46 terms

Psychology Chapter 7 Memory Vocabulary

persistence of learning over time, ability to encode, store, and retrieve information
get it in, paying attention, focus in, associated with sensory system
retain it, hippocampus, alcohol affects
get it out, most important, memorizing have for later use
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
information-processing approach; 3 different memory systems (like computer, remember where stored)
First Stage
sensory memory, capacity, duration
visual: fraction of second, auditory: 2 seconds
sensory memory ( stage 1)
initial record of sensory information (sensation - hear, smell, touch, see, taste)
capacity (stage 1)
2nd stage - Short-term memory
what we're currently thinking about / working on
capacity (STM)
7 +/- 2 items
duration (STM)
less than 30 secs without rehearsal, repeat and work with rehearsal
new info pushes old out
organizing info into unit, remember more words
3rd stage- long-term memory
storage of relatively permanent memories
capacity (LTM)
no known limits
duration (LTM)
minute to lifetime
conscious repetition of information, to maintain it in STM (keep repeating), to encode it for storage (later for retrieval)
maintenance rehearsal
repeat over and over
elaborative rehearsal
relate new info to old info, more meaningful connection new information to old informative information
declarative/explicit memory
things we consciously recall and store
personal chronological experiences, moment in time
general knowledge, facts, info, no specific time
procedural/implicit memory
motor skills, habits; without conscious recall, examples: riding bike, driving car
search memory for info, essay test or Jepeordy, very tricky, pulling info out
identify info as familiar, multiple choice tests, recognize correct answer
time saved when memory is relearned
nature of remembering
do not store or retrieve exact copies, reconstruct memories from few highlights
framework of knowledge and assumptions about people, objects, and events
positive bias
personal memories may become more pleasant with time
source amnesia
remember information not where received, false memories~ activated things that are similar
flashbulb memories
vivid memory of highly emotional event, easy to recall due to: emotionality, consequentiality, rehearsal
serial position effect
items position in list affects memory, primary effect ~1st items easy, recency effect~last items easy, compared to middle
context dependent memory
recall better when in similar context, state dependent memory(deals with emotions)
Ebbinghaus's Curve of Forgetting
memorized lists and then measured forgetting at different intervals
encoding failure
info never entered LTM (never put into long-term memory, don't rehearse, practice, etc.)
retrieval failure
can't pull info out of LTM ( can't remember how to take out)
decay theory
unused memories fade
effects of other learning
can't remember new info, address when move, learned beforehand
learned afterward, old info is changed
consolidated failure
disruption during, can't remember situation
motivated forgetting
want to forget info
prospective forgetting
forgetting to do something in future
memory loss usually due to shock, psychological disturbance, brain injury, or illness
improving memory
over-learning, use spaced-practice, acronyms and acrostics, method of loci, make it meaningful