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Embalming Theory Exam 1
Terms in this set (52)
Irreversible cessation of all vital functions
Tripod of Life:
Syncope, Asphyxia, & Coma
1st phase of somatic death, lasting 5-6 minutes in which life may be restored.
After death of brain, vegatative state.
Pathological death of the cells as a result of a disease. Ex. Gangrene & Ulcers
Physiological or natural death of cells as they complete their life cycle.
Changes occuring in the interval prior to somatic death (agonal period).
Agonal Edema & Agonal Dehydration
Agonal fever & Algor Mortis
Increase in body temp. prior to death.
The cooling of a body after death.
Agonal Hypostatis & Agonal Coagulation
Occurs as the circulation of blood slows & the formed elements of the blood begin to clot & congeal.
Settling of blood into the dependent tissues of the body, result of slowing of circulation.
Increase in the amount of moisture or fluids in the tissues
Decrease in the amount of moisture or fluids in the body
Postmortem Physical Changes
1) Algor Mortis
5)Increase in Blood Viscosity
Postmortem cooling of the body
Intrinsic Factors of Algor Mortis
Weigh, Size of body, & Age
Extrinsic Factors of Algor Mortis
Body Coverings & Environment
Advantages of Algor Mortis
-Slow onset of rigor mortis
-Slow onset of decompostion
-Helps to keep blood in liquid state
Disadvantages of Algor Mortis
-Can increase the degree of livor mortis & postmortem stain
-Cooled bodies may require additional amounts of dye
Loss of moisture from the surface of the body to the surrounding atmosphere.
-wrinkling/shriveling of features
-increase in blood viscosity
Gravitation of blood & body fluids to the dependent areas of the body. It is the PROCESS, not the discoloration.
Postmortem intravascular blood discoloration produced as a result of hypostasis (Cadaveric lividity/postmortem lividity).
Livor Mortis Characteristics
-Occurs within 1/2-2 hrs. after death
-Appears as a dull reddish patch
-Intravascular discoloration that can be cleared (can be a sign of fluid distribution)
Increase in Blood Viscosity
Thickening of the blood after death caused primarily by the loos of liquid portion of blood.
Postmortem Chemical Changes
2)Shift in body pH
The rise in body temp. after death, due to cellular metabolism.
Changes in pH
-In living blood & tissue approx. 7.4
-During rigor mortis, 5.5-6 (high acidity)
-During advanced decomp., pH returns to alkaline register.
Postmortem stiffening of the body muscles by the natural body process.
3 Stages of Rigor Mortis
1)Primary Flaccidity-muscles are plyable
2)Stage of Rigidity-stiffening/nonmoving
3)Secondary Flaccidity-return to plyable
How Temp. Affects Rigor Mortis
Min.- 32 F
Max.- 120 F
Optimum- 98-100 F
Embalming Significance of Rigor Mortis (9)
1)Extravascular resistance 2)Increase in preservatives 3)pH affects chem. reaction 4)Reduce absorption 5)Difficulty positioning 6)Difficulty setting features 6)Tissue distention 7)Uneven coloration or dye 8)FALSE SIGN OF PRESERVATION.
Seperation of compounds into simpler substances by the action of microbial &/or autolytic enzymes.
Decomp. via aerobic bacteria, occuring outside the body/on skin.
Decomp. of protein via anaerobic bacteria, occuring inside the body/viscera.
Intrinsic Factors that govern rate of decomp.
Extrinsic Factors that govern rate of decomp.
-Exposure to direct air
Same rate of decomp. occuring at:
5 Signs of Decomposition
Outer layers of the skin weaken because the deeper skin layers are undergoing autolysis (skin slip).
Evacuation of gases, liquids, & semisolids via natural body orifice (mouth, nose, & anus).
Embalming Significance of Decomp. (3)
1)Poor distribution of solution 2)Tissue may distend 3)INCREASE DEMAND FOR PRESERVATIVES (the use of higher index & quantity).
Signs of Death (8)
1)Cessation of respiration 2)Cessation of circulation 3)Muscular flaccidity 4)Changes in eye 5)Postmortem lividity 6)Rigor 7)Algor mortis 8)DECOMPOSITION
Sign of Death affecting the Eye
-Clouding of cornea
-Loss of luster/conjuctiva
-Flattening of eyeball
Extravascular blood discoloration brought about by the hemolysis of blood.
Timeline of Somatic Death (6)
5)Postmortem Cellular Death
Embalming Significance of Livor Mortis (3)
1)Discoloration varies from reddish-black 2)Can be cleared during arterial injection 3)Can be 'set stain' if incorrect fluid is used.
Recommended textbook explanations
Miller and Levine Biology
Joseph S. Levine, Kenneth R. Miller
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
David L Nelson, Michael M. Cox
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Jackson, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
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