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Pol Sci Finals study guide
Terms in this set (67)
Austrian Marxist Thinker, head of the coalition in Austria composed of conservatives and the Social democratic party. Brought to power by SU in 1945 as head of state. US, UK, France recognize Renner provisional govt but agree to oversee elections.
Yalta Agreements *
Russia would enter the war against Japan, free elections in Eastern Europe, Germany would be divided into four occupation zones, and a United Nations would be formed
The Kielce Pogrom was an outbreak of violence against the Jewish community centre in the city of Kielce, Poland on July 4, 1946, initiated by Polish Communist armed forces and continued by a mob of local townsfolk. 40 Jews died. Some claim it was a deliberate provocation by the communists to discredit the opposition. Some claim that it was a spontaneous antisemitic incident that was later exploited by the government.
Ethnic German Expulsions
Josip Tito *
This man was the Yugoslavian Premier from 1945 to 1953, and President from 1953 to 1980. He was a member of the Russian Bolshevik party around the time of WWI, but later created a unified socialist Yugoslavia separate from the Soviet Union.
interpretation of communism that synthesizes marxism and leninism into an ideology that also incorporates the social, cultural, and most importantly, economic needs of each individual nation. Directly at odds with marxism because Marxism promulgates how communism transcends borders.ethnicities and nationalities
late husband of Heda Kovaly, purged, convicted and executed in Slansky trial in Czechoslovakia in 1951. Example of show trials and purges of stalinist era in 1950s throughout eastern Europe
Jiri Stano * (kovaly)
Lived through the Prague Spring. Victim of show trials. Chairman of the Czech Writers' Union, member of the Czech parliament, played a leading role in the movement to reform the repressive regime and restore freedom of speech during the 1968 Prague spring. He was working for the restoration of the ideals of socialism
Slansky, the Director of Czechoslovakia's postwar Communist Party, was dismissed in 1948 for deviating, was made part of a show trial, and was hanged in 1952, amid mass rallies and press letters of support for his accusers. Slansky was executed mainly because of his Jewish heritage.
Vlastimil Borek (look in Kovaly)
(1947) A set of foreign policies adopted by the United States after World War II. Named after Secretary of State George C. Marshall, the policies provided substantial aid to European countries to help them rebuild their countries, economies and democracies, many of which had been destroyed or severely damaged during the war.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (1949-1991) Economic group led by the Soviets comprised of the Eastern bloc and other satellite states.
1948: Soviet response to US, Britain, and France uniting their parts of Germany into West Germany. Prevented trucks and trains from entering West Germany. West Allies got around it w/ Berlin Air Lift.
- was drawn in the aftermath of World War II as the eastern border of Germany and the western border of Poland
Austrian social partnership system
system of cooperation between major economic interest groups and the government. provided huge economic growth and stability for Austria after WWII. Austria was dubbed as "Austria, Inc." helped narrow Austrian identity
Atlee's British reforms
Clement Attlee replaced Churchill as prime minister/Brit rep. Helped establish "welfare state"-included reforms for education (free secondary edu), women/children's rights, health insurance, etc.
National Insurance Act became law in 1946, which provided coverage in case of sickness, old age, and unemployment.
Simone de Beauvoir *
French author of The Second Sex. She argued for women's rights and was also a prominent figure in the existentialist movement. She died in 1986.
Krushchev's secret speech
critical of the reign of General Secretary and Premier Joseph Stalin, particularly with respect to the brutal purges of the Soviet military and Communist Party cadres which had particularly marked the last years of the 1930s. Khrushchev charged Stalin with having fostered a leadership personality cult despite ostensibly maintaining support for the ideals of communism. milestone in the destalinization period after stalin's death
Khrushchev's plan for ending the system of forced-labor camps and terror of Soviet life under Stalin. More intellectual freedom was permitted, he reduced the secret police, freed a number of political prisoners, and closed some of the Siberian prison camps
Communist nationalist survivor of Russian purges. Elected first secretary of Polish Communist Party, committed to liberal policies.
Second Vatican Council
A worldwide council of Catholic bishops convened by Pope John XXIII, occurring from 1962 through 1965. The council aimed to reflect on Church teachings so that the Church would respond appropriately to the needs of the modern world, and to promote Christian unity.
Jewish politician. Chancellor of second republic of Austria. Member of SPO. Reformed the country (gays, abortion, family law). Opposed Zionism.
Robert Schuman (29 June 1886 - 4 September 1963) was a noted Luxembourgish-born French statesman. Christian Democrat (M.R.P.) Twice Prime Minister of France, a reformist Minister of Finance and a Foreign Minister, he was instrumental in building post-war European and trans-Atlantic institutions and is regarded as one of the founders of the European Union, the Council of Europe and NATO
the Schuman Plan
implemented the idea of functionalism in Europe-future wars could be prevented by creating economic linkages that would eventually bind states together politically. first step was to merge the French and German steel (iron) and coal industries into a single framework--created the ECSC (European Coal and Steel Community)
Chancellor of Germany in 1949; the former mayor of Cologne and a long-time anti-Nazi, who began his long highly successful democratic rule; West Germany had a majority of Christian Democrats; helped regain respect for Germany
Charles de Gaulle
President of France; suspicious of American intentions in Europe; vetoed British application for Common Market membership in 1963; ordered NATO off French soil in 1966
French Fifth Republic
set up by De Gaulle, stronger presidential office with the powers to dissolve the legislature, submit popular issues to the people, and assume emergency power whenever necessary, De Gaulle became the first president and prestige power and stability were returned, Algerian issue was solved when colony was granted independence
Hungarian Communist Party leader who attempted to end association with the USSR (withdraw from the Warsaw Pact) which lead to the 1956 Hungarian revolt. He was killed by a firing squad once the USSR took control of Hungary via military force
Headed NKVD since 1939. Had been one of Stalin's chief henchmen. Used his position of power within the secret police to indulge his personal perversions to the point of criminal acts. After Stalin's death was arrested and executed by party leaders
- Seized power from Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. leader of the Soviet Union by the 1970s. determined to maintain a strong hold on the Soviet's Eastern European satellite states, uninterested in reforms, and insisted on the right of the Soviet Union to intervene anywhere that communism was threatened (the Brezhnev Doctrine).,Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.
1959-63; e worked to bring church into greater harmony with contemporary world. Called upon wealthier nations to share resources with less favored. He placed global emphasis upon church's teachings. He wrote PACEM IN TERRIS, which appealed to Catholics and non-Catholics for peace and human rights. . In 1962 he convened the Second Vatican Council/ Vatican II.
Franz König *
archbishop of vienna, served on second vatican council as a great reformer,
18-9-1909-4-2-94 first social democratic minister of science and research of Austria. reformed universities the University Organization Law, which helped liberalize and democratize universities.
Ein echter Österreicher
statement made by Josef Klaus, a political contender against Bruno Kreisky, which hoped to exploit the antisemitic prejudice Austrians had. Kreisky avoided the statement altogether and focused on portraying himself the best candidate to modernize Austria
The Friedrich Peter affair
Friedrich Peter was a prospective coalition partner to Kreisky. Was revealed to be a member of the SS. political scandal in 1975.
April-May student strikes in Paris. Daniel Cohn-Bendit, radical reform advocate, was expelled from university-huge protests caused dean to close the university. Police violence on school grounds (which have never entered university property since 1791) was seen as shocking. public sympathy was with students, gen strike launched on May 13th. student revolt lost power after the workers, their main supporters, were promised wage increases by the govt and isolated the students
is a German politician, active also in France. He was a student leader during the unrest of May 1968 in France and he was also known during that time as Dany le Rouge (French for "Danny the Red", because of both his politics and the color of his hair).
Leading Green politician in Germany since early 1980s. German foreign minister, 1998-2005 friend of daniel cohn-bendit,
The Red Army Faction
Tiny, marginal terrorist organization led by Baader and radical left-wing Meinhof who were committed to anti-imperialism with an ideology drawn from Mao and the Vietcong, turned to armed struggle as a means of awakening West German society to its complicity in American imperialism and what it called genocide; attacked capitalism
the red brigades *
Italian terrorist organization responsible for the kidnap and murder of prime minister Aldo Moro in 1978.
The Provisional IRA*
paramilitary organisation whose aim is to remove N. Ireland from the UK and bring about a socialist republic within a united Ireland. It emerged out of the December 1969 split of the Irish Republican Army over differences of ideology and how to respond to violence against the nationalist community. This violence had followed the community's demands for civil rights in 1968 and 1969, which met with resistance from some of the unionist community and from the authorities, and culminated in the 1969 Northern Ireland riots.
Munich Olympics massacre
The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and eventually murdered by Black September, a militant group with ties to Yasser Arafat's Fatah organization. By the end of the ordeal, the terrorist group had killed eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and one German police officer.
West Germany believed that if it could not be unified, at least East Europe and Germany and USSR could somehow be changed; provide social stability by reducing frustrations that were sure to arise within both Germanys when they realized they would remain divided; main leader Willy Brandt; economic necessity could push USSR into negotiations
The Prague Spring
in 1968 Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. the Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent political system. the soviet union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
The First Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, who tried to lessen the Soviet Union's control over Czechoslovak. His attempts led to the "Prague Spring." He was later replaced when the Soviet Union sent troops to force a return of Communist control.
Formed after the Helsinki Accords. It was an organization of intellectuals in Czechoslovakia. Sought to promote the human rights standards designated at Helsinki. It played a big role in the struggle for democracy and against dictatorship in 1989.
Zwentendorf power station & Austrian Green Party
leader of conservatives in Great Britain who came to power. Pledged to limit social welfare, restrict union power, and end inflation. Formed Thatcherism, in which her economic policy was termed, and improved the British economic situation. She dominated British politics in 1980s, and her government tried to replace local property taxes with a flat-rate tax payable by every adult. won the falkans war against argentina. eventually Her popularity fell, and resigned.
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe.
elected president of Russia in 2000, launched reforms aimed at boosting growth and budget revenues and keeping Russia on a strong economic track. current president of Russia
A Polish politician, a former trade union and human rights activist, and also a former electrician. He co-founded Solidarity, the Soviet bloc's first independent trade union, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, and served as President of Poland from 1990 to 1995.
Became president (first non-communist leader since '48) of Czechoslovakia (1989-92) and Czech Republic (93-03) following the fall of communism. Havel led the Civic forum, a new coalition of non-communist opposition groups pressing for democratic reforms. Czech Republic joined NATO under his presidency in '99.
Chancellor of west Germany from 1982-1990 and of he reunified German nation from 1990-1998. He presided over the integration of east Germany into West Germany in 1990 and thus became the 1st chancellor of a unified Germany since 1945.
Ossies & Wessies
Wessi is the informal name that people in Germany call former citizens of West Germany before re-unification, while the counterpart for former citizens of East Germany is Ossi. These names represent the lingering differences between the two pre-reunification cultures, and Germany's popular culture includes many Ossi-Wessi jokes and cliches.
The Waldheim affair
During his campaign for the presidency in 1985, the "Waldheim Affair" it had been discovered that there had been several omissions about Waldheim's life between 1938 and 1945 in his recently published autobiography. Part of the reason for the controversy was Austria's refusal to address its national role in the Holocaust (many, including Adolf Hitler, were Austrians and Austria became part of the Third Reich). Austria refused to pay compensation to Nazi victims and from 1970 onwards refused to investigate Austrian citizens who were senior Nazis. Stolen Jewish art remained public property until after the Waldheim affair.
Austrian, led the right-wing Austrian Freedom Party that was staunchly opposed to immigration; his party's ascension to the ruling ocalition government in 2000 resulted in the EU demanding that he step down
Wolfgang Schüssel (7 June 1945) is an Austrian People's Party politician. He was Chancellor of Austria for two consecutive terms from February 2000 to January 2007. While being recognized as a rare example of an active reformer in contemporary Austrian politics, his governments were also highly controversial from the beginning, starting with the fact that he formed a coalition government with Jörg Haider's Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) on both occasions. In 2011, he retired from being an active member of parliament due to a multitude of charges of corruption against members of his governments.
EU 14 Sanctions
Social Democrat elected as Prime Minister of Germany in 1998 who had to deal with the new problems of the reunited Germany including high unemployment and inflation; initially helped reduce unemployment only to see it rise past previous levels; succeeded in 2005 by Angela Merkel of the CDU
Former Prime Minister of Italy. Controversial for his control of the media, his long-running fued with The Economist, alleged links to the Mafia, wiretaps, accusations of exploitation of prostitution, sex with underage girls, and sexist/racist remarks to prominent politicians, including Angela Merkel of Germany and Obama.
Lisbon E.U. Treaty
The Treaty of Lisbon amends the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU). Some changes include:
Prominent changes included the move from unanimity to qualified majority voting in several policy areas in the Council of Ministers, a change in calculating such a majority to a new double majority, a more powerful European Parliament forming a bicameral legislature alongside the Council of ministers under the ordinary legislative procedure, a consolidated legal personality for the EU and the creation of a long-term President of the European Council and a High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The Treaty also made the Union's bill of rights, the Charter of Fundamental Rights, legally binding.
he became the leader of Yugoslavia in 1987 and then waged a war against both Croatia and Bosnia during the 1990s - this conflict also marked the first direct military action waged by NATO
region of Yugoslavia that had autonomy until Milosovic attempted to crush the Albanian group with ethnic cleansing; 1999 NATO used military strikes against Yugoslavia until the crisis came to an end in 1999
July 1995 killing of >8000 Bosniak men and boys by Serbian army during Bosnian War accompanied by forced relocation of 30,000 women/children/elderly. Understood to be an act of genocide. Though this area was nominally under UN protection (by 400 Dutch peacekeepers) UNPROFOR failed to prevent the town's capture by the Serbian army and the massacre. Signaled UN failure in peacekeeping.
1995 peace agreement ending the war over the former Yugoslavia, between Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia, The peace agreement brokered at the end of 1995 among Bosnians, Croats and Serbs by the United States, which provided U.S troops to support peace. The aim was to create a unified country in Bosnia, while recognizing ethnic differences.
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