PSYC 101 Ch. 1-3 (Exam 1)
Terms in this set (104)
the scientific study of conscious experience, the science that studies behavior and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie behavior, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problems
the awareness of immediate experience
based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related
the careful, systematic self-observation of one's own conscious experience
based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure
contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior
attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism
a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
The branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge
examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
uses theory and research to better understand the positive, adaptive, creative, and fulfilling aspects of human existence
A branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.
the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation
a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
refers to the widely shared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions, and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations
a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.
a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations
describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
The persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study.
data collection techniques
procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
consist of differing approaches to the observation, measurement, manipulation, and control of variables in empirical studies
A research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result.
a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable
consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
consists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
confounding of variables
occurs when two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their specific effects
occurs when all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study
exists when two variables are related to each other
A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.
a researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
occurs when a subject's behavior is altered by the presence of an observer
An in-depth investigation of an individual subject.
researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants' background, attitudes, beliefs, or behavior
the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
combines the statistical results of many studies of the same question, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of a variable's effects
the collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
the much larger collection of animals or people (from which the sample is drawn) that researchers want to generalize about
exists when a sample is not representative of the population from which it was drawn
occur when participants' expectations lead them to experience some change even though they receive empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
social desirability bias
A tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about oneself.
occurs when someone's overall evaluation of a person, object, or institution spills over to influence more specific ratings
occurs when a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained
A research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which subjects are in the experimental or control groups.
Individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information.
or cell body, contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells
parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information
A long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
insulating material that encases some axons
small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
A junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to the next.
cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons
of a neuron is its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive
a very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon
absolute refractory period
The minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin.
a microscopic gap between the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron
postsynaptic potential (PSP)
a voltage change at a receptor site on a postsynaptic cell membrane
A process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
internally produced chemicals that resemble opiates in structure and effects
peripheral nervous system
made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord
Bundles of neuron fibers (axons) that are routed together in the peripheral nervous system.
somatic nervous system
made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors
afferent nerve fibers
axons that carry information inward to the central nervous system from the periphery of the body
efferent nerve fibers
Axons that carry information outward from the central nervous system to the periphery of the body.
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
made up of nerves that connect to the heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies.
The branch of the autonomic nervous system that generally conserves bodily resources.
central nervous system (CNS)
consists of the brain and spinal cord
involves destroying a piece of the brain
electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
involves sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate (activate) it
includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower part of the brainstem: the medulla and the pons
cerebellum ("little brain")
a relatively large and deeply folded structure adjacent to the back surface of the brainstem
The segment of the brain stem that lies between the hindbrain and the forebrain.
The largest and most complicated region of the brain, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebrum.
A structure in the forebrain through which all sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex.
A structure found near the base of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs.
a loosely connected network of structures located roughly along the border between the cerebral cortex and deeper subcortical areas
The convoluted outer layer of the cerebrum.
The right and left halves of the cerebrum.
the major structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres
neurons that are activated by performing an action or by seeing another monkey or person perform the same action
the formation of new neurons
the bundle of fibers that connects the cerebral hemispheres (the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures
consists of glands that secrete chemicals into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning
The chemical substances released by the endocrine glands.
releases a great variety of hormones that fan out around the body, stimulating actions in the other endocrine glands
a hormone that is released by the pituitary gland and regulates reproductive behaviors
Threadlike strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules that carry genetic information.
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes
researchers assess hereditary influence by examining blood relatives to see how much they resemble one another on a specific trait
researchers assess hereditary influence by comparing the resemblance of identical twins and fraternal twins with respect to a trait
assess hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents
the study of heritable changes in gene expression that do not involve modifications to the DNA sequence
refers to the reproductive success (number of descendants) of an individual organism relative to the average reproductive success in the population
posits that heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent generations, and thus they come to be "selected" over time
An inherited characteristic that increased in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged.