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prokaryotic cells, ancient, unique but share traits of bacteria and eurkaryotic species


prokaryotic cells, metabolically diverse


smallest unit of life and properties of life; can survive and reproduce on its own.


In eukaryotes, a linear DNA double helix with many histones and proteins attached.


hair-like structure for movement


All cell parts, particles, and semifluid substances between the plasma membrane and nucleus.


The framework of diverse protein filaments that structurally support, organize, and move the cell and internal structures.

endomembrane system

ER, Golgi bodies, and transport vesicles concerned with making protein, lipid assembly, and transporting them to the plasma membrane for export.


A long, whip-like structure for movement of a cell.

gap (communicating) junctions

Protein channels in plasma membrane for rapid flow of ions and small molecules.

Golgi body

organelle that modifies and packages proteins and lipids into vesicles for secretion or use inside cell; UPS center

phospholipid bilayer

Hydrophobic lipids with a hydrophilic phosphate group head; arranged tail to tail in two layers in the cell membrane.


vesicle filled with enzymes for intracellular digestion


thinnest cytoskeletal element; actin subunits for contraction, movement, and structure


largest cytoskeletal subunit; tubulin subunit for shape, growth, motion; move chromosomes during cell division

nuclear envelope

double-membrane around nucleus


"tiny kernal"; , The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus


The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell


membrane-bound compartments that carry out special functions in the cell


enzyme-filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and tOXic substances


single-celled organism, that does not have organelles like a eukaryote


site of polypeptide synthesis in all cells

tight junctions

strands of fibrous proteins that link cells that line the body cavities (epithelial tissue); prevents solutes from leaking between cells.


small, membrane-bound sacs in cytoplasm that transport or store or hold enzymes for digestion


Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

rough endoplasmic reticulum

covered with ribosomes and begins the process of forming secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of protein

intermediate filaments

most stable of cytoskeleton elements; helps stablize muscle tissue

surface-to-volume ratio

If a cell expands in diameter during growth, its volume will increase more rapidly that surface area will. If cell is too large, it can't move materials in and out very well.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.

plasma membrane

The thin outermost boundary of cells; substances must move across it to enter or exit the cell.

lipid bilayer

describes the STRUCTURE of the cell membranes


A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cell membranes.

scanning electron microscope

An electron microscope used to study the fine details of cell surfaces

transmission electron microscope

An electron microscope used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells

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