AP World History Ways of the World: Chapter 10 Terms

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Terms in this set (...)

Vladimir, prince of Kiev
Grand prince of Kiev (r. 978-1015 CE) whose conversion to Orthodox Christianity led to the incorporation of Russia into the sphere of Eastern orthodoxy.
Vikings
Scandinavian raiders who had an impact on much of Western Europe in the late eighth to eleventh centuries, their more peaceful cousins also founded colonies, including Newfoundland, Greenland and Iceland.
System of competing states
The distinctive organization of Western European political life that developed after the fall of the western Roman empire in the fifth century CE in which the existence of many small, independent states encouraged military and economic competition.
Natural philosophy
The scientific study of nature, which developed, especially in Europe, in the later Middle Ages. Otto I King of Germany (r. 936-973) who built a consolidated German-northern Italian state and was crowned emperor in 962, creating what became known as the "Holy Roman Empire".
Kievan Rus
State that emerged around the city of Kiev in the ninth century CE a culturally diverse region that included Vikings as well as Finnic and Baltic peoples. The conversion of Vladimir, the grand prince of Kiev, to Orthodox Christianity in 988 had long term implications for Russia.
Justinian
Byzantine emperor (r. 527-565 CE) noted for his short-lived reconquest of much of the former western Roman Empire and for his codification of Roman law.
Indulgence
A remission of the penalty (penance) for confessed sin that could be granted only by a pope, at first to Crusaders and later for a variety of reasons.
Iconoclasm
The destruction of holy images; a term most often used to describe the Byzantine state policy of image destruction from 725 to 843.
"Hybrid civilization"
The distinctive path of Western Europe in the centuries following the fall of the western Roman Empire, leading to a society that included elements of ancient Rome, the practices of Germanic invaders who formed new states, Christianity, and elements of pre-Roman culture that still survived.
Holy Roman Empire
Term invented in the twelfth century to describe the Germany-based empire founded by Otto I in 962 CE.
Guild
An association formed by people pursuing the same line of work that regulates their professions and also provides a social and religious network for members.
Greek fire
Form of liquid fire that could be sprayed at the enemy; invented by the Byzantines and important to their efforts to halt the Arab advance into Byzantine territory.
European cities
Western Europe saw a major process of urbanization beginning in the eleventh century, with towns that created major trade networks and that were notable for the high degree of independence they often enjoyed.
Cyrillic
Alphabet based on Greek letters that was developed by two Byzantine missionaries, Cyril and Methodius, to write Slavic languages.
Cyril and Methodius
Ninth-century Byzantine missionaries to the Slavs whose development of Cyrillic script made it possible to write Slavic languages.
Crusades
Modern term meaning "ventures of the cross", used to describe the "holy wars" waged by Western Christendom from 1095 until the end of the Middle Ages and beyond, could only be declared by the pope and were marked by participants swearing a vow and receiving an indulgence in return.
Constantinople
New capital for the eastern half of the Roman Empire, established by Emperor Constantine in 330 CE on the site of the ancient Greek city of Byzantium; highly defensible and economically important site helped assure the city's cultural and strategic importance for many centuries.
Christianity, Roman Catholic
Western European branch of Christianity that gradually defined itself as separate from Eastern Orthodoxy, with a major break in 1054 CE that has still not been healed, - was not commonly used until after the Protestant Reformation, but the term is just since, by the eleventh century, Western Christendom defined itself in centralized terms, with the bishop of Rome (the pope) as the ultimate authority in matters of doctrine.
Christianity, Eastern Orthodox
Branch of Christianity that developed in the eastern part of the Roman Empire and gradually separated, mostly on matters of practice, from the branch of Christianity dominant in Western Europe, noted for the subordination of the Church to political authorities; a married clergy, the use of leavened bread in the Eucharist, and insistence on church councils as the ultimate authority in Christian belief and practice.
Charlemagne
Ruler of the Carolingian Empire (r. 768-814) who staged an imperial revival in Western Europe.
Caesaropapism
A political-religious system in which the secular ruler is also head of the religious establishment, as in the Byzantine Empire.
Byzantine Empire
Term used by modern historians to refer to the surviving eastern Roman Empire during the medieval centuries; named after the ancient Greek city Byzantium, on the site of which the Roman emperor Constantine founded a new capital, Constantinople, in 320 CE.
Aristotle and classical Greek learning
Some works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BCE) had always been known in Western Europe, but beginning in the eleventh century, medieval thought was increasingly shaped by a great recovery of Aristotle's works and a fascination with other Greek authors; this infusion of Greek rationalism into Europe's universities shaped intellectual development for several centuries.
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