Second language acquistion
Terms in this set (114)
Second Language Acquisition
The study of people learning a new language after they have acquired the first one and the study of the process of learning the language. For example, the study of an English speaker learning Spanish and how acquisition occurs.
Second Language -
Any additional language acquired after the first one learned as a young child. An example is when a person who learned to speak Chinese as a child learns English as an adult in order to gain opportunities in business.
Informal L2 learning
Any learning of the target that takes place in a natural setting like a French-speaking student learning English from playmates on the playground. This learning situation is better for children.
Formal L2 learning -
Any learning of the target language that takes place in the classroom such as when Swahili-speaking immigrants to the US take English classes to improve communication skills. Formal learning situations are better for adults.
Linguistic competence -
This is underlying knowledge about language and how to use it such as grammar rules or conversation conventions. A person's linguistic competence will affect how easy or difficult it might be to learn the target.
This is the actual language production of language at any stage of target acquisition. This is important to study in SLA because learning an L2 is a process that occurs in stages. Teachers who recognize this can better to tailor lessons to address the stage the learner is in at the time.
First language/native language/mother tongue (L1)
- These are all ways to refer to the language acquired in childhood. This could be any spoken language as well as sign language. In SLA, first language can have an impact on L2 acquisition.
This is when a young child acquires two languages at the same time. For instance a child living in a home where the mother speaks English and the father speaks Spanish can acquire both languages at the same time resulting in two native languages.
Sequential multilingualism occurs when someone learns another language after the L1 has been solidly acquired. In these cases, it is much more difficult for the learner to gain the L2 and performance may never be as good as in the person's L1.
The ability to treat language as an object. For example, a person has metalinguistic awareness when they are about to define the sounds in a word. L2 learners must be helped to develop metalinguistic awareness but kids gain this knowledge naturally.
This occurs when an L2 either wholly or partially replaces the L1 as it is gained. For a variety of reasons, the goals of educators should be for the L1 to be retrained as much as possible. Especially for children, multilingualism helps cognitive development.
Development sequence/order of acquisition
The order that certain features of a language are obtained. For example, in L1 acquisition, the use of pronouns is after negation. L2 teachers can plan lessons to coincide with the order of acquisition, or just one step ahead.
Longitude vs. cross sectional study
The first study takes plan over time and the second takes place over a short time with many different subjects and from a wide variety of situations for a more limited time. In SLA, both types of studies help build a more complete picture of L2 acquisition.
The theory that all learning is from habit formation. The focus on imitation and repetition. And rewards lead to habit formation. While some learning can be explained this way, it does not account for all learning in L1 or L2. Teachers should use techniques based on behaviorism sparingly.
The thought that all humans are born with the mental structures for gaining language. This may be true for L1 acquisition, but L2 acquisition is different and there is debate about whether innate abilities aid in gaining an L2 target past a certain age. Since older learners can still learn an L2, there must be other explanations.
Language acquisition device
This is a postulated area of the brain that is supposed ot function as a congenital device in language acquisition. This cannot be proven but seems likely as the kind of complexity that children quickly acquire with minimal input is hard to explain otherwise. With L2 acquisition for older learners, the learner likely does not have much access to the LAD.
The thought that there is a template containing all the principles that are universal to all human language. L2 learners no longer have access to the universal grammar if they have passed the critical period. That is why gaining an L2 is harder for older learners.
Critical period hypothesis
The theory that humans are genetically programmed to perform certain functions including language acquisition at certain times. If the activity is delayed too long, it is difficult or impossible to gain the skill. There are several examples of kids who never learned to speak and could not later in life gain the skill even when given intensive instruction. In L2 acquisition, the older a person begins the learning the more difficult it is to gain an L2 and native-like production will be much less likely.
The theory that cognitive and development psychologist argue that langue is learned like anything else, and this learning is related to experience and cognitive development. The thought is that learning is bed on innate abilities and opportunities to engage in conversation. In line with the theory, many L2 learners are more successful as they interact with language in a natural environment and when they connect what they already know with what they are learning.
A theory that learning is first social and then it is individual. It is a process that is socially mediated and dependent on face-to-face interaction. The claim is that during communication, learners jointly construct meaning. In line with this theory, many L2 learners are more successful when they have the opportunity for meaningful practice with others especially in small groups.
Zone of proximal development
The ability of a learner to perform at a higher level with the support of a conversation pattern. In L2 teaching, the zone of proximal development supports the method of providing meaning practice opportunities for learners in group settings.
The language care-takers use when speaking to children. In North America, this includes simpler speech, a slower pace, higher pitch, word emphasis, repetition and a large number of questions. Not all cultures use child directed speech but learners still learn to speak. Nevertheless, some of these attributes of child directed speech might be helpful for L2 learners such as repetition and emphasis.
The ability to treat language as an object. For example, a person has metalinguistic awareness when they are able to define the sounds in a word. L2 learners must be helped to develop metalinguistic awareness but children gain this naturally in their L1.
This refers to the ability to use two or more languages. Most people in the world are able to speak two or more languages. More and more people in the world are learning English as an L2. English is the second most spoken language overall and the most spoken language as an L2.
This is a person's understanding of how to use and produce two or more languages. People who know more than one language have an underlying knowledge of how each one works. People gaining an L2 must develop multilingual competence to be successful.
2This refers to the ability to use only one language. In some cultures like in the United States and Iceland, monolingualism is more common than bilingualism. This fact can be attributed to social, economic, political, and geographic factors. L2 teachers in the US need to keep the attitude of US society that monolingualism is better in the US when explaining our culture to students and encourage students to maintain their L1.
Underlying knowledge of only one language. People gaining an L2 must develop from monolingual to multilingual competence.
This is interlanguage, or the language a learner uses to communicate as he or she works to develop multilingual competence. The language will not be native-like and include predictable errors that teachers can systematically address as competence develops.
When aspects of one language transfer to the second language. This can be phonology, morphology, or grammar. Teachers can use positive transfer to help students gain the L2. For instance, some words mean the same thing or nearly the same thing in two different languages.
This occurs when knowledge of the L1 interferes with development of the L2 which has a different feature than the L1. For instance, if word order is different in the L1 than the L2, the L1 transfer may cause the learner to make errors in word order of the new language. Teachers can proactively address these issues by understanding negative transfer and the speaker's L1 features.
This occurs when the learner fails to make progress toward native-like or near native-like L2 speech as errors become permanent. It is important for teachers to work to avoid fossilization because once it occurs it cannot be undone.
This is the argument that although input can be incomplete and simplified, children are able to expand on that input without direction. They use the input to gain knowledge that is far more advanced in nature. Learning an L2 is much different for adults and teaching usually must be much more explicit.
Corrective feedback is any feedback given to the learner that helps him or her notice and correct errors. Corrective feedback is not important in L1 acquisition, but consistent feedback is important for adults in L2 situations when errors persist.
Modified input/foreigner talk/teacher talk
This is simplified talk that some speakers use when talking with an L2 learner to help them understand. The talk is much like caregiver speech using simplified language and repetition. Teachers may want to use modified input based on the learner's level to help them understand. When input is expanded to just beyond a learner's language level, new learning can take place. Lesson's can be planned around this idea.
Competence vs. performance
L2 competence, according to Chomsky, is knowledge about a language and its rules and parameters. L2 performance is the ability of a person to communicate using the L2. Teachers cannot know a learner's true competence level but only make inferences by watching performance. Teachers must keep in mind the only way to probe competence is to examine performance.
This hypothesis is part of Krashen's monitor model on L2 acquisition that states some language is acquired automatically like in L1 learning and some is learned after the rules and principles are consciously understood and attention is paid to form. This theory is important in L2 teaching because it helps explain why some learning happens on its own and how some knowledge must be taught explicitly.
Also part of Krashen's monitor model, it proposes that speech is generated from the language that was acquired and a person consciously monitors this speech that is to determine if follows learned rules and principles. The monitor will change speech to follow the learned rules. This again supports that teaching of grammar and other rules in L2 teaching.
Natural Order Hypothesis
Krashen's monitor model hypothesis that states that all L2 learners gain language in basically the same order and it is fairly similar to L1 acquisition. Interestingly, some of the easier things to learn are usually gained last. This thought also can help teachers plan lessons in a systematic way in line with a learner's natural path of language acquisition.
Krashen's monitor model hypothesis that states that learners gain language when input is just above their current level (i+1). This thought can help teachers plan lessons in a systematic way in line with a learner's natural path of language acquisition.
Affective Filter Hypothesis
Krashen's monitor model hypothesis that explains why some learners aren't successful as others in learning an L2 despite adequate input and attention. Instructors who ignore student affective filters may not be successful teaching L2 to some students even if all of their instruction is sound.
Noticing is part of the psychological perspective that deals with information processing. The thought is that learners can't learn a new language feature until they notice it either consciously or unconsciously. By paying attention to new feature, learners can assimilate into their understanding of the L2 by practicing using it in their language until it is automatically processed. Instructors should keep in mind that students can only notice so many things at one time. However, it is important to help students continually add to what they notice about a L2.
Also part of the psychological perspective, this is the idea that when people learn new language, they are making connections. It is less concerned with declarative knowledge and more interested in skill learning and the learning environment. Learners gradually build up their knowledge of language by repeated exposure and this exposure leads to strong connections between the elements. It is said this is possible because language predictable and almost formulaic in nature. Teachers can take advantage of the predictability when helping learners gain skills.
The interaction position is espoused by socioculturalists. From this viewpoint, language is only learned by negation and interaction in a communicative, social context. Learning occurs when a learner interacts with a conversation partner in the zone of proximal development. To take advantage of this type of learning, instructors should include communicative activities in lessons.
Language faculty principles
Principles espoused by Chomsky for the component of the mind that account for children's innate knowledge of language. Whether adults have much access to the language faculty is still debated.
Parameters refers to the limited options in the realization of principals which account for the language varieties found throughout the word. This is part of the Universal Grammar theory. Knowing the parameters is thought to result in language earning instead of memorizing the elements. Instructors who teach the parameters provided the foundation for acquisition.
This is the beginning state of language acquisition that includes underlying knowledge about language structures and principles. Teachers should keep in mind that every learner begins from a different initial state based on their background knowledge and experience.
This is the stage of L2 development where the learner stops making progress and L2 language is stabilized. Instructors should keep in mind that nearly all learners reach the final stage before native-like production is reached.
Marked language is language that differs in some way from the regular language. For example, people who speak with an accent have marked pronunciation. Marked features in an L2 are more difficult to learn. Unmarked features in an L1 are more likely to transfer to the L2.
This is the process learners go through as they use increasing complex L2 language to communicate. For example, the word "yesterday" may be used in the early states. As language undergoes grammaticalization, the more abstract morpheme "ed" will be used to express the past tense. This is another way language can be described as being systematic.
A program where L2 is taught through content-based instruction. For example, students might learn an L2 in math class while being taught math skills. Content-based instruction increases learner motivation and opportunity to practice language skills in real life situations. Learners no matter what their IQs have more success in immersion programs in which classrooms are interactive and communicative. IQ correlates more directly to learning only in classrooms based on rule learning and language analysis. Based on this, teachers need to keep in mind that everyone can learn given the right situation!
Aptitude refers to a learner's ability to learn quickly. A learner with a high aptitude for learning languages will pick up the ability to communicate more easily and quickly. Learner's aptitude can vary depending on what language item they are working on. For example, a person may have an aptitude for remembering vocabulary but a weaker aptitude for analyzing language. Studies have shown that students perform better when instruction matches their aptitude. For example, students will good memories did better in communicative classes and students with good analytical skills did better in classes that focused on grammar. Teachers should vary activities sufficiently to accommodate learners with different aptitudes.
This is a type of motivation that is for personal growth and cultural enrichment. The goal is to know more about the target speakers and to be more like them. When this is present, it can be a strong motivator. Teachers should find out what motivates students and plan lessons accordingly.
This type of motivation is for immediate and practical goals like language learning for work or to get a better job. This type of motivation can also be quite strong. Teachers should find out what motivates students and plan lessons accordingly.
Field independent learners are able to learn details without needing a "big picture" view. (Note: I am a field dependent learner.) Field independent learners are sometimes thought to be better L2 learners. Instructors can help field dependent learners by providing the proper context before going into detailed instructions.
Critical Period Hypothesis
This hypothesis defines the critical period for language acquisition to be around puberty or a little earlier. After the critical period, it is much less likely for the speaker to obtain native-like L2. This is especially true with phonology. However, the critical period hypothesis doesn't mean adults can't learn and even become very successful. They just learn differently than children, and success is more dependent on aptitude, motivation, and other factors. In fact, adults make more rapid progress than children toward the acquisition of a second language where they use the second language in social, personal, professional, and academic interactions. Again, teachers should tailor the approach depending on the age of the learner.
This is specialization in the two different lobes of the brain. While left hemisphere is the primary center for language, L2 acquisition in adults seems to be more diffused than L1 and to involve more activity in the right side of the brain. It is important for teachers to remember that learning an L2 is developmentally different than L1 acquisition, and it is a process that inherently changes the brain. By learning how the brain functions, it will be easier to plan the how to teach L2 more effectively. As an L2 instructor, it will be important to keep up with rapidly improving technology and research that can be instrumental in informing classroom instruction decisions.
This developmental theory on L2 acquisition is concerned with the mental processes of language learning and use. It is the most influential psychological theory in L2 learning. It makes a number of assumptions on the perception and input of new information; the formulation, organization, and regulation of internal representations; and retrieval and output strategies. Lower order skills are acquired first and teachers can plan lessons around this idea. This idea is also based on qualitative restructuring, or changes, in paradigms that occurs as learners discover newly patters and rules.
Controlled processing is the idea that learning any skill requires the learner's attention. L2 learning requires considerable concentration and effort, and only so many things can be attended to at the same time. As learners practice, they go from controlled processing to automatic processing, which requires less attention. Instructors can help learners by focusing on a selected number of items to work on at a time.
With practice, learners gain automatic processing, which requires less mental effort and attention. This allows the learner to bring different and more complex skills into controlled processing. Automatic processing is one thing to keep in mind regarding fossilization. When a learner automates a skill before it reaches target level, it is difficult to return to the skill to perfect it. Teachers can bring attention to errors before fossilization occurs. You can tell if something is moving toward automation by observing the length of time it takes for something to be processed. L2 controlled processing takes a longer time than automated L2 processing.
Learner L2 development goes through qualitative restructuring, or changes, that occurs as learners discover newly patters and rules. The result is learning that is not seamless but instead partially discontinuous along a plane that is systematically reorganized and reformulated. Restructuring can result in U-shaped development. Instructors can help students by teaching the rules necessary for language analysis, helping students notice, and then by encouraging students to practice, which leads from declarative to the more procedural stages of knowledge.
Input is any L2 learners are exposed to, but input isn't always noticed. If it is noticed, it is then intake. Teachers can direct students by guiding them to the proper intake where their attention should be focused.
Output is the language that learners produce in all its forms. Output is practice that can lead to automation, helps learners notice gaps, allows learners to test hypotheses based on their interlanguage that leads to monitoring and revision, and allows the learner to elicit more input. Output is a very important component of language learning that not only serves communication functions but also leads to additional learning.
This is common in SLA as users initially produce a unanalyzed chunk of L2 correctly, but then create errors as learners restructure elements in accordance with learning of new patters and rules. Once learners learn even more complex patters, the learner will again product the chunk of L2 correctly. The book referred to the unanalyzed word "foot" moving to "foots" after the learner discovers plural "s." Then as exceptions to plural "s" are learned, the speaker will use again use the word feet. Teachers should remember that errors are not always signs of steps backward in learning. Some errors are in fact indications of learning and progress.
This approach is much like IP perspectives, but it focuses on increasing the strength of association between stimulus and responses instead of universal grammar, rules or restructuring. Parallel Distributed Processing is the best-known viewpoint in SLA. This theory holds that 1.) attention is not viewed as a central control mechanism. Rather it is a mechanism that is distributed throughout the processing systems of patterns, 2.) information processing is not serial but parallel with many connections happening simultaneously, 3.) Knowledge is not stored in memory or saved as patters but as connection strengths. More research is being done to determine who this applies to SLA and how it can be useful in the classroom.
Cognitive styles refers to a learner's preferred way of processing information. While not well established as having an impact on SLA, teachers should keep in mind student preference for field-dependent and field-independent learning. Accommodations for both types of learners should be made in the classroom especially in the area of deductive versus inductive learning.
Learning strategies include metacognitive, cognitive, and social learning strategies. Research has been done to determine if what learning strategies are most effective and are present in the most successful learners. Research hasn't proven any one strategy to be most effective. Instead successful strategies seem to depend on the individual learner. The consensus is that it is advantageous to explicitly teach learning strategies to give the learner options that may have not been previously known. One thing to note, however, is direct translation has been shown to be one of the least effective learning strategies and one that many students try to use. Replacement strategies should be discussed in the classroom.
This is analyzing errors to determine the learner's current understanding on the rules and patterns of the language. This is different form contrastive analysis because it does not set out to predict errors. Instead, it describes different errors to understand how the learner is processing language at that particular moment in time. One can analyze errors to determine how much progress the learner is making toward L2 acquisition. Instructors should remember, however, that errors in grammar, phonological errors, syntax, etc. can all indicate different stages of interlanguage development.
Interlanguage describes the learner's developing second language knowledge which has influence of the learner's L1, some characteristics of the L2, and some characteristics that seem to be typical of all learners, such as omissions of function words and some morphemes. Interlangauges are systematic, and they also are constantly developing. The path of development is not smooth and linear. Instead it goes through periods of both great and leveled growth before ending at the final stage of development. Sometimes, it would seem that learners even take steps backwards before moving forwards again - this is a sign of some new understanding of language rules. The goal of the teacher is to help the learner continue to develop interlanguage and delay a final plateau that results in fossilization.
An error in language that does not result from first language interference but reflects the gradual discovery of the L2 forms and rules. These errors are like the ones made by children as they learn an L1. There are known development sequences for grammar, negation, questions, possessive determiners, relative clauses, and references to the past. At any one time, learners may use sentences from any stage. But as more experience and confidence is gained, sentences from earlier stages will be reduced. This is very important information for any instructor to know and apply to curriculum development. (I am so glad to finally see the development process spelled out for me! I will be marking this page to reference over and over!)
This error when the learner applies a recently learned rule overbroadly. For example, a learner might use "ed" on irregular verbs because they recently acquired the knowledge the "ed" means something happened in the past. For instance, the learner might say "eated" when they why previously were using "ate." The word "eated" actually is showing progress in L2 development. Once the student learns more rules about exceptions, the word "eated" will again disappear.
This is simplifying elements of a sentence. For example, a person might just use one word "go" to mean "go," "went," or going."
Transfer or interference
This occurs when an element of the first language influence development in the L2. Transfer is positive and interference is negative. Teachers can take advantage of positive transfer and recognize and address instanced of interference when they understand the reason for the errors.
Avoidance is when the first language interferes by causing the learner's perception that a feature in the target language is too hard and different from their L1, and they will not try it. The feature is avoided. It is very hard to tell if a learner is avoiding a language feature by observation so more critical methods must be used by teachers to find out if this is happening.
This is simply what a speaker needs to know to communicate competently within a language community. This includes vocabulary, phonology, grammar, and pragmatics. Teachers should realize that communication competence might be different for different learners. The level where competence is to be achieved depends on the goals of the learner, as well as how the learner will be using the language. For example, students and retired person would become competent at different L2 levels. Competence does not equate native-like production.
A language community is any group of people who share knowledge of a common language to some extent. People who are multilingual usually belong to more than one language community. Also, a person may not belong equally to both communities. How much they belong in any one community at any given time is reflected by the segment of language knowledge they select and interaction skills they use. Also the cultural knowledge is something an L2 learner must learn to become part of a new language community.
Direct correction is explicit. It is the type of feedback that uses statements like, "that is wrong." Indirect feedback comes in many forms like recasts and expansions. It's important for teachers to understand that learners may not always understand when they are receiving indirect feedback. Since feedback is so important for adult learners, feedback should be given frequently and carefully. Also, I liked how the book pointed out not to use the check "okay" when giving feedback. L2 learners might be confused as to what you are referring when you say ok. They might not know if their speech was wrong or ok!
This hypothesis claims that modifications and collaboration efforts that take place in social interaction facilitate SLA because they contribute to the accessibility of input for processing. This view means interaction is a driving force of acquisition and not just a helpful condition. Social interaction is thought to provide a link between mental states and higher order thinking. I am not sure that I agree with this but maybe this is why communicative techniques are helpful.
This is the link between a person's current mental state and higher order cognitive change this facilitated by language and communicative practice. It is part of Vygotsky's Sociocultural theory. Teachers are most successful when they are the mediation facilitator. Again this idea supports communicative teaching methods.
Any interaction between people where speakers communicate. With L2 learners, interaction is very important because it is how they receive feedback and the modifications that help in the development of language. L1 input modifications for L2 learners are similar to child-directed speech and include repetition, paraphrasing, expansion and elaboration, sentence completion and frames for substitution, vertical construction, scaffolding, and comprehension checks and requests for clarification. Teachers should use all of these modifications to help students understand.
Scaffolding is when the learner is supported in language development within the Zone of Proximal Development. This means that learners accomplish more together than when they try to work alone. This includes vertical constructions which occur when a more proficient speaker helps the L2 learner in expressing thoughts beyond their current capability. It also refers to verbal collaboration, which serves the same purpose. L2 learners need scaffolding as they begin to acquire an L2, and these supports can be reduced or eliminated as proficiency is gained.
This is negotiated communication that goes on in a learner's mind. It is private speech (basically talking to oneself like kids to at play) or inner speech (which adults to in their head). Intrapersonal interaction is important because it helps a learner work out and practice language skills. A great suggestion for learners is private writing such as a journal, which is closely related to private speech.
This term means to learn the culture of a community and adapting to those values and behavioral patters. This does not mean that a person must give up their own culture. In the United States, the emphasis is not on acculturation but instead is on assimilation. Teachers should help L2 learners understand the differences between the two and discuss the pressure to assimilate instead of acculturate. In most cases, acculturation is possible and probably more desirable. This is especially true with young learners who receive cognitive advantages when they have multilingual and multicultural knowledge.
This is the knowledge people must have to interpret and convey information in communicative circumstances. This goes way beyond phonology and grammar. Teachers also must instruct provide instruction on how to use language forms appropriately according to the participants involved, the roles, and the social context of the communicative event.
Academic is the special knowledge learners must have to use the L2 to study and learn. This could be in formal education or related to job or career. Depending on the student goals, academic competence may or may not be necessary for L2 learners. For any student who needs academic competence, teachers must focus on providing instruction on specialized skills such as reading and listening, and then writing then speaking. The order of focus is much different for L2 learners who desire only interpersonal competence. Also, students who desire academic competence need to develop considerable more than the 2000 word basic vocabulary required for interpersonal competence.
The knowledge L2 language users must have to use a language face-to-face with other speakers. The importance of functions in order for this type of competence are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. It is possible for learners to develop a high level of proficiency interpersonal competence and not in academic competence and vice versa. Instructors must discover if academic competency, interpersonal competency, or some mix of both are goals of each student. Instruction goals should reflect student learning goals.
Cohesion is the markers used in language to link elements of text or speech. The markings provide unity, and consistency through text or speech. This is linking on a microlevel. Instructors can help L2 students by helping them understand how English speakers formulate their speech by using features such as sequential indicators and logical connectors. Instructors should include lessons on these transition and organization devices to help L2 learners formulate their speech into familiar and understandable formats for native speakers.
Categories or types of communication that follow regular patterns. For example, English academic writing starts with information on statements of a problem and end with conclusions. Formulating speech or writing according to genre helps eliminate communication difficulties stemming from formatting. Teachers should teach genres, especially in academic writing, so the communication won't seem surprising or foreign to readers.
Bottom-up processing is processing information from details (vocabulary, morphology, grammar, etc). It uses this prior knowledge and physical cues to produce meaning. Field interdependent learners prefer bottom-up processing as they deduct meaning. Top-down processing allows the user to guess at meaning from context, culture, and content. Field dependent learners might prefer this type of learning and it is more intuitive. Through this type of processing, L2 learners might be able to accurately guess at meaning without knowing much of the language. This type of processing is especially important in listening.
Knowledge based on what is already known about a subject in a specific situation. This might also include speaker's/writer's intent, and discourse patterns. It allows the L2 learner to predict what is being communicated and what might come next. Teachers should help learners take into consideration the context of any communication to help them arrive at final understanding. For example, "Let's get outta here!" when there is a smell of smoke might be a call for emergency action. The same phrase, might mean time to party when used in a room of bored teens.
Schema is the mental constructs about any subject that the learner has created based on their prior knowledge and experience. Every learner has a different schema because no two people have the same experiences and knowledge. In ESL teaching, it can be very helpful for learners to link their existing schema to new information.
Speech acts are spoken discourse that accomplishes a goal like apologizing, asking for help, or making an invitation. Speech acts fulfill most of what is spoken in everyday language. The conventions for formulating speech acts are different in every culture and communication relies heavily on pragmatic competence. To avoid misunderstandings not based on vocabulary, grammar or phonology, ESL teaching should address how to perform speech acts in the L2.
Elements of communication beyond what is spoken that help the listener understand what is being spoken and speakers communicate additional information. Cues could include vocabulary, and pronunciation, intonation and stress, and rhythmic patterns. It is very difficult for L2 learners to pick up on contextualized cues without assistance because they rely on background cultural knowledge and expectations. Even still, instructors can help eliminate misunderstanding by providing communication practice with native speakers who are willing to provide feedback.
Strategies are techniques that learners use to compensate for their L2 limitations. Strategies might include asking questions for clarification or paraphrasing. While L2 knowledge can be limited, the strategies allow many people to communicate nonetheless. Teachers should provide adequate practice in production so the reliance on strategies can be reduced over time.
Negotiation for meaning
Interaction between speakers who make adjustments to their speech and use other techniques to avoid and repair a breakdown in communication. Interaction where negotiation is required is more motivating to the learner. In the classroom, student should be given the opportunity to work in pairs and small groups so they can practice negotiation of meaning. In interpersonal communication, all speakers whether they are L1 or L2, negotiate meaning. Also in the social learning theory, it is believed that nothing is truly learned by the L2 learner until its meaning is negotiated with another speaker.
To recast it to repeat a learner's incorrect statement while making changes to correct the speech. Studies from the book show that recasts amongst peers may be more effective than teacher recasts, which aren't always recognized as correction. Students sometimes believe recasts are simply another way to say of saying the same thing. Teachers can make recast more effective by explicitly stating that there is an error before restating.
This is any number of teaching techniques that focus on meaning rather than production. The focus in on providing large quantities of comprehensible input, and is based on research by Krashen. This theory appears to be supported by research especially in the area of vocabulary development. Instructors can be sure to take advantage of this by providing large amounts of comprehensible material in the classroom and assigning work outside the classroom such as reading for pleasure.
Total physical response
Total physical response is a type of comprehensible input approach. Students actively listen and act out what they hear. In later stages, students might provide the directions for other students so they can also practice output. Instructors might consider this approach to help students in the beginning quickly recognize basic vocabulary and structures. This method is also very good at lowering student affective filters as it does not require speech at least in the beginning stages.
This method relies on high frequency exposure to facilitate learning. Exposure leads to gaining vocabulary and grammar in many circumstances. But without any formal instruction, learning is incomplete. For example, although input flood of adverbs might help students add adverbs to their language, it does not give then negative evidence that they can use to eliminate features from their language, such as those caused by L1 negative transfer. Teachers should keep in mind that input flood does help, but that it does not eliminate the need for more explicit instruction.
This techniques used input flood, but modifies the input in some way so the learner may notice the input more easily. For example, in writing certain words or features might be highlighted. In speech, certain features might be emphasized. While enhanced input might help, students make more progress when it is combined with more explicit instruction.
These features, according to Pienemann, develop in particular sequence regardless of input variation, learner motivation, or instruction. While there seems to be no harm in teaching these features before the learner is ready, they probably will not any not acquired until a later time and in a certain order. Some even propose that it is best to teach at one step ahead of a learner's level. One thing that teachers should keep in mind is that recasts are much more effective when the learner is developmentally ready to move on to the next level to which the recast addresses. Also teachers must recognize that only a small number of features have been described as being a developmental feature.
These features, also according to Pienemann, can be learned in any order. Since they can be learned at any point in the learner's development, teachers can teaching them without worry. However, whether they are gained will depend on motivation, learners' sense of identity, language aptitude, and quality of instruction.
Descriptive studies do not involve any manipulation, change or intervention on the part of the researcher. The goal is to observe and record only. Descriptive studies would be observing and recording how Spanish speaking students receive compliments. Descriptive studies can lead to more experimental studies.
Experimental studies are those research studies that are meant to test a hypothesis. These studies examine the results of an experiment on an experiment and control group. Conclusions are drawn by making a comparison of the results from the two groups. In education, teachers and researchers must be careful that results are valid and not the result in some variable outside the researchers control.
Form focused instruction brings that learner's attention to forms and structures of the L2. In a communicative context, this might mean providing metalinguistic knowledge or even providing explicit corrective feedback. In ESL teaching, it's important to provide some form-focused teaching. First, many students expect it and prefer it as a way to learn language. Second, students who receive some form-focused instruction perform better than students who receive none of this instruction at all. While forms studied may not be observable over the long term, instruction does seem to facilitate more noticing and acceptance when students are developmentally ready.
This is any language program in which lessons are organized about subject matter rather than language points. Content-based instruction is effective because students get to use language for real life learning. In content-based lessons, one thing that teachers should keep in mind is they should develop language learning goals along with content learning goals.
In task-based learning, lessons are formulated around tasks that students might engage in outside the foreign language classroom. Task-based lessons are effective because they usually offer authentic language opportunities.
Traditional vs. communicative instructional settings
Tradition language teaching focuses on form with little thought given to the learner's ability to communicate in a real situation. Examples are grammar/translation and audiolingual. Communicative instructional design is foremost concerned with meaning and communication abilities instead of form. This includes content-based and task based environments. In SLA, tradition instructional settings fell out of favor and communicative learning was touted. Most recently, however, researchers have discovered the benefits of providing focus on form instruction in a communicative environment.
Classroom observation scheme
An observation scheme is a tool that researchers use to record and describe teaching and learning behaviors. A scheme can be laid out on a grid with predetermined categories to study. In other studies, a scheme can be more focused on one specific feature of classroom instruction and interaction. Through these two schemes, it is possible to get a more complete picture of SLA.
Uptake is what the learner notices and/or retains from input. It is said that uptake can be determined from the learners' immediate reaction. According to researchers, uptake is more likely to take place after clarification requests, metalinguistic feedback, and repetition. It is less likely to occur after implicit recasts directed at them. (However, they may notice recasts directed toward others.) Teachers may want to keep uptake in mind, and selectively decide how/when to use recasts instead of explicit feedback, metalinguistic feedback, or repetition.
Explicit correction is the type of feedback that is direct, indicates there is an error, and provides correction. For example, a teacher might say, "No, you said runned. You need to say ran. You ran the race." Explicit feedback may be noticed more often than indirect feedback such as recasts. However, one should use explicit correction selectively in a communicative context where the focus is more on meaning, and constant explicit correction would disrupt this focus and increases the affective filter.
Clarification requests are used by a listener to negotiate meaning with a speaker. This is one of the strategies L2 learners use to help them comprehend as they listen. Also, when a request is made by a teacher or other listener to the L2 speaker, it indicates to the learner that their speech has not been understood and they need to repeat or reformulate their speech. Because clarification requests are related to authentic communication, they provide effective feedback. Clarification requests might be a good choice over recasts for providing implicit feedback.
Metalinguistic feedback is the feedback instructors give like comments, information, or questions related to the correctness of the learner's speech but it does not explicitly provide correct form. For example, the teacher might say "Can you find your error?" The teacher may add additional metalinguistic inquiry to help the learner discover the error. For example the teacher might say, "Its past tense." Metalinguistic feedback might be a good choice over recasts for providing implicit feedback.
Elicitation can be added to metalinguistic feedback to help the learner identify the error and help them produce the right form. The teacher might say "Is it past tense?" Elicitation might be a good choice over recasts for providing implicit feedback.
Repetition refers to the teacher's repetition of the student's erroneous speech with an adjustment in intonation to help the learner notice the error. Repetition might be a good choice over recasts for providing implicit feedback.
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