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Arts and Humanities
History of Philosophy
Sophies World Philosophers
Terms in this set (74)
"Men created gods in their own image."
Thought the source of all things was water, all things are full of
gods. Calculated the height of a pyramid by shadow, accurately predicted a solar
Thought that the world was one of a myriad of worlds which evolve
and dissolve in something called "the boundless". The source-substance of all things
had to be different than the things created.
Thought the source of all things must be air or vapor. Air is the origin
of earth, water, and fire.
Thought that everything that exists had always existed, and that there
was no such thing as actual change. Nothing could become anything other than what
it was. Sensory perceptions must be unreliable.
Thought constant change or flow was the most basic characteristic of
nature. Saw the world was characterized by opposites (no summer without a winter).
Believed in a "universal law" that guides everything that happens in nature. "God"
or "logos" was the source of everything. Sensory perceptions are reliable.
Thought that, in a sense, nothing changes, but we must also believe
what we see in changes of nature. Source of nature can't be just 1 element, but
consisted of four "roots": earth, air, fire, water. Believed in two forces of nature: love
binds things together, strife separates them.
Thought nature was made of an infinite number of small invisible
particles that have something of everything in them (seeds). "Order" is a kind of force
creating things (nous).
Agreed that transformations in nature were not because anything
actually "changed", assumed everything was made of tiny invisible "un-cuttable"
blocks (atoms). They had to be eternal, because nothing can come from nothing
(materialist). There was an unlimited number/variety of atoms, and they could
construct different things. When we sense things, it is because of movement of
atoms. Everything in nature flows.
Founder of Greek medicine, sickness is a sign that Nature has gone
off course. People needed a "sound mind in a sound body" for a road to health.
Moderation and healthy lifestyle is the natural condition.
"Man is the measure of all things." A sophist, thought that good/bad and
right/wrong should be considered in relation to a person's needs. In regards to Greek
gods, he said "it is complex and life is short".
Invented Socratic irony. Did not consider himself a sophist but a
philosopher (one who loves wisdom). A "conscience" told right/wrong, no one can be
happy if they acted against better judgement, so who knows what is right will do right.
Belief in absolute rules of right/wrong.
Concerned with the relationship between what is eternal and what "flows"
Believed in absolute rules of right/wrong. Everything tangible in nature flows, so all
substances dissolve. "Ideas" are the perfect molds which forms are copies of. Reality
is divided in two: world of senses (where forms exist) and the world of ideas (which
we can have true knowledge of through reason and where the soul existed before the
created much of the terminology scientists use today and founded/
classified various sciences, as well as logic. "Ideas" are created in our mind by
classifying things by their common traits rather than existing in another world. The
highest degree of reality is that which we perceive with our senses. Every change in
nature is a transformation of substance from the "potential" to the "actual". Everything
has four different causes: material cause, efficient cause, formal cause, and final
cause or "life task".
eg. Antisthenes and Diogenes. Believe that happiness is independent of
material goods; everyone can achieve happiness. Diogenes lived in bucket and
told Alexander the Great that the only thing he could do for him was not block the
sunlight. Death need not be feared.
eg Zeno (founder), Marcus Aurelius, Cicero, Seneca. Believe that everyone
is a part of the same common-sense (logos; microcosm of universal rightness/natural
law). Believe that there was no boundary between the individual and the universe,
and that there was no conflict between "spirit" and "matter" (monism). Believe that
there are no accidents, and that man must accept his/her own destiny.
Aristippus (hedonist), Epicurus. Pleasure is highest good. Avoid pain.
Lived in gardens. Pleasure can be sensuous or abstract like friendship. No afterlife a
la Democritus' atomic theory; death isn't scary.
Plotinus. Dualist. World is the span btwn 2 poles; one end is divine
light called One or God, other end is absolute lack of divine light. Soul is illuminated
by One, matter is darkness w. no real existence.
Silesius. Practice of merging with greater self, cosmic spirit, or God. You
are God/universe. Seek path of enlightenment like simple life or meditation. Your
identity is an illusion; everything is one. There is no spoon.
One of many to claim to be "Messiah" and redeemer of sin, but not in a
political/military sense as others claimed.Preached salvation and forgiveness for all.
Prophesied Kingdom of God is no literal kingdom, but love/compassion/peace/jazz to
the good and evil alike. Everyone can and needs to be forgiven.
Made Plato's philosophy more "Christianized." Tried to unite the
thoughts of Christians and Jews. Wrote City of God. The only way that man
could receive salvation was through the church. Evil doesn't exist: merely lack of
God (neoplatonic). No man deserves redemption, but God saves some anyway
There are two ways to know God and morality; through innate reason
and faith in the Bible; both reveal different aspects.
Showed that observations make more sense if the sun is
the center of the universe. Believed everything was in perfect, circular orbit because
Plato said so.
Showed that planets orbit ellipitcally. Believed physical laws to be
uniform throughout the universe.
Got a telescope and pointed it up to use as astronomical instrument.
Formulated law of intertia. Strict empiricist.
Law of universal gravitation: everything attracts everything else
proportionate to size and inversely proportionate to distance; explained that planets
orbit because of gravity and inertia. Believed the natural laws were proof of God.
Everyone is his own priest by reading the bible. Translated it to
German. Man was depraved since the Fall.
Shakespeare among others
All the world's a stage; life is like a play. Concerned w
brevity of human existence. Life is a dream.
Rationalist. Didn't trust any philosophy from the past. Dualist about
humans and possibly animals (reason and body). Purely materialistic about
everything else. Approached philosophy like math; starting simple and checking
every detail. Starting point of any new philosophy should be total skepticism. Cogito
ergo sum. Ontological argument for God. Other stuff we discussed in class.
Branded heretic; denied that the Bible was divinely inspired.
Bible is not internally consistent. The world is God. Rationalist. Determinist/stoic.
Monist; all reality consists of "Substance"/God: at least two attributes of God are
know to man -- thought and extension (matter). "Mode" is the manifestation of an
attribute. God is the inner cause of all that happens as opposed to an outer cause
(puppeteer).Everything happens through necessity. Only God can have complete
freedom; it is possible for something to not have any outer constraints, but it can't be
completely free because of its inner constraints -- its innate qualities.
Ideas come from organisation of sensory experience. Objects had primary
qualities (objective, physical qualities) and secondary qualities (qualities only
measurable by the senses). Latter can differ among who experiences them. Believed
in objective ethical principles -- natural rights. Also thought knowledge of God's
existence was inherent in human reason. Believed in intellectual freedom and
tolerance, equality of sexes, division of gov.
Agnostic atheist. Humans perceive impressions (immediate sensation) and
ideas (recollection of sensation). We tend to concoct nonexistent complex entities by
mashing simple ideas together. The ego or 'I' is a collection of simple impressions
and ideas from one moment to the next; an unalterable ego is a false complex
idea. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r3QZ2Ko-FOg Causation is formed by our
expectation that one event follows another, but we cannot experience the causal link
itself. Laws of nature/physics have no basis in reason; they're merely formed out of
our expectations. Ethics is not based on reason, but sentiments.
Christian bishop. Questioned the material world; we live in the
Matrix (spiritual version). Everything we sense is an effect of God's power/mind.
Rationalist. Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau.Civilisation
and religion suck; return to nature bc man is good by nature and reason is natural.
We should retain childlike innocence for as long as possible. Religion must be made
natural by being consistent with reason not dogma; often manifested as deism.
Actively fought for natural rights of man: freedom of thought and speech and abolition
Christian. Both rationalist and empiricist: all knowledge of world comes through
sense, but how we process it depends on reason. Natural laws (eg time, space,
causality) can't be perceived or proved, but are valid as internal conditions of how
humans think. Our form of intuition limits what we can know eg neither a finite nor
infinite universe makes sense to human reason. Within the vacuum where reason
and experience couldn't reach was filled by faith. Faith in God, immortal soul, and
free will is essential to morality, so they were his practical postulate. It is impossible
to comprehend ourselves because if we were simple enough to comprehend, we
wouldn't have the ability to comprehend. Moral law is innate in reason and applies
to all situations (categorical imperative).It is a moral action if it is undertaken out of
duty for conscience (good will determines moral action rather than consequences).
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xwOCmJevigw You are truly free by acting out of
conscience, because you are abiding by your own laws.
Kant's argument that there was limit to knowledge and that ego
contributed to knowledge led to freedom for the individual to interpret life and develop
art by "playing" (when we are truly free). Emphasised expression of the self. Blurring
of boundary between dream and reality. Preoccupied w the unattainable eg antiquity,
foreign culture, supernatural, night, etc. Anti middle-class, indolent hippies. Matter
and mind are expressions of the same 'world spirit'. All of the world's mysterious
also lie within ourselves. Nature is a gradual transition from inanimate matter to life.
Universal Romantics were concerned w the universe and art. National Romantics
were concerned w history and culture. The artist and his work had similar relationship
w the world spirit and the universe.
Truth is subjective. All knowledge is human knowledge. The only
consistent reference point is history. Some things can be right or wrong on the
historical context. Reason is progressive. Three stages of knowledge are thesis,
antithesis (negation), and synthesis (resolution). Negation to Romanticism: the state
is greater than the individual.
Among the originators of existentialism.Reacted against Hegel
and Romantics' idealism w individualism. Critical of society's lack of commitment, esp
to Christianity. Hegelian objective truths were irrelevant to the individual; we must
find our own truth as an individual. Reasoned truths aren't important, but we must
have faith and passion in the important, personal truths like love and religion. There
are 3 stages to one can experience in life: aesthetic stage (live for the moment),
ethical stage (devotion to moral choices), religious stage (faith in Christianity)
Thought philosophy should have a practical/political objective. There is
dialectic relationship btwn the basis (material) and superstructure (ideas--art,
philosophy science, etc) in society, but there is no superstructure w/o basis.
The bases of society are conditions of production (resources and environment),
means of production (tools), and production relations (division of labour and
ownership). Morality is the product of base of society esp the ruling class. History and
superstructure are all driven by conflict btwn classes. Your job changes the way you
think and are. Capitalism is self-destructive; merely a stage towards Communism.
Biological evolution. If you don't know this you're retarded.
Invented psychoanalysis. There is a constant conflict btwn society's
demands and man's drives and urges (relegated to the unconscious).Our actions are
sometimes driven by irrational impulse. Our past exp we try to repress unconsciously
affects how we act. Pleasure principle: id; we seek pleasure. Reality principle: ego;
regulative function of repressing our desires. World's moral expectation: superego.
Dreams are repressed wish fulfillment. Unconscious expression shouldn't be fettered
The earliest Greek philosophers concerned with the natural
world and its processes.
Problem of Change
How could one substance suddenly change into something
Belief that human reason is the primary source of our knowledge of the
Belief in nothing but material things (describes Democritus).
Belief that whatever happens is predestined. (Ancient Greece thought
oracles predicted fates).
Herodotus & Thucydides
Greek historians, searched for natural explanations for
A group of itinerant teachers and philosophers from the Greek
colonies. "Sophist" literally means a wise and informed person. They were concerned
with man and his place in society and raised questions as to what was "natural" and
what was "socially induced".
Belief that it is unable to be said whether gods or a god exists.
A period of about 300 years of Greek-dominated culture in 3 kingdoms,
characterized by borders between various countries and cultures being erased and
mixture of phil+osophy and religion.
fusion of creeds prevalent during Hellenistic period.
practiced polytheism; valued sight as source of knowledge;
believed history to be cyclical (One Hundred Years of Solitude anyone?); origin of
Buddhism, Hinduism, and Greek philosophy.
deity exists in all things.
Jews. Monotheists. Linear view of history (there is a beginning and one
plan). Muslim and Jewish scripture are written in Semitic language. New Testament
is in Greek; influenced by Greek/Latin/Hellenist philosophy. Valued sound and
Problem of Evil
Whence cometh evil?
Institutional education begins (church-supported, like monasteries).
Theology and philosophy are inseparable. Salvation could only be attained through
Rebirth of classical culture/philosophy. Philosophy (science) and
religion branch. Humanistic (emphasis on the individual).
Break from the Catholic church: we don't need intercession from the
church to relate to God. Bible was translated from Latin to be more accessible.
Mechanistic world view
Materialistic. All change in the universe is calculable with
The history of the universe is predetermined by physics (human
thought is bound by physics too/free will is an illusion)j
Philosophy that is built from ground up trying to answer
central philosophical questions. Descartes, Spinoza, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and
Kant did this.
We know nothing except what we experience through senses.
To assume out of practicality.
Nietzsche, Sartre, Simone de Beauvoir. Philosophical approach of
taking man's existential situation as point of departure. What man is is left for him to
decide. Being free to make choices sucks bc we have to be responsible, but we can
choose to live "authentically".
Display of meaningless or ridiculous aspects of life to contrast meaning
in life we can be striving for.
Man is not on top of nature and we shouldn't act as such.
Treat others how you want to be treated
Philosophy of Mind, the position that mind and body are in some categorical way separate from each other, and that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical in nature.
the branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles of things, including abstract concepts such as being, knowing, substance, cause, identity, time, and space.
The study of knowledge, it includes the nature of knowledge and extent of human knowledge.
The foundation of modern Western philosophy rests with the ancient Greek Philosophers.
Period of time in which intellectual movement was the main focus. Were reason and individualism are before tradition.
Believes we exist in Gods mind
What does the rabbit in the hat represent?
The rabbit represents the universe and pulled out of a magician's hat, where the magician is God.
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