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euro quiz 3
Terms in this set (37)
opposition to the clergy
the clerical practice of holding more than one church benefice (or office) at the same time and enjoying the income from each
a document issued by the Catholic Church lessening penance or time in purgatory, widely believed to bring forgiveness of all sins
the name originally given to Lutherans, which came to mean all non-Catholic Western Christian groups
the fleet sent by Philip II of Spain in 1588 against England as a religious crusade against Protestantism; weather and the English fleet defeated it
reformer whose religious ideas inspired English Puritans, Scotch Presbyterians, French Huguenots, and Dutch Reformed
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
Calvin's formulation of Christian doctrine, which became a systematic theology for Protestantism.
the teaching that God has determined the salvation or damnation of individuals based on his will and purpose, not on their merit or works; Calvinistic principle
an official Roman Catholic agency founded in 1542 to combat international doctrinal heresy and to promote sound doctrine on faith and morals
members of the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola, whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith; they kept strict vows of poverty, obedience & chastity; also education rich & poor males alike
Catholic and Protestant moderates who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse. They overlooked religious differences to make a stronger state.
Edict of Nantes
a document issued by Henry IV of France in 1598, granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists, which helped restore peace in France
Union of Utrecht
the alliance of seven northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands
a German university professor and priest who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 Theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices; translated New Testament into German
Albert of Mainz
archbishop who borrowed from the Austrian Fuggars to buy his office; he was authorized by Pope Leo X to sell indulgences to repay his debts; received a letter from Martin Luther, in which was enclosed his 95 Theses.
Dominican Friar who was famous for selling indulgences
Diet of Worms in 1521
an assembly of the nobility, clergy and cities of the Holy Roman Empire called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V; Luther's ideas were here expressed to a large audience
Swiss theologian whose sermons began the Reformation in Switzerland (1484-1531)
5 major conflicts between Catholics & Protestants
salvation; religious authority; leadership/pope; monastic vs. secular life; the Eurcharist (communion)
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
German Peasants' War
in 1525, peasants revolted in parts of Europe, because of crop failures and the nobles kept the taxes high.
Council of Trent
a council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation; clarified the Roman Catholic doctrine and abolished various ecclesiastical abuses and strengthened the papacy
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563); Catholic
King Christian III
(r. 1523-1560) King of Denmark-Norway, the first area outside the empire to officially accept the Reformation
Queen who succeeded Edward VI (son of Henry VIII) and attempted to return Catholicism to England by persecuting Protestants.
Mary, Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Queen Elizabeth I of England; she allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England; Elizabeth had her beheaded.
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300; after the fall of the Byzantine Empire, it was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922; it encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe
Sir Francis Drake
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
Peace of Augsburg
a treaty between Charles V and the German Protestant princes that granted legal recognition of Lutheranism in Germany/Holy Roman Empire.
this was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism; several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
a religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution.
Teresa of Avila
a Carmelite nun; aided in the reform of monastic life by making poverty & obedience essential, allowing no visitors in the convent, & creating egalitarianism among nuns
founded the Ursuline Order of Nuns in the 1530s; attained prestige for the education of women
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in 1572 organized by Catherine de Medici
a challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values; any movement against the religious use of images
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