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71 terms

Test #3: Ch 8, 9, 10

STUDY
PLAY
4.5 lbs, 3 inch
between ages 2 and 6 a normal child should gain ______ lbs and grow _____ inches per year.
Africans
tallest ethnic group
early tooth decay
most common disease of young children in developed nations
calfium, iron, zinc
most likely to be lacking in a hild's diet in developed nations
just right
child will only do things a certain way, ex: eat from one plate, drink from one cup must have folded napkin next to her plate.
myelination
speeds up the transmission on neuroal impulses
growth of the corpus collosum
coordinating the two sides of body more efficiently
prefrontal cortex
ability to control one's impulsiveness
perserveration
a child asking the same question over and over again is exibiting
emotions
amygdala is the brain structure that registers...
hippocampus
learning and memory
5 years old
child should be able to tie own shoe at...
opportunities for practice
gross motor skills are acquired through...
safety precautions
should be a major concern when building a play area for preschoolers
muscular control
children have difficulty w/ fine motor skills because they lack
brain maturation an dhaving short, stubby fingers
preschoolers have trouble dresing htemselves, writing, or stringing small beads due to
secondary prevention
ex: pushing your child out of the way of a falling ladder
substantiated
a reported incident of a child maltreatment that has been investigate and verified
injury control
public health experts recognize that injuries to children could be minimized through
neglectful
father: physically abusive
mother: witnesses the abuse and says nothing. she is...
maltreatment
small for age, underweight, delayed in language development. Parents are unconcerned, saying he is just that way. hte teacher should suspect:
hypervigilance
symptoms of maltreatment include...
social skills
deficit will be mot apparent in a child who is maltreated in...
kinship care
ex:foster care for a neglected nephew
preoperational intelligence
goes beyond senses and motor skills
focus on single aspect of an object/situation
explains why children have difficulty thinking logically
egocentrism
piagetian term for a particular type of centration in which the child thinks about the world only form his personal perspective
demonstrate centration
preoperational children focus on one aspect and are easily distracted
egocentric behavior
(Piaget) ex: girl coloring on floor calls to mother who is in another room. asks mother what color she should i paint this. while pinting ot a flower
static reasoning
child does not understand thinks out of contexts. ex: teacher at grocery store
irreversibility
4+6=10 but not 10-6=4
conservation
4 cuts of a hot dog are smaller than 5 cuts of a hot dog. He does not yet understand....
social activities guided by others
Piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, vygotsky attributed it to...
guided participation
Vygotsky's term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed to older and more skilled members of siciety
vygotsky
ex: each tie bob puts togehter a buzzle, his father gives him less help. ____ would agree w/ this theory
zone of proximal development
child not yet reached a task but gets help from adult. This will only be helpful if child is in the...
advance thought
Vygotsky, anguage is a tool....
one-to-one correspondence
counting out loud one by one to teach a number is an example of...
social mediation
teacher explains concept, children participate in small group activitie, she encourages conversation between children and adult. Vygotsky calls this...
theory-theory
preschoolders have a tendency to try to make up a reason why things that they see and hear occur. This is known as....
answer kids want to the why question
they want to know how the situation or behaviro affects them
maturation of the prefrontal cortex
underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind
brain maturation
seems to be the main ontributing factor that determines whether or not children will pass the tasks to test theory of mind
fast-maping
child's ability to add new vocabulary words very quickly
grammar rules by...
age 3
genes
the amount a child talks is influenced by...
experience
...determins the words and grammatical constructions a child understands
overregularization
"I falled down and I hurted myself" is an example of...
good preschools consist of
teachers responding to child's need, low teacher/child ratio
initiative vs. guild
Erikson's stage that occurs between 3-6 years
immodest self-concept
(Erikson) typical of young children
prefrontal cortex
more developed the better control of emotions (temper tantrums)
early stress may affect ability to regulate....
emotion
pay of children from developed nation
play space in developed countries provides social learning and takes place in childcare settings.
parallel play
playing while sitting next to each other w/ no/little interaction
sociodramatic play
pretend play in which children act out verious roles and themes in stories that they create
4 dimensions of parenting styles are...
warmth, discipline, communication and expectations for maturity
authoritarian parents
seem aloof from their children
authoritative
parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible
permissive parents
high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control
media effects on children
interference w/ family life, language development and emotional regulation
empathy
ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person
play
most important way sin which children learn ot control their aggression is through...
reactive
aggression that tends to be characteristic of 2 year olds
relational aggression
nonphysical acts aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people
North American families of preschoolers...
use the discipline technique of time out most often to deal w/ misbehaving children
sex
biological
gender
culturally prescribed
preschool boys want to...
replace their fathers (Freud)
reinforcement
to understnad gender attitudes and roles, behaviorists stress...
models for behavior
according to behaviorla theoriest, parents are...