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34 terms

BIO160 Ch. 4 Cell Structure & Function

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archaea
prokaryotic cells, ancient, unique but share traits of bacteria and eurkaryotic species
bacteria
prokaryotic cells, metabolically diverse
cell
smallest unit of life and properties of life; can survive and reproduce on its own.
chromosomes
In eukaryotes, a linear DNA double helix with many histones and proteins attached.
cilia
hair-like structure for movement
cytoplasm
All cell parts, particles, and semifluid substances between the plasma membrane and nucleus.
cytoskeleton
The framework of diverse protein filaments that structurally support, organize, and move the cell and internal structures.
endomembrane system
ER, Golgi bodies, and transport vesicles concerned with making protein, lipid assembly, and transporting them to the plasma membrane for export.
flagellum
A long, whip-like structure for movement of a cell.
gap (communicating) junctions
Protein channels in plasma membrane for rapid flow of ions and small molecules.
Golgi body
organelle that modifies and packages proteins and lipids into vesicles for secretion or use inside cell; UPS center
phospholipid bilayer
Hydrophobic lipids with a hydrophilic phosphate group head; arranged tail to tail in two layers in the cell membrane.
lysosome
vesicle filled with enzymes for intracellular digestion
microfilaments
thinnest cytoskeletal element; actin subunits for contraction, movement, and structure
microtubules
largest cytoskeletal subunit; tubulin subunit for shape, growth, motion; move chromosomes during cell division
nuclear envelope
double-membrane around nucleus
nucleolus
"tiny kernal"; , The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
nucleus
The organelle that contains the DNA and controls the processes of the cell
organelles
membrane-bound compartments that carry out special functions in the cell
peroxisome
enzyme-filled vesicle that breaks down amino acids, fatty acids, and tOXic substances
prokaryote
single-celled organism, that does not have organelles like a eukaryote
ribosomes
site of polypeptide synthesis in all cells
tight junctions
strands of fibrous proteins that link cells that line the body cavities (epithelial tissue); prevents solutes from leaking between cells.
vesicles
small, membrane-bound sacs in cytoplasm that transport or store or hold enzymes for digestion
mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
rough endoplasmic reticulum
covered with ribosomes and begins the process of forming secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of protein
intermediate filaments
most stable of cytoskeleton elements; helps stablize muscle tissue
surface-to-volume ratio
If a cell expands in diameter during growth, its volume will increase more rapidly that surface area will. If cell is too large, it can't move materials in and out very well.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.
plasma membrane
The thin outermost boundary of cells; substances must move across it to enter or exit the cell.
lipid bilayer
describes the STRUCTURE of the cell membranes
phospholipid
A lipid made of a phosphate group and two fatty acids; consists of a hydrophilic polar head and two non-polar hydrophobic tails; forms cell membranes.
scanning electron microscope
An electron microscope used to study the fine details of cell surfaces
transmission electron microscope
An electron microscope used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells

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