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persistence of learning over time, ability to encode, store, and retrieve information


get it in, paying attention, focus in, associated with sensory system


retain it, hippocampus, alcohol affects


get it out, most important, memorizing have for later use

Atkinson-Shiffrin Model

information-processing approach; 3 different memory systems (like computer, remember where stored)

First Stage

sensory memory, capacity, duration


visual: fraction of second, auditory: 2 seconds

sensory memory ( stage 1)

initial record of sensory information (sensation - hear, smell, touch, see, taste)

capacity (stage 1)


2nd stage - Short-term memory

what we're currently thinking about / working on

capacity (STM)

7 +/- 2 items

duration (STM)

less than 30 secs without rehearsal, repeat and work with rehearsal


new info pushes old out


organizing info into unit, remember more words

3rd stage- long-term memory

storage of relatively permanent memories

capacity (LTM)

no known limits

duration (LTM)

minute to lifetime


conscious repetition of information, to maintain it in STM (keep repeating), to encode it for storage (later for retrieval)

maintenance rehearsal

repeat over and over

elaborative rehearsal

relate new info to old info, more meaningful connection new information to old informative information

declarative/explicit memory

things we consciously recall and store


personal chronological experiences, moment in time


general knowledge, facts, info, no specific time

procedural/implicit memory

motor skills, habits; without conscious recall, examples: riding bike, driving car


search memory for info, essay test or Jepeordy, very tricky, pulling info out


identify info as familiar, multiple choice tests, recognize correct answer


time saved when memory is relearned

nature of remembering

do not store or retrieve exact copies, reconstruct memories from few highlights


framework of knowledge and assumptions about people, objects, and events

positive bias

personal memories may become more pleasant with time

source amnesia

remember information not where received, false memories~ activated things that are similar

flashbulb memories

vivid memory of highly emotional event, easy to recall due to: emotionality, consequentiality, rehearsal

serial position effect

items position in list affects memory, primary effect ~1st items easy, recency effect~last items easy, compared to middle

context dependent memory

recall better when in similar context, state dependent memory(deals with emotions)

Ebbinghaus's Curve of Forgetting

memorized lists and then measured forgetting at different intervals

encoding failure

info never entered LTM (never put into long-term memory, don't rehearse, practice, etc.)

retrieval failure

can't pull info out of LTM ( can't remember how to take out)

decay theory

unused memories fade


effects of other learning


can't remember new info, address when move, learned beforehand


learned afterward, old info is changed

consolidated failure

disruption during, can't remember situation

motivated forgetting

want to forget info

prospective forgetting

forgetting to do something in future


memory loss usually due to shock, psychological disturbance, brain injury, or illness

improving memory

over-learning, use spaced-practice, acronyms and acrostics, method of loci, make it meaningful

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