38 terms

ARCH Exam 1 Review

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Terms in this set (...)

Post
Vertical Element
Lental
Horizontal element, aka beam
Megalith
a large block of stone of either irregular shape or only slightly shaped by human hands.
Menhir
a prehistoric megalithic post standing by itself and therefore not part of a post-and-beam
construction
Directional focus
one is drawn toward the menhir, wanting to see what it is
Rotational focus
when one reaches a menhir, human curiosity encourages the viewer to walk
around the menhir to experience its three-dimensionality
spatial boundaries
When more than one menhir is present
dolmen
a prehistoric grave that is above ground and is of megalithic, trabeated construction
cantilever
a projecting horizontal element that is supported only at one end or at its center
Henge
a near circular or oval-shaped flat area that has an area greater than 60ft, and enclosed in a boundary (often a ditch) with entrances to the interior
Barrow
a mound of earth raised over a grave so that the grave itself, which is above ground, eventually
is enclosed and buried by the barrow.
Megalith passage grave
a grave consisting of a megalithic trabeated construction built above ground with a large barrow constructed over the chamber and a passageway leading out, often will be combined with a henge
Mortise
hole or socket on underside of lintel
Tenon
projecting piece of stone on top of post
Trilithon
a post + lintel construction consisting of two megaliths plus a lintel.
Temenos
a piece of land marked off from common uses and dedicated to a god, a sanctuary, or holy precinct.
Axiality
the quality or character of an axis or axes (plural)
"stairway to heaven"
One of the earliest ideas expressed in architecture
ziggurat
found in Mesopotamia that indicated a stairway to heave
stone
has a high compressive but moderate tensile strength; impervious to water and most elements, making it the ideal material to build for eternity
brick
good compressive strength but rather poor tensile strength; offer a higher degree of resistance to
degradation by water, but walls of massive thickness are required
Egypt building materials
stone
Mesopotamia building materials
unglazed and glazed bricks
Optical refinements
nonstructural, visual impressions used to greatly exaggerate a feature
Mesoamerica
a region and culture area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
Teotihuacan
one of the greatest collections of pyramids
in the world, containing the pyramid of the moon and the Avenue of the Dead.
Tablero
the vertical element
Talud
the sloping element
The pyramids at Teotihuacan are made of...
compressed soil and volcanic remains (tezontle)
The Temple of the Feathered Serpent
talud-tablero construction come together, with massive carvings of
serpents' heads jutting outward
Chan Chan
city in Peru containing the city's division into nine 'citadels' or 'palaces' forming
autonomous units
nine citadels entrance
only one entrance always facing the north
an audiencia
a three-side, U-shaped room
fishnet adobe
light and air can flow through
Huachaques
large sunken gardens located on the southern edge of Chan Chan
Inca Stone Architecture
the stones are cut in a variety of shapes, yet they all fit together perfectly like a jigsaw puzzle
Doors and windows in Inca Architecture
trapezoidal and tilt inward from bottom to top; corners usually are rounded;
inside corners often incline slightly into the rooms
L-shaped blocks of stones
help the buildings resist earthquakes

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