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Growth and Development of the School-Aged Child
Terms in this set (72)
School-Aged period is from age ____ to ____. (generally defined).
6 to 12.
School aged period defined physiologically:
-begins at first loss of deciduous teeth.
-ends at puberty/acquisition of final permanent teeth.
Biologic Development of School-Ager:
What is the height increase?
2 inches per year
Biologic Development of School-Ager:
what is weight increase?
3 kg (6lb) per year.
Biologic Development of School-Ager: other info..
-Males and females differ very little in size.
-body slims, legs lengthen, center of gravity is lower, posture improves, gradually fat reappears and muscle mass increases.
-hair darkens and skin matures.
Biologic Development of School-Ager:
-The 2 year period that precedes puberty.
-Differences between boys and girls.
-Varying ages from 9-12 (girls about 2 years earlier than boys)
-Early appearance of secondary sex characteristics in girls and late appearance in boys have been correlated with risk taking behaviors.
Maturation of Systems, School-Aged: bladder
bladder capacity increases
Maturation of Systems, School-Aged: cardiovascular
heart rate slows, mean b/p is higher
Maturation of Systems, School-Aged: Immune and lymph
Immune system increasingly effective. Lymph tissue grows rapidly.
Maturation of Systems, School-Aged: bones
Bones increase in ossification
Maturation of Systems, School-Aged: GI
can eat adult foods on adult schedule
Maturation of Systems, School-Aged: respiratory
Slower, more regular respirations
Maturation of systems in relation to emotional and social maturity
Not correlated. Can be maturing faster physically.
Sensory development of School-Agers
All senses reach adult levels of acuity
Vision 20/20 by age 6
Gross motor development: 6-8 years
tandem gait, bicycle, skilled at running, skipping, pedals a bicycle
Gross motor development: tandem gait
Gross motor development: bicycle
Gross motor development: skilled at running
Gross motor development: skipping
Gross motor development: pedals a bicycle
Gross motor development: 8-10 years
more limber as bones grow faster than ligaments, good balance, increased coordination, motor skills similar to adult, posture similar to adult, overcome lordosis
Gross motor development: more limber as bones grow faster than ligaments
Gross motor development: good balance
Gross motor development: increased coordination
Gross motor development: motor skills similar to adult
Gross motor development: posture similar to adult, overcome lordosis
Gross motor development: 10- 12 years
balances on one foot 15 seconds, catch fly ball, all basic motor skills similar to adult, may have prepubertal clumsiness.
Gross motor development: balances on one foot 15 seconds
Gross motor development: catch fly ball
Gross motor development: all basic motor skills similar to adult
Gross motor development: may have prepubertal clumsiness
Fine motor development: 6-8 years
like to draw, paint, and color, draws 6 part person, knows right from left
Fine motor development:likes to draw, paint and color
Fine motor development: draws 6 part person
Fine motor development: knows right from left
Fine motor development:8-10 years
spaces words and letters, good hand/eye coordination, bathes self, sews and builds models
Fine motor development: spaces words and letters
Fine motor development: good hand/eye coordination
Fine motor development: sews and builds models
Fine motor development: 10- 12 years
writes well, skills similar to adult
Fine motor development: writes well
Fine motor development:skills similar to adult
Psychosocial Development as described by Freud
"latency" period of psychosexual development.
Relationships center around _________ peers.
Personal and interpersonal competence through _________ and __________ skills.
technological and social skills.
Erikson's stage for psychosocial development
Industry vs. Inferiority
Erikson: How do they develop a sense of industry?
-Eager to develop skills and participate in meaningful and socially useful work.
-Acquire sense of personal and interpersonal competence.
-Increasingly influenced by peers
-Growing sense of independence
-Peer approval is strong motivator
Erikson: What causes feelings of inferiority?
-Feelings may derive from self or social environment
-may occur if incapable or unprepared to assume the responsibilities associated with developing a sense of accomplishment.
-All children feel some degree of inferiority regarding skills they cannot master.
Temperament in the School-Aged years: Easy children
They adapt readily in school and new situations
Temperament in the School-Aged years: slow to warm up children
Uncomfortable in new situations
Temperament in the School-Aged years: difficult or easily distracted children
act out, may not fit in at school.
Mental picture of yourself
a person's overall sense of self-worth or personal value
a subjective picture of one's own physical appearance.
Developing of Self-Concept/ Self Esteem
-Significant adults important in shaping a child's self-concept
-Positive self-concept leads to feelings of self-respect, self-confidence, and happiness
-Develops through accomplishments achieved (sense of industry)
-Develops via experiences and relationships.
-Self esteem develops through experiences and peer relationships.
Developing a Body Image
-Generally children like physical selves less as they grow older
-Body image influenced by significant others
-Increased awareness of "differences" may influence feelings of inferiority.
School-Aged play is ________.
Cooperative play involves...
physical skill, intellectual ability, and fantasy.
They form groups, cliques, clubs, secret societies
Rules and rituals
See need to rules in games
-Family environment provides a sense of trust/comfort. Help child to cope with uncertainties or stresses. Learn socially acceptable behaviors.
-Increasing independence from parents is primary goal of middle childhood.
-Need consistent controls and structure
-Sibling conflict increases as siblings get older
Begins to model societal behaviors of same gender.
-By age 11 begins "mixing" awkwardly.
-Share questions about sexual matters with peers
Cognitive Development Psychologist:
-learn by manipulating concrete objects
-develop understanding of relationships between things and ideas
-able to make judgments based on reason
-lack of ability to think in abstraction
Important milestones: serial-ordering, conservation, concept of time.
able to classify, sort, order and organize thoughts into categories
7 years: good articulation of all sounds
7-8 years: writing with no letter reversals
8-9 years: spelling and grammar
12 year: vocabulary 4000 words
Language Development: good at articulation of all sounds
Language Development: writing with no letter reversals
Language Development: spelling and grammar
Language Development: vocabulary 4000 words
Moral Development psychologist:
Kohlberg stage of Moral Development:
Conventional (age 7-11)
-Development of conscience and moral standards.
-Age 6-7: reward and punishment guide choices
-Older school age 7-11: able to judge an act by the intentions that prompted it
-Rules and judgments become more founded on needs and desires of others.
-Children think in very concrete terms
-Children expect punishment for misbehavior
-May view illness or injury as punishment for real or imagined misdeed.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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