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Chapter 2 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (42)
Statements that describe how a problem is solved in terms of the actions to be executed, and specifies the order in which these actions should be executed. Algorithms can help the programmer plan a program before writing it in a programming language.
assignment operator (=)
Assigns a value to a variable.
A simple statement that assigns a value to a variable using an assignment operator (=). When a value is assigned to a variable, it replaces the previous value of the variable, which is destroyed.
A primitive data type that represents an integer in a byte. The range a byte value is from -27 (-128) to 27-1 (127).
The process of converting a primitive data type value into another primitive type.
A variable declared final in Java. A local constant is a constant declared inside a method.
Used to define variables to indicate what kind of value the variable can hold.
Defines a variable with a data type.
decrement operator (--)
Subtracts one from a numeric variable or a char variable.
A primitive data type that represents double precision floating-point numbers with 14 to 15 significant digits of accuracy.
Represents a computation involving values, variables, and operators, which evaluates to a value.
A modifier that specifies a constant.
A primitive data type that represents single precision floating-point numbers with 6 to 7 significant digits of accuracy. The double type is used to represent double precisions with 14 to 15 significant digits of accuracy.
A number that includes a fractional part.
A name of a variable, method, class, interface, or package.
increment operator (++)
Adds one to a numeric variable or a char variable.
incremental code and testing
A programming methodology that develops and tests programs incrementally. This approach is efficient and productive. It helps eliminate and isolate errors.
A primitive data type that represents an integer in the range from -231 (-2147483648) to 231-1 (2147483647).
Stands for Input, Process, and Output.
A constant value that appears directly in the program. A literal may be numeric, character, boolean, or null for object type.
A primitive data type to represent an integer in the range from -263 to 263-1.
narrowing (a type)
Casting a variable of a type with a larger range to a variable of a type with a smaller range.
Are the values operated by an operator.
Operations for primitive data type values. Examples of operators are +, -, *, /, and %.
When a variable is assigned a value that is too large (in size) to be stored, it causes overflow.
Refers to the syntax such as x-- where the -- operator is placed after a variable.
Refers to the syntax such as x++ where the ++ operator is placed after a variable.
Refers to the syntax such as --x where the -- operator is placed before a variable.
Refers to the syntax such as ++x where the ++ operator is placed before a variable.
primitive data type
The primitive data types are byte, short, int, long, float, double, boolean, and char.
Describes the program logic using natural language mixed with some programming code.
Is a formal process that seeks to understand the problem that the software will address and to document in detail what the software system needs to do.
scope of a variable
Is the part of the program where the variable can be referenced.
A primitive data type that represents an integer in the range from -215 (-32768) to 215-1 (32767).
Specifies a single class in the import statement. For example, import java.util.Scanner imports Scanner from package java.util.
Seeks to analyze the data flow and to identify the system's input and output. When you do analysis, it helps to identify what the output is first, and then to figure out what input data you need in order to produce the output.
Is to design a process for obtaining the output from the input. This phase involves the use of many levels of abstraction to break down the problem into manageable components and design strategies for implementing each component.
When a floating-point number is too small (i.e., too close to zero) to be stored, it causes underflow. Java approximates it to zero, so normally you don't need to be concerned about underflow.
January 1, 1970 GMT is known as the Unix epoch because 1970 was the year when the Unix operating system was formally introduced.
Variables are used to store data and computational results in the program.
widening (a type)
Casting a variable of a type with a smaller range to a variable of a type with a larger range.
Imports all the classes in a package. For example, import java.util.* imports all classes from package java.util.
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