORGs Pro No!
Eukaryotes have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles Prokaryotes don't.
5 KINGdoms PROK and PROT their FUNG-PaL-ANIMALS
5 kingdoms: Prokaryotes, Protista, Fungi, Plant, Animal
Microbiology
Study of microorganisms and their effect on other organisms
Binomial Nomenclature
Scientific names of organisms. Two names: GENUS and Species.
Eukaryotes
"true nucleus" for DNA
Prokaryotes
"before nucleus". Single cell (unicellular). No true nucleus but still have DNA enclosed by peptidoglycan cell wall. Kingdom prokaryotes. Reproduce via binary FIssion and are 3 shapes: spherical, rod, spiral
Protista
Eukaryotes
Protozoology
Study of protozoa
Rickettsiology
Study of rickettsia
Micro -> Bacteriology -> Rickettsiology
Micro -> Bacteriology -> Rickettsiology
Parasitology
Study of parasites
Immunology
Study of immunity
Bacteria
Domain - Prokaryotes, peptidoglycan cell wall
Chlamydia
Bacterial Nonmotile, obligate, intracellular parasite
Rickettsia
Bacteria obligate intracellular parasite causes diseases like typhus fever.
Mycroplasma
Smallest of free-living bacteria w/ no cell wall.
Fungi
"Eukaryotes, kingdom Fungi,
Protozoan
Unicellular Eukaryotes, first formed animals, kingdom protista
Virus
Submicroscopic acellular obligate parasite with DNA or RNA, surrounded by capsid protein coat
Prion
Resistive infectious protein. Causes CJD
Archaea
Domain - Prokaryote w/o peptidoglycan cell wall
Prokaryote vs Eukaryotes
"Pro- Kingdom Prokaryote, Domain bacteria, Domain archaea
total magnification
multiply OBJective and OCUlar
wavelength relationship of light source and resolution of microscope
shorter the waveength the greater the resolution
2 different stains
Gram (violet and pink) and Acid-Fast (red, blue)
Gram-Positive organisms are
More susceptible to destruction by penicillin, less resistant to penicillin
Gram-negative organisms are
less susceptible to destruction by penecillin, more resistant
which stain used to identify Mycobacterium
Acid-Fast stains 'cause of lipid content. Help in diagnosis of leprosy and tuberculosis