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Unit 2 Honors US History Study Guide

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What was the Northwest Ordinance?
In 1787, Congress passed the Northwest Ordinance to specify how these western lands would be governed. This ordinance declared that the region would be divided into three to five territories. When a territory had 5,000 free adult men, those men could elect a legislature. When the population reached 60,000 free inhabitants, the legislature could write a constitution and form a government. If Congress approved both, the territory would become a state.

A number of the ordinance's provisions reflected the principle of equality. Each new state would have equal standing with the original states, and its people would enjoy the same freedoms and rights. Furthermore, slavery would be banned in any state formed from the region.
How did President Thomas Jefferson use diplomacy in obtaining the Louisiana Purchase from France in 1803?
He convinced the people they would make money and this land would come to their advantage.
What was the significance of the Lewis & Clark Expedition (known as the Corps of Discovery) between 1804-1807?
They went to explore Louisiana territory and discovered you can't get to Asia through the United States.
What were the major causes of the War of 1812?
Britain kept stealing our sailors and making them British soldiers. They also raised a tax on our goods.
Explain the significance of the War of 1812 on United States nationalism and relationship with Britain.
United States nationalism and relationship with Britain.
How did national infrastructure improve following after 1816 in the area of transportation?
It gave people roads and easier ways to transport goods and supplies.
How did the construction of the Erie Canal change regional migration patterns?
It lead people closer to that area, due to the easier ability to trade goods and products.
What gave rise of New York City as the nation's largest urban center?
The Erie Canal.
Explain the diplomacy of James Monroe and the significance of the Monroe Doctrine (written by his Secretary of State John Quincy Adams).
He wrote this to inform other countries to mind their own business and if they try to take over our side, we will fight them. He also warned the United States to mind their business as well.
Identify the causes of the Industrial Revolution?
Over time, the economy shifted, and American started making our own goods, so jobs that involved factories started to increase.
What two inventions by Eli Whitney led to the Industrial Revolution in the United States?
The Cotton Gin & Interchangeable parts for Guns.
Define the popular political culture of the nineteenth century.
Democracy & the equality for ALL WHITE MEN.
Explain the principles of Jacksonian Democracy.
People voted for him, because he appealed to the average man. He started poor and worked his way up, which is what most people inspired to do.
How did the policies of President Andrew Jackson cause a surge in American nationalism in the 1830s?
He got rid of the Native Americans and caused the Trail of Tears, which is what people in Georgia wanted, so they didn't care.
What was the significance of the Missouri Compromise of 1820?
It was made as an attempt to balance power inside the Senate for southern and northern states. It drew a line where slavery would, and WOULD'NT be allowed.
Explain how the Tariff of 1828 (also known as the Tarifl of Abominations) was the primary cause of the Nullification Crisis.
South Carolina didn't want to pay a new tax put on by the government, so they decide that they just weren't going to pay it, and if the government made them they said they would just leave the United States.
How did John C. Calhoun continue the crisis of nuillification through sectionalism and states' rights?
When countied to fight for the south's rights to nullify and disagree with the government if they wanted too.
Explain the three primary reasons for the westward growth of the United States (including the concept of manifest destiny).
1. Opportunity
2. Land was cheap
3. The chance to work your way up in life.
How did the Second Great Awakening affect the rise of the reform movements of the mid- nineteenth century?
The Second Great Awakening was more of a "spiritual and moral" awakening than a religious one. It made people question if the way they were living was right in God's eyes.
Explain the role of Elizabeth Cady Stanton in the fight for women's suffrage and at the Seneca Falls Conference in 1848?
They were tired of not being able to participate in things, due to their gender, so she held the first ever women's rights meeting which was Seneca Falls.
Identify the primary issue and impact the following reform movements:
Temperance
Abolition
Public School
Temperance: Banning Alcohol
Abolition: Getting rid of slaves
Public School: Government funded schooling
Identify the following abolitionist leaders:
William Lłoyd Garrison
Frederick Douglass
Sara & Angelia Grimke
William Lloyd Garrison: Helped Frederick Douglass in his fight against slavery; White man
Frederick Douglass: Former slave that was given freedom and worked to get that right for other slaves.
Sara & Angelia Grimke: Wealthy white sisters who think slavery is a sin.
Why was slavery the most significant political issue of the era?
It related back to everything that caused issues in the government. It also was seen as religiously wrong by many.
Who was Nat Turner and what was the significance of his raid in 1831?
Nat Turner was a slave that rallied against slave owners with slave "army" to fight back slavery. It shows that slaves were ready to fight for their rights.
Identify the significant events which caused the Mexican-American War (1846-1848)?
America wanted the land that belonged to Mexico (Texas), due to Americans already living over there, so they helped them fight for their independence.
Explain the results of the war with Mexico and the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo.
It made Texas an independent country.
What impact did the Wilmot Provison have on national politics issue of slavery?
He wanted to ban saves in the new Texas territory, but couldn't. Due to the line issue of the Missouri Compromise.
Explain the five major points in the Compromise of 1850. How did it avoid a civil war in 1850?
1. The Fugitive Slave Law.
2. California is a free state.
3. Popular sovereignty in Utah and New Mexico
4. No slave trade in D.C.
5. Government took over Texas war debt
It avoided a civil war, because they worked to keep all sides happy.
Explain the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854. How did it lead to tensions between the North and South?
They allowed the people to decide if they were a slave state or not, so people just moved to this area in hopes of increasing their side of the vote.
Define the term "popular sovereignty". How it lead to the conflict known as Bleeding Kansas in the mid-1850s.
It is the idea that the government is fully established by the people; People in Kansas ended up giving the federal government two different constitutions from two opposite viewpoints.
Explain the impact of the Dred Scott Decision in 1857.
It claimed that slaves were property, which is something the government can't legally take away.
Who was John Brown? What was the significance of his raid at Harper's Ferry (Virginia) in 1859?
An abolitionist that believed the only way to get slavery to end was to use force, so he staged a plan to fight for the freedom of slaves.
What was the significance of the 1860 presidential election?
It was the election of Lincoln, where the south vowed if he became president they would.
How did the attack on Fort Sumter lead to the American Civil War (1861-1865)?
The Confederate troops started the attack, which lead to war.
Describe President Lincoln's efforts to preservation of the United States through the Gettysburg Address (1863) and his Second Inaugural Address (1865).
Preserving the Union & abolishing slavery.
Explain the major differences between the North and the South in 1860 in the following areas:
Population
Manufacturing
Resources
Exports
Population: Majority of white people, and the north had 97% area of black people.
Manufacturing Resources: The north use more factory goods, while the south depended on cash crops.
Exports: Cash Crops vs. Factory Goods
View of Tariffs:
What is habeas corpus? How did President Abraham Lincoln use it to control resistance to the war effort itn the North?
-literally means "to have body"
-A writ of habeas corpus is a judicial mandate to a prison official ordering that an inmate be brought to the court so it can be determined whether or not that person is imprisoned lawfully and whether or not he should be released from custody.
-a writ requiring a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court, especially to secure the person's release unless lawful grounds are shown for their detention.
- During the Civil War, Lincoln imprisoned thousands of Confederate supporters in Union states without trial denying them their basic civil liberties as outlined in the Bill of Rights.
Describe the role of the following leaders of the Civil War:
Abraham Lincoln
Jefferson Davis
Ulysses Grant
Robert E. Lee
William T. Sherman
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Abraham Lincoln- president during civil war
Jefferson Davis- president of the confederacy
Ulysses Grant- union general
Robert E. Lee- confederate general
William T. Sherman- burned down atlanta
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson- part
Identify the significance of the following Civil War Battles:
Fort Sumter
Antietam
Gettysburg
Vicksburg
Atlanta
Fort Sumpter- First battle of civil war
Antietam-single bloodiest day/led to emancipation proclamation
Gettysburg- bloodiest battle of civil war/ turning point of the war
Vicksburg-split the confederacy & took the Mississippi River
Atlanta- burned it down!!
Explain the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation. Why did President Abraham Lincoln pass it in 1863?
The Emancipation Proclamation led the way to the total abolition of slavery. He passes it to abolish slavery and preserve the Union.
Identify the significance of Presidential Reconstruction under President Abraham Lincoln and President Andrew Johnson.
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863)
-Pardons given to most Southerners who
1. Took an oath of allegiance to the Union
2. Emancipated their Slaves
State may reenter the Union after 10% of state's voters took the oath.
Andrew Johnson became president after Lincoln died.
He was a Democrat from Tennessee.
Pro-Union, but doesn't really care about slaves.
Continued the policy of Presidential Reconstruction
Identify the role of the Radical Republicans in Congressional Reconstruction.
Wanted to keep South out of the Union as long as possible; wanted to punish the South for causing the Civil War!
Identify the following Reconstruction Amendments:
Thirteenth Amendment
Fourteenth Amendment
Fifteenth Amendment
Thirteenth Amendment- Abolished the institution of slavery.
Fourteenth Amendment-All persons born or naturalized in the United States are citizens. States must provide citizens with "equal protection of the law" and "due process".
Fifteenth Amendment- States cannot deny a person the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
What gains were made for biacks during Reconstruction (include the significance of Morehouse College, founded in Atlanta - 1867).
First
What role did the Freedmen's Bureau serve in the South, following the end of the Civil War?
It provided them with economic and legal resources.
Define the terms carpetbagger and scalawag and the role each group played in Reconstruction.
Scalawags-Southern Republicans
Carpetbaggers- Northerners coming to the South
-Economic opportunity
-Government positions
-Helping free blacks
Analyze the significance of President Andrew Johnson and his impeachment.
Tenure of Office Act (1867)
-Congress passes this law to keep Johnson from removing official/commanders without Senate approval.
-Johnson fires Edwin Stanton (Sec. of War)
-Congress impeaches Johnson
-Senate does not convict
What was the significance of black codes?
Black Codes-unofficial "laws: that sought to limit the rights of African Americans
Effects
-Limited blacks in choice of occupations
-Kept blacks from owning land
-Arrested blacks for not having a job
Why was the Ku Klux Klan formed and what tactics did the organization use in the South?
Used terror to incite fear and prevent blacks from voting.
Describe the results of the presidential election of 1876.
Republicans claimed voter fraud in 3 Southern states that Tilden won. When votes were recounted in these states, Hayes ends up the "winner" of all three.
Explain the Compromise of 1877. How did it formally end Reconstruction in the South?
-Northern Republicans & Southern Democrats came to an agreement.
-Republican Hayes would be "given" the Presidency by 1 electoral vote, and in return all remaining federal troops were removed from the Southern states, effectively ending reconstruction.