History Ch. 1 sections 1 and 3 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (32)
King George III
King of England during the American Revolution.
(1764) British deeply in debt partly due to the French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
(1765) Law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc. A stamp would be placed on each and every item bought. This was the first tax that directly affected the colonist because it levied goods and services.
American Revolutionary leader and patriot. Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence.
The Boston Massacre
(1770) The first bloodshed of the American Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans.
The Boston Tea Party
(1773) A demonstration by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in the Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor.
English philosopher and key Enlightenment thinker, who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
(1776) A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation.
Declaration of Independence
(4 July 1776) The document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain.
A Virginia lawyer wrote the Declaration of Independence.
A form of government in which citizens choose their representatives by voting.
Articles of Confederation
A plan of government in a set of laws which established a form of government called an alliance among the thirteen states.
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
*Congress had no power to tax.
*Each state had one votes, one state might have a higher population and more opinions.
*9 of the 13 had to agree in order to pass a law.
*Articles could be amended if all states approved.
*No executive branch, no branch to enforce laws of Congress.
*No national court system to settle legal disputes.
*The 13 states lacked national unity.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Federal order that divided the Northwest Territory into smaller territories and created a plan for how the territories could become states.
Farmers rebellion led by Daniel Shay against higher taxes in Massachusetts. They rebelled until the 12 states decided to call a convention and fix the issue.
"Father of the Constitution". His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
The idea that the national government shares power with the state governments.
Checks and Balances
system that prevents any branch of government from becoming too powerful over the other two.
Supporters of the Constitution.
People who opposed the Constitution.
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the Constitution.
"Large state" proposal for the new constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress. The plan was based on the population of the states therefore giving the larger populated states more power.
New Jersey Plan
The proposal at the Constitutional Convention that called for equal representation of each state in Congress regardless of the state's population bu kept the Articles of Confederation.
The Great Compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house.
Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person.
Rule by the people.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments.
Separation of Powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law.
To accuse government officials of misconduct in office.
Changes to the Constitution.
A member of a political group advocating or fighting for national independence, a strong national government, etc.