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179 terms

Psychology

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motivation
the drive to seek a goal, such as food, water, or friends
emotion
a state of the body causing feelings, such as of hope, love, or fear
set point
the body-regulating mechanism that determines a person's typical weight
goal
the target of a set of behaviors
drives
forces that push an organism into action to reach a goal
curiosity motive
a drive that moves a person to seek new and different things
manipulation motive
a drive that moves a person to handle and use objects in the environment
intrinsic motivation
motivation that comes from within the individual
extrinsic motivation
motivation that comes from outside the individual
contact comfort
the satisfaction obtained from pleasant, soft physical stimulation
Harry Harlow
Studied monkies; 2 fake mothers: wire mother with bottle and terry cloth mother; monkies ran to cloth mom when scared; contact comfort
hierarchy of needs
a system that ranks human needs one above the other, with most basic needs for physical survival at the bottom of the pyramid; proposed by psychologist Abraham Maslow; Phy, Safe, Bel,Self-e, Self-a
physiological needs
needs at the bottom of maslow's hierarchy: hunger and thirst
safety needs
needs at the second level of maslow's hierarchy: shelter, nest egg of money
belongingness needs
needs at the third level of maslow's hierarchy: friendship, closeness with another
self-esteem needs
needs at the fourth level of maslow's hierarchy: liking and respecting yourself, feeling important and useful
self-actualization needs
needs at the top of maslow's hierarchy: establishing meaningful goals and a purpose in life
opponent-process theory
theory that the presence of one emotion triggers its opposite, which then emerges somewhat later
emotional intelligence
the ability to properly feel, deal with, and recognize emotions
James-Lange theory
theory of emotion proposing that first the body responds and then one feels the emotion
Cannon-Bard theory
theory of emotion proposing that the bodily reaction and the emotional response to an event occur at the same time
cognitive theory
theory of emotion proposed by Stanley Schachter; it holds that people label a bodily response by giving it the name of the emotion they think they are feeling
classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov's method of conditioning, in which associations are made between a natural stimulus and a learned, neutral stimulus
stimulus
anything that elicits a response
response
a reaction to a stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that automatically elicits a response, as meat causes salivation
Unconditioned response
an automatic response to a particular natural stimulus, such as salivation to meat
Conditioned stimulus
a previously neutral stimulus that has been associated with a natural (or unconditioned) stimulus
Conditioned response
a response to a stimulus that is brought about by learning - for example, salivating at the word pickle; always the same as unconditioned response
stimulus generalization
process in which a response spreads from one specific stimulus to other stimuli that resemble the original
extinction
the gradual loss of an association over time
spontaneous recovery
the sudden reappearance of an extinguished response
operant conditioning
conditioning that results from the individual's actions and the consequences they cause; B.F. Skinner - bedroom pulley
reinforcement
something that follows a response and strengthens the tendency to repeat that response
primary reinforcement
something necessary for psychological or physical survival that is used as a reward
secondary reinforcement
anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer, such as money
positive reinforcement
reinforcement that involves strengthening the tendency to repeat a response by following it with the addition of something pleasant
negative reinforcement
reinforcement that involves strengthening a response by following it with the removal of something unpleasant
punishment
the process of weakening a response by following it with unpleasant consequences
generalization
a behavior that spreads from one situation to a similar one
discrimination learning
learning to tell the difference between one event or object and another; the reverse of generalization
shaping
the process of gradually refining a response by successively reinforcing closer approximations of it
chaining
reinforcing the connection between the parts of a sequence
schedules of reinforcement
different methods of reinforcing
variable ratio schedule
shedule in which reinforcement occurs after a desired act is performed a specific but variable number of times
fixed ratio schedule
schedule in which reinforcement occurs after a desired act is performed a fixed number of times
variable interval schedule
schedule in which reinforcement occurs after a desired act is performed following a variable amount of time
fixed interval schedule
schedule in which reinforcement occurs after a desired act is performed following a fixed amount of time
social learning
learning from the behavior of others; used by Albert Bandura
observational learning
a form a social learning in which the organism observes and imitates the behavior of others
cognitive approach
an approach to the study of learning that emphasizes abstract mental processes and previous knowledge
latent learning
learning that is not obvious but goes on under the surface
cognitive map
a mental image of where one is located in space
Personality
a person's broad, long-lasting patterns of behavior
psycholanalytic
a theory that personality is based on impulses and needs in the unconscious; Freud, Jung
unconscious
according to psychoanalytic belief, the part of the mind that is beyond consciousness. Although we are unaware of its contents, they strongly affect our behavior; Freud's term
free association
Freudian process in which a person says everything that appears in is or her mind, even if ideas or images seem unconnected
repression
the process of pushing the needs and desires that cause guilt into the unconscious; Freud
libido
Freudian term for internal energy forces that continuously seek discharge; Freud
id
Freudian psychological unit containing basic needs and drives
ego
Freudian psychological unit that is based in reality; the 'self' that allows controlled id expression within the boundaries set by the superego
superego
Freudian psychological unit roughly synonymous with the conscience
archetypes
Jung's term for inherited universal human concepts
collective unconscious
Jung's term for the portion of a person that contains ideas or archetypes (such as hero, mother, and so on) shared by the whole human race
persona
Jung's term for a 'mask' people wear to hide what they really are or feel
neo-Freudians
those psychoanalysts who broke away from Freud to emphasize social forces in the unconscious; Horney, Adler, Erickson
Behaviorism
a personality theory that focuses on overt acts or behaviors; Watson, Skinner, Bandura
reinforcements
events that follow responses and strengthen the tendency to repeat those responses
modeing
Bandura's term for learning by imitating others; Bandura
Humanism
a personality theory that emphasizes the positive potential of the person; Rogers, Maslow
Ideal self
Roger's term for the goal of each person's development; the self each person would like to be in
fully functioning individual
Roger's term for someone who has become what he or she should be
self-actualized
Maslow's term for the state of having brought to life the full potential of out skills
personality traits
more or less permanent personality chracteristics
cardinal traits
Allport's term for very strong personality characteristics that affect most of what a person does
central traits
Allport's term for personality traits that are highly characteristic of a person
secondary traits
Allport's term for weak personality traits that appear only on occasion
surface traits
Cattell's term for characteristics that can be easily observed by others
source traits
Cattell's term for personality traits that underlie surface behavior
Extraversion
Eysenck's term for the personality dimension of being outgoing and sociable
emotional stability
Eysenck's term for the personality dimension that concerns how much a person is affected by feelings
psychological test
systematic measure of what people know; how they act, think, and feel; or what their goals are
standardization
the process of developing clear directions for taking, scoring, and interpreting a test; describe how well a test is made
norms
patterns of test answers from different types of peoples; describe how well a test is made
validity
the extent of which a test measures what it is supposed to measure; describe how well a test is made
reliability
measure of a test's consistency; describe how well a test is made
personality inventory
a list of items about a person's beliefs, habits, needs, and desires; 1st kind of test
MMPI-2
latest version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the most widely used personality inventory
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
personality inventory most often used in schools
Projective tests
tests measuring inner feelings elicited by a vague stimulus, such as an ink blot or an unclear picture; 2nd kind of test
Rorschach test
an ink blot projective test developed by Hermann Roschach
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test using unclear pictures about which people make up stories
aptitude
one's special skills
aptitude tests
tests that measure one's special skills (in carpentry, medicine, and so forth); 3rd kind of test
achievement tests
tests that measure the amount of specific material remembered from the classroom; 4th kind of test
Scholastic assessment test (SAT)
test designed to measure ability to do college work
vocational interest test
a test that attempts to predict what occupational area an individual will like; 5th kind of test
strong-campbell interest inventory
the most widely used vocational interest test; based on answers of people successful in certain fields
halo effect
the situation in which a person who has one positive characteristic is assumed to have other positive traits; interviews
reverse halo
the situation in which a person with one negative characteristic is assumed to have other negative traits; interviews
standoutishness
doing or wearing something that is so startling it distracts observers from noticing one's real abilities; interviews
situational assessment
the process of looking at how the circumstances surrounding an event influence people responding to that event; interviews
frustration
the process by which we are blocked or hindered from reaching goals
conflict
a problem that demands a choice between alternatives
approach-approach conflict
a conflict involving a choice between 2 attractive alternatives
approach-avoidance conflict
a conflict involving a situation with both good and bad features
avoidance-avoidance conflict
a conflict involving a choice between 2 unattractive alternatives
double approach-avoidance conflict
a conflict involving a choice between alternatives, both of which have good and bad parts
anxiety
the feeling that something is wrong and disaster is imminent
stress
the physical strain that results from demands or changes in the environment
eustress
stress that motivates us to do something desirable
distress
stress that is overwhelming or that causes problems
type A personality
personality type associated with people who are always operating at full speed, are impatient, and are filled with distress
type B personality
personality type associated with people who are open to change, are flexible, enjoy life, and have low levels of stress
self-concepts
the images we have of ourselves
self-esteem
the degree to which we think we are worthwhile
defense mechanisms
psychological distortions we use to remain psychologically stable, or in balance
repression
the process of pushing a painful event or thought out of consciousness
denial
the process of refusing to admit that there is a problem
displacement
the process of venting our feelings on something or someone other than the true or original target
reaction formation
the process of expressing the opposite of what we feel
intellectualization
the process of removing our feelings about an event and discussing it in a coolly rational and unemotional way
projection
the process of attributing our thoughts to someone else
sublimation
the process of channeling emotional energy into constructive or creative activities
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM - IV)
a book published by the American Psychiatric Association that classifies the symptoms of mental disorders into formal categories
attention deficit /hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
a childhood disorder characterized by inattention, distractibility, impulsiveness, and/or excessive activity, and restlessness
autistic disorder
a childhood disorder characterized by a failure to develop normal patterns of communication, social interactions, and emotional responses
echolalia
an autistic system in which the person 'echoes,' or repeats, what has just been said
anxiety disorder
disorder whose major symptom is anxiety
panic disorder
a type of anxiety disorder characterized by frequent and overwhelming attacks of anxiety that are not associated with specific objects or events
phobic disorder
a type of anxiety disorder in which a person becomes disabled and overwhelmed by fear in the presence of certain objects or events. Examples include specific phobia and agoraphobia
specific phobia
a phobic disorder associated with a specific object or situation, such as snakes, dogs, elevators, and heights
agoraphobia
the fear of leaving a familiar environment, especially home
OCD
an anxiety disorder characterized by both thoughts (obsession) and ritualized, repetitive behavior (compulsion)
somatoform disorder
a condition in which psychological issues are expressed in bodily symptoms in the absence of any real physical problem
conversion disorder
a somatoform disorder in which a serious psychological trauma is changed into a symbolic physical dysfunction
hypochondriasis
a somatoform disorder characterized by feeling excessive concern about one's health and exaggerating the seriousness of minor physical complaints
dissociative disorder
disorders in which memory of a part of one's life becomes disconnected from other parts; amnesia, fugue, and dissociative identity disorder are examples
amnesia
a dissociative disorder in which traumatic events seem to disappear from memory
selective forgetting
forgetting only things that are very traumatic
fugue
a dissociative disorder in which a person forgets his or her current life and starts a new one somewhere else
dissociative identity disorder
a dissociative identity disorder in which a person divides himself or herself into separate personalities that can act independently
mood disorders
disorders characterized by emotional states; include depression and mania
dysthymic disorder
a mood disorder involving a moderate depression
major depression
severe depression; involves loss of appetite, lack of energy, hopelessness, and suicidal thoughts
mania
a mood disorder involving extreme agitation, restlessness, rapid speech, and trouble concentrating
flight of ideas
a confusing state in which thoughts and speech go in all directions with no unifying concept
bipolar disorder
a mood disorder involving high and low moods
learned helplessness
a condition in which a person has accepted the generalized idea that he or she can do nothing to help himself or herself
serotonin
a brain chemical. Levels that are too high lead to mania; levels that are too low lead to depression
psychosis
a severe mental disorder that may involve disorganized thought processes, hallucinations, delusions, and major problems with emotional responses
thought disorder
a serious distortion in the ability to think or speak in a lucid and coherent way
hallucinating
the act of seeing or hearing something that is not present
delusion
a belief in something that is clearly not true
schizophrenia
a psychosis involving disorganized thoughts and garbled speech as well as hallucinations and delusions; the most serious mental disorder
catatonic schizophrenia
type of schizophrenia characterized by disturbances of movement
paranoid schizophrenia
type of schizophrenia marked by strong feelings of suspiciousness and persecution
undifferentiated schizophrenia
schizophrenia that lacks distinguishing symptoms
psychotic episodes
periods of psychotic behavior; they can alternate with periods of relative coherence and calm
personality disorder
a disorder in which a person has formed a peculiar or unpleasant personality
antisocial personality disorder
a personality disorder in which the person seems to have no conscience and is in constant conflict with the law
sociopath
a person with antisocial personality disorder
borderline personality disorder
a personality disorder marked by unstable emotions and relationships, dependency, and manipulative, self-destructive behavior
counseling psychologist
psychologists who deal mostly with problems not fitting into the formal classifications of mental disturbance
clinical psychologists
psychologists who deal with emotional problems of any kind, including those fitting into the formal classifications of mental disturbance
psychiatrists
medical doctors with special training in mental disorders
psychiatric social workers
mental health workers with a degree in social work; help patients and families deal with problems
psychiatric nurses
registered nurses with special education in psychiatric medicine
psychotherapies
broad term for any method used to try to help people with emotional and psychological problems
psychoanalysis
therapy practiced by followers of Freud, who analyze the psyche via the unconcious
transference
the process in which a person transfers emotional conflicts of earlier years onto the thrapist
humanistic therapies
therapies that emphasize the individual's ability to heal himself or herself with some assitance
person-centered therapy
Rogers's humanistic approach; reflects the belief that the person and his or her therapist are partners in therapy
unconditional positive regard
a principle of humanistic therapy in which the person's feelings and thoughts are accepted for whatever they are; Roger's term
behavioral therapy
therapy that uses principals of learning to alter the person's actions actions or behavior
systematic desensitization
a behavioral technique in which the therapist increases that patient's anxiety and counters it with relaxation in a graduated sequence
aversive conditioning
a behavioral technique in which unpleasantness is associated with acts that are to be avoided
token economy
a behavioral technique in which rewards for desired acts are accumulated through tokens, which represent a form of money
rational-emotive therapy (RET)
Albert Ellis's form of cognitive behavioral therapy; aimed at getting emotions under control by using reason