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4.5 lbs, 3 inch

between ages 2 and 6 a normal child should gain ______ lbs and grow _____ inches per year.


tallest ethnic group

early tooth decay

most common disease of young children in developed nations

calfium, iron, zinc

most likely to be lacking in a hild's diet in developed nations

just right

child will only do things a certain way, ex: eat from one plate, drink from one cup must have folded napkin next to her plate.


speeds up the transmission on neuroal impulses

growth of the corpus collosum

coordinating the two sides of body more efficiently

prefrontal cortex

ability to control one's impulsiveness


a child asking the same question over and over again is exibiting


amygdala is the brain structure that registers...


learning and memory

5 years old

child should be able to tie own shoe at...

opportunities for practice

gross motor skills are acquired through...

safety precautions

should be a major concern when building a play area for preschoolers

muscular control

children have difficulty w/ fine motor skills because they lack

brain maturation an dhaving short, stubby fingers

preschoolers have trouble dresing htemselves, writing, or stringing small beads due to

secondary prevention

ex: pushing your child out of the way of a falling ladder


a reported incident of a child maltreatment that has been investigate and verified

injury control

public health experts recognize that injuries to children could be minimized through


father: physically abusive
mother: witnesses the abuse and says nothing. she is...


small for age, underweight, delayed in language development. Parents are unconcerned, saying he is just that way. hte teacher should suspect:


symptoms of maltreatment include...

social skills

deficit will be mot apparent in a child who is maltreated in...

kinship care

ex:foster care for a neglected nephew

preoperational intelligence

goes beyond senses and motor skills

focus on single aspect of an object/situation

explains why children have difficulty thinking logically


piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only form his personal perspective

demonstrate centration

preoperational children focus on one aspect and are easily distracted

egocentric behavior

(Piaget) ex: girl coloring on floor calls to mother who is in another room. asks mother what color she should i paint this. while pinting ot a flower

static reasoning

child does not understand thinks out of contexts. ex: teacher at grocery store


4+6=10 but not 10-6=4


4 cuts of a hot dog are smaller than 5 cuts of a hot dog. He does not yet understand....

social activities guided by others

Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, vygotsky attributed it to...

guided participation

Vygotsky's term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed to older and more skilled members of siciety


ex: each tie bob puts togehter a buzzle, his father gives him less help. ____ would agree w/ this theory

zone of proximal development

child not yet reached a task but gets help from adult. This will only be helpful if child is in the...

advance thought

Vygotsky, anguage is a tool....

one-to-one correspondence

counting out loud one by one to teach a number is an example of...

social mediation

teacher explains concept, children participate in small group activitie, she encourages conversation between children and adult. Vygotsky calls this...


preschoolders have a tendency to try to make up a reason why things that they see and hear occur. This is known as....

answer kids want to the why question

they want to know how the situation or behaviro affects them

maturation of the prefrontal cortex

underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind

brain maturation

seems to be the main ontributing factor that determines whether or not children will pass the tasks to test theory of mind


child's ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly

grammar rules by...

age 3


the amount a child talks is influenced by...


...determins the words and grammatical constructions a child understands


"I falled down and I hurted myself" is an example of...

good preschools consist of

teachers responding to child's need, low teacher/child ratio

initiative vs. guild

Erikson's stage that occurs between 3-6 years

immodest self-concept

(Erikson) typical of young children

prefrontal cortex

more developed the better control of emotions (temper tantrums)

early stress may affect ability to regulate....


pay of children from developed nation

play space in developed countries provides social learning and takes place in childcare settings.

parallel play

playing while sitting next to each other w/ no/little interaction

sociodramatic play

pretend play in which children act out verious roles and themes in stories that they create

4 dimensions of parenting styles are...

warmth, discipline, communication and expectations for maturity

authoritarian parents

seem aloof from their children


parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible

permissive parents

high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control

media effects on children

interference w/ family life, language development and emotional regulation


ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person


most important way sin which children learn ot control their aggression is through...


aggression that tends to be characteristic of 2 year olds

relational aggression

nonphysical acts aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people

North American families of preschoolers...

use the discipline technique of time out most often to deal w/ misbehaving children




culturally prescribed

preschool boys want to...

replace their fathers (Freud)


to understnad gender attitudes and roles, behaviorists stress...

models for behavior

according to behaviorla theoriest, parents are...

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