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46 terms

Psychology Chapter 7 Memory Vocabulary

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memory
persistence of learning over time, ability to encode, store, and retrieve information
encoding
get it in, paying attention, focus in, associated with sensory system
storage
retain it, hippocampus, alcohol affects
retrieval
get it out, most important, memorizing have for later use
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model
information-processing approach; 3 different memory systems (like computer, remember where stored)
First Stage
sensory memory, capacity, duration
duration
visual: fraction of second, auditory: 2 seconds
sensory memory ( stage 1)
initial record of sensory information (sensation - hear, smell, touch, see, taste)
capacity (stage 1)
large
2nd stage - Short-term memory
what we're currently thinking about / working on
capacity (STM)
7 +/- 2 items
duration (STM)
less than 30 secs without rehearsal, repeat and work with rehearsal
displacement
new info pushes old out
chunking
organizing info into unit, remember more words
3rd stage- long-term memory
storage of relatively permanent memories
capacity (LTM)
no known limits
duration (LTM)
minute to lifetime
rehearsal
conscious repetition of information, to maintain it in STM (keep repeating), to encode it for storage (later for retrieval)
maintenance rehearsal
repeat over and over
elaborative rehearsal
relate new info to old info, more meaningful connection new information to old informative information
declarative/explicit memory
things we consciously recall and store
episodic
personal chronological experiences, moment in time
semantic
general knowledge, facts, info, no specific time
procedural/implicit memory
motor skills, habits; without conscious recall, examples: riding bike, driving car
recall
search memory for info, essay test or Jepeordy, very tricky, pulling info out
recognition
identify info as familiar, multiple choice tests, recognize correct answer
relearning
time saved when memory is relearned
nature of remembering
do not store or retrieve exact copies, reconstruct memories from few highlights
schemas
framework of knowledge and assumptions about people, objects, and events
positive bias
personal memories may become more pleasant with time
source amnesia
remember information not where received, false memories~ activated things that are similar
flashbulb memories
vivid memory of highly emotional event, easy to recall due to: emotionality, consequentiality, rehearsal
serial position effect
items position in list affects memory, primary effect ~1st items easy, recency effect~last items easy, compared to middle
context dependent memory
recall better when in similar context, state dependent memory(deals with emotions)
Ebbinghaus's Curve of Forgetting
memorized lists and then measured forgetting at different intervals
encoding failure
info never entered LTM (never put into long-term memory, don't rehearse, practice, etc.)
retrieval failure
can't pull info out of LTM ( can't remember how to take out)
decay theory
unused memories fade
interference
effects of other learning
proactive
can't remember new info, address when move, learned beforehand
radioactive
learned afterward, old info is changed
consolidated failure
disruption during, can't remember situation
motivated forgetting
want to forget info
prospective forgetting
forgetting to do something in future
amnesia
memory loss usually due to shock, psychological disturbance, brain injury, or illness
improving memory
over-learning, use spaced-practice, acronyms and acrostics, method of loci, make it meaningful