201 terms

Pysch 101 first exam

Comtemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of:
Behavior and mental processes
Who most clearly affirmed that the mind continues to exist after physical death?
Socrates and Plato emphasized the importance of ____ as a source of knowledge.
Socrates and Plato affirmed the importance of:
Innate Ideas
Professor McClure believes that yound children are frequently able to make morally correct decisions because humans are endowed with an inborn knowledge of basic ethical principles. The professor's belief is most consistent with the views of:
Which philosopher would have been most enthusiastic about modern empiricism?
Socrates, Plato and Descartes believed that:
Distinct and seperible
The ideas of Fancis Bacon provided an impetus for what came to be known as:
Who suggested that the mind at birth is a blank slate upon which experience writes?
John Locke
The view that knowledge comes from experience and that science should rely on observation and experimentation is called:
Wilhem Wundt's laboratory work involved experimental studies of:
Reactions to sensory stimulation
Who used the method of introspection to scientifically identify basic elements of mind?
Edward Titchner
The unreliability of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of:
William James was a prominent American ____.
Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the:
adaptive value of concsious thought
Edward Titchner is to ______ as William James is to _____.
Structuralism, functionalism
Behaviorist dismissed the value of:
John Watson is to Edward Titchner as ____ is to ____.
observable behavior, inner sensations
Humanistic psychologists focused attention on the importance of people's:
Potential for healthy growth
Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their genes or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate reguarding:
Nature vs. Nurture
The hindsight bias refers to the people's tendency to:
Exaggerate to have seen the outcome of past events
The explanatory power of a scienctific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable:
A hypothesis is?
A testable prediction
A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as an?
Operational definition
Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?
In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confrim the researchers' predictions, pyschologists sometimes?
Decieve participants
Psychologists' personal values and goals:
Create bias observations
The case study is a research method in which?
One person or thing is studied in depth
The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it?
Generalized ability
IN which type of research si a representative rand sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes?
In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that:
It's representative of the population
Correlation refers to the extent to which two variables?
Vary together
Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?
Correlation Coeffiecent
IN order to represent graphically the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct?
A scatterplot
If the correlation between the physical weight and reading ability of elementary school students is +0.85, this would indicate that?
It's positive correlation
Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?
The number closest to zero
Illusory correlation refers to?
Preception of a relationship that doesn't exist
Which of the following methods is most helpful for revealing cause-effect relationships?
In an experimental study of the effects of anxiety on self-esteem, anxiety would be the ____ variable?
The most frequently occuring score in a distribution of scores is the?
If the total number of boys and girls born each year is exactly equal, which of the following would be the most likely sequence of boys(b) and girls(g) for the next six months?
All of the above
To fully appreciate the interaction of neural activity, mental processes, and the functioning of human communites it is most necessary to recognize peole are?
Dr. Wolski does research on the potentail relationship between neurotransmitter deficiencies and mood states. Which psychological speciality does Dr. Wolski's research best represent?
An axon is?
An extension of a neuron that carries information away from the cell body
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ____ of a single neuron.
Dendrites, to the cell body, to the axon
An action potential is generated by the movement of?
Resting potential is to action to potential as ____ is to ______.
Polarization, depolarization
Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. Thi indicates that a neuron's reaction is?
All or none
Reuptake refers to the?
A slap on the back is more painful that an a pat because a slap triggers?
More frequent neural impluses
Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter know as?
Which lobe of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in speaking?
Frontal Lobes
Which portion of the cerebral cortex is most directly involved in making plans and formulation judgements?
Frontal lobe
Which region of the brain appears to have the oldest evolutionary history?
Brain stem
The corpus callosum is a wide band of axon fibers that?
Transmits info between hemispheres
Which part of your brain recieves information as to whether you are moving your legs?
Sensory cortex
The sense of hearing is to the ____ lobes as the sense of touch is to the _____ lobes.
Temporal, Parietal
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in the extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of?
Visiual perception
To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's?
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the:
The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is?
Brainstem, limbic system, and cerebral cortex
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and enviromental influences on behavior and personality traits is known as?
Behavior genetics
A human sperm cell contains?
23 Chromosomes
Chromosomes are contained within?
All cells
A segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a specific protein is called a?
The genome is the complete?
Set of genetic material
Identical twins originate from the fertilization of:
Single egg and one sperm
Compared to fraternal twins, identical twins are much more similar in?
All of the above
The home enviroment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ___ than on their _____.
Religious beliefs, personality traits
Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children most cleary differ in??
Heritability refers to the extent to which?
Genetic variations
Compared to enviromentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched enviroments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their?
For Children from impoverished enviroments, stimulating educational experiences during early childhood are most likely to?
Prevent degeneration
An awareness that children's temperments influence parents' child-rearing practices should inhibit our tendency to?
Blame our parents
Personal space refers to?
Distance we like to maintain around our bodies
Individualism is to collectivism as ______ is to _____.
Independence, interdepence
Female children are more likely to act like tomboys if they were exposed to excess _______ during their prenatal development.
Behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social postion define a?
Gender identity refers to:
Our sense of being male or female
Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of:
Human responsiblity
Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our perceptions are called gender:
Gender schemas
The process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called:
Humans experience the longest visible electromagnetic waves as the color___ and the shortest visible as the color ___.
Red, Violet
Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina?
Dialation of pupils
The amount of light entering the eye is regulated by the?
Accomodation refers to the:
Lens changing shape
Small distortions in the eye's shape are most likely to affect:
Visual acquity
If images of distant objects are typically focused at a point in front of the retina, a person will:
Be nearsided
Which cells for visual processing are located closest to the back of the retina?
Rods and cones
The blind spot is located in the area of the retinaL
Where the optic nerve leaves the eye
Whcich receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different waveslengths of light?
Rods are:
More sensitive to intensity of light and less sensitive to color
Damage to the fovea would probably have the least effect on visual sensitivity to stimuil.
Dimly illuminated
En route to the visual cortex, neural impluses from the retina are first relayed to the
Evidence that some cones are especially sensitive to red light, others to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly supportive of the ____ theory.
trichromatic/ Young-Helmholtz
According to the Young-Helmholtz theory, when both red- and green- sensitive cones are stimulated simutaneously, a person should see?
When most people stare first at a blue circle and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the circle appears?
According to the opponent-process theory, cells are stimulated by exposure to:
red-green, blue-yellow, black-white
Visual information is processed by ganglion cells:
after its processed by rods and cones, and after processed by bipolar cells
The central focus point in the retina where cones are heavily concentrated is known as the:
The opponent-process theory is most useful for explaining the characteristic of:
After images
The school of thought in psychology that systematically avoided the study of conciousness during the first half of the last century was:
Those who emphasized that mood fluctuations may be indicative of seasonal affective disorder are highlighting the importance of:
Biological rhythm
Circadian rhythm refers to:
Pattern of biological functioning of 24 hours
Exposure to bright light causes the:
Pinual gland to decrease melatonin
The increased production of melatonin _____ sleepiness, and the increased production of adenosine _____ sleepiness.
Increases, increases
Our inability to fall asleep early, as we had planned, is most likely a reflection of:
Circadian rhythm
Jordanna has decided to go to bed early. Although her eyes are closed and she's very relaxed, she has not fallen asleep. An EEG is most likely to indicate the presence of :
Alpha waves
Sensations of falling or floating weightlessly (hypnagogic sensations) are most closely associate with ____ sleep.
Stage One
The brain waves associated with REM sleep are more similar to those of:
Stage one sleep
The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every:
90 minutes
A stage hypnotist can best increase the hyponotizability of select audience members by first providing them with a:
Strong expectation
Researchers are most likely to questions the value of hypnosis for:
Enhancing memory
A split in consciousness in which some thoughts occur simlutaneously with and yet seperately from other thoughts:
The claim the hypnotic phenomena are regulated by normal conscious control processes is associated with the theory that hynosis involves:
Role Playing
Understanding hypnonsis in terms of focused attention, distinctive brain activity, and culturally expected role playing requires and integrated ____ approach.
Anton Mesmer's so-called "animal magnetisim" best illustrated the dynamics of:
Under hypnosis, Mrs. Mohammed is encouraged by her therapist to vividly experience and describe the details of an argument she had with her father when she was a child. The therapist is employing a technique called:
Age Regression
The modern discovery of hypnosis is generally attributed to:
An attorney wants to know if the details and accuracy of an eyewitness's memory for a crime would be improved under hypnosis. Given the results of relevant research, what should you tell the attorney?
They are not very good
Of the following individuals, who is likely to be the most hypnotically suggestible?
Type B- Outgoing, into role playing, extrovert
Chemical substances that alter perceptions and moods are called _____ drugs.
The need to take larger and larger doses of a drug in order to experience its effects is and indication of:
The discomfort and distress that follow the discontinued use of certian drugs is called:
Unpleasant withdrawl symptoms are indicative of:
Physical dependence
The three categories of psychoactive drugs discussed in the text are depressants, stimulants, and:
Psychoactive drugs influence neurotransmission by stimulating, mimicking, or ____ the activity of neurotransmitters.
In large doses, alcohol is a ____; in small amounts, it is a _____.
Depressant, depressant
Alcohol consumption tends to:
decrease self awareness and feelings of guilt
The use of barbiturates ____ anxiety and _____ sympathetic nervous system acitivity
decreases, decreases
Repeated use of an opiate:
Brain stops producing endorphins
According to the text, learning involves:
A change in behavior due to experience
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machind button with delivery of candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:
Operant conditioning
Conditioning is the process of:
Learning assocations
The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:
John B. Waston considered himself to be a:
Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact Natacha currently becomes fearful everytime she smells rubbing alcohol?
Classical Conditioning
The "psychic sensations" that interfered with Pavlov's experiments on digestion were?
COnditioned response
Which of the following is and unconditioned response?
(unlearned response)
In Pavlov's experiments on the salivary conditioning of dogs, the US was:
food/meat powder
In aldous Huxley's Brave new world, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a:
Unconditioned stimulus
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was?
Conditioned response
In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a:
Unconditioned response
A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a:
conditioned response
If a tone causes a dog to salivate because it has regularly been associated with the presentation of food, the tone is called a:
Conditioned stimulus
A real estate agent showed Gavin several picture of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakshore property was a:
Condtionted Stimulus
An organism learns assocations between events it doesn't control during the process of:
Classical conditioning
IN which form of learing is behavior said to be influenced by its consquences?
Operant Conditioning
Learing associations between one's own behavior and resulting events is to ____ as learning associations between events one doesn't control is to ____.
Operant Conditioning, Classical Conditioning
B.F. Skinner work elaborated what E.L. Thorndike had called:
Law of Effect
A Skinner box is:
Chamber containing a bar or key to obtain reward.
An animal trainer is teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially he gives the poodle a treat for approching the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of?
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refused to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of:
An event that increases the frequence of the behavior that it follows:
Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, was the car is a:
Positive reinforcer
Positive reinforcers___ the reate of operant responding and negative reinforcers _____ the rate of operant responding
Increase, increast
Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day afther work because it reduces his stress level. Mason's running habit is maintained by a _____.
Negative reinforcer
A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ___ reinforcer.
Janet has almost finished painting a neighbor's house for which she'll be paid $2000. The fact that she is increasingly unlikely to quit painting as she nears completion of the job best illustrates that operant behavior is strongly influenced by ____ reinforcers..
A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of:
Continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement
Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by _____ reinforcement.
A fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is one in which a response is reinforced only after a:
Specific number of responses
Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot carpet he lays rather that with and hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ____ schedule of reinforcement.
Fixed ratio
Paul and Michael sell magazin subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calles he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Paul's telephoning is reinforced by___ schedule, whereas Michael's in reinforced on a ____ schedule.
Fixed ratio, variable ratio
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ____ schedule.
Variable ratio
On the first day of calls Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallaces surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ___schedule
Variable Interval
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ____ schedule.
Variable interval
The introduction of a pleasant stimulus ist to _____ as the withdrawl of a pleasant stimulus to a____.
Reinforcement, punishment
Positive punishment involves introducing a ____ consequencce of certain behavior, and negative punishment involves withdrawing a ____ consquence of a certain behavior.
Undesirable, desirable
Th loss of your drivers license as a consquence of drunken driving is to ________ as the reduction of anxiety as a consquence of studying effectively is to _____.
Negative punishment, Negative reinforcement
Negative reinforcers ___ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ____ the rate of operant responding.
Increase, decrease
For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of:
reinforcement over punishment.
Our ability to learn by witnessing and immiating the behavior of others best illustrates:
Observational, vicrious, and modeling
Mirror neurons provide a biologicial basis for:
Observant learning
Bandura's experiments indicate that _____ is important in the process of learning.
Reguarding the impact of watching television violence on children, most researchers believe that:
It leads to agressive behavior
Mrs. Ramirez often tell her children that it is important to buckle thier seat belts while riding in the car, but she rarely does herself. Her children with probably learn?
No to wear seat belts and tell other to.
In a well known experiment, preschool children pounded and kicked a large inflatatble Bobo doll that and adult had just beaten on. This experiment served to illustrate the importance of.
Observational learning
We find it harder to frown when viewing a smile then when viewing a forwn. This can be most clearly attributed to:
Mirrior Neurons
An empathetic husbadn who observe his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity as she is showing. This is:
Mirror neurons
Learning by imatiating others' behaviors is called ___ learing. The researcher best know for his study this type of learing is ______.
Observational, Bandura
After watching coverage fo the Olypmics on tv recently, Lynn and Susan have beening staging their own "summer games". Whichi of the following best accounts for thier behavior?
Observational learning
Define stress:
Process which you appraise and cope with enviromental threats
Rush hour traffic is to upset stomach as ____ is to ____.
Sressor, stress reaction
As you are waiting to be interviewed for a job, your heart rate, body temperature, and breathing rate begin to increase. These physiological changes are produced by activation of the ____ nervous system
In a fight or flight situation, epinephrine and glucocorticolds are released from different parts of the adrenal glands and work at different speeds. This indicates that our body's stress response involves.
a 2 track system
The general adapation syndrom describes stage in the:
Bodies response to prolong stress
The 3 successive phases of the general adapation syndrome are:
Alarm, resistance, exhaustion
Cameron, a 50-year-old electricain, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating tht he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaption syndrome is cameron most likely experiencing?
Resistance to stress is greatest during ____ of the GAS.
Phase 2
Research on stressful life events indicates that:
Those who have recently been widowed or divorced are susceptible to illness.
Friedman and Rosenman referred to competative, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities
Type A
Who is the best example of a Type A?
Tightly wound
Who is the best example of a Type B?
Easy going
In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Roseman reported that, compared to Type A men, Type B men were:
Less susceptible to heart attacks
Th stress hormones epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol:
Accelorate build up of plaque on artery walls.
Benard is an ambitious, highly competative corporation lawyer who recently had a heart attack. He tends to be impatient and a perfectionist, and he gets angry over little things. Research shows his heart attack may be linked to:
A psychophysiological illness is:
Stress related illness ex: Hypertenstion
Mr. Wilson often mistinterperts his normal feelings of hunger as indicative of stomach cancer. Mr. Willson's experience is most likely indiciative of:
Type A personality to Type B personality as ____ is to ____.
Irriatable, calm
One person, alone in a house, dismisses its creaking sounds and exeriences no stress; someone else suspects an intruder and becomes alarmed. These different reactions illustrate the importance of:
Stress appraisial