92 terms

Comer Ch. 5-6

The cognitive perspective of panic disorder suggests that its sufferers:
may be overly sensitive to bodily sensation
What disorder may also develop along with panic disorder?
which type of drugs have been most helpful in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder?
antidepressants that affect the serotonin system
What type of psychotherapist would tell a patient being treated for a cleaning compulsion to resist the urge to mop his bathroom floor for a week?
What type of psychotherapist would tell a patient being treated for fearful obsessive thoughts to think those thoughts as frequently as possible?
Which neurotransmitter system may be irregular in people suffering from panic disorder?
Which psychological perspective believes that people develop their compulsions as a result of random coincidence?
Abnormal functioning in which areas of the brain has been linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder?
rbitofrontal cortex and the caudate nuclei
The most common theme of obsessive thoughts is:
dirt or contamination.
This type of therapy tries to help clients suffering from anxiety by providing empathy and genuine acceptance.
client-centered therapy
The ____________ perspective suggests that one way of acquiring a fear reaction that may turn into a phobia is through modeling, that is, through observation and imitation.
To qualify for a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, the excessive or ongoing anxiety or worry must last for at least ____ .
six months
o qualify for a DSM-IV diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, a person must have suffered recurrent obsession or compulsions with significant distress or impairment lasting for more than _______________.
one hour a day
A fear hierarchy is a
list of feared objects or situations.
What suggestion is shared by both the metacognitive theory and the avoidance theory of generalized anxiety disorder?
that worrying serves some sort of positive function for the sufferer
Social phobia can be broken down into which of the following qualifiers?
narrow or broad
_______________ are a family of antianxiety medication that include diazepam (Valium) and alprazolam (Xanax).
People with __________ are tormented by fear and related symptoms well after a traumatic event has ended.
posttraumatic stress disorder
he idea that human beings are prepared to acquire some phobias and not others is a ________________ perspective
According to humanistic theorists, people develop generalized anxiety disorder when
They repeatedly deny their true thoughts, emotions and behavior
According to Sigmund Freud, children experience ________________ when they are repeatedly prevented from expressing their id impulses.
neurotic anxiety
ccording to the biological perspective, malfunctioning of which neurotransmitter system contributes to generalized anxiety disorder?
Fear of venturing into public places is known as:
What perspective maintains that generalized anxiety disorder develops as a result of exposure to threatening environments?
Which of the following is not a type of anxiety disorder?
bipolar disorder
The distress experienced by people with ______________ is sometimes described as free-floating anxiety.
generalized anxiety disorder
The most widely applied method of biofeedback for the treatment of anxiety disorders is the
Which treatment is most consistently effective in treating social phobias?
No single approach is consistently effective in treating social phobias.
According to psychodynamic theorists, what three defense mechanisms are involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder?
isolation, undoing, and reaction formation
In ____________, the therapist confronts the feared object or situation while the person suffering from the phobia observes.
vicarious conditioning
n _______________, researchers produce panic in subjects or clients by administering drugs or by instructing them to breathe, exercise, or simply think in certain ways.
antianxiety medication
The state of stress has two components:
stressor and stress response.
Psychologists have found that differences in which type of anxiety may appear soon after birth?
trait anxiety
When we encounter a stressor, the _____________ nervous system accelerates the automatic processes in our body, and after the stressor is over, the ___________ nervous system returns us to normal functioning.
sympathetic; parasympathetic
The heightened biochemical arousal of posttraumatic stress victims may eventually damage which parts of their brain?
hippocampus and amygdala
Glands release ________ into the bloodstream.
The area of study that links stress and illness to the bodys immune system is known as:
The most helpful treatment of pain is:
Which technique has shown to help people gain control over involuntary bodily activities and has helped in the treatment of such conditions as asthma, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, and pain from burns?
Symptoms after a traumatic event that last for ____ may be diagnosed as acute stress disorder.
less than one month
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a form of _________ therapy
Some studies have suggested that cancer patients with higher amounts of __________ have better immune system functioning and, in turn, more successful recoveries.
social support
Which of the following terms was used to describe symptoms of severe anxiety and depression experienced during World War II and the Korean War?
combat fatigue
Which of the following is not listed in the DSM-IV as a method of reexperiencing traumatic events by one suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder?

The __________________ assigns numerical values to stresses that most people experience at some time in their lives
Social Adjustment Rating Scale
Which group of lymphocytes produces antibodies?
The hypothalamus activates which two bodily systems?
autonomic nervous system and endocrine system
he key psychological stress disorders are:
posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress
Dread and horror are part of the ______ responses to stress.
When stimulated by antigens, ______________ spring into action to help the body overcome foreign invaders
he neurotransmitter associated with the fight-or-flight response is
norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Donald is a very competitive individual. He is always in a hurry, does not ever stop to just enjoy what he has earned, and frequently seems to have too much to do and too little time in which to do it. Donald might be described as having a _____________ personality
type A- people with this style are said to be consistently angry, cynical, driven, impatient, competitive and ambitious
Type B personality style
personality style opposite of Type A where people are more relaxed, less aggressive and less concerned about time. They are less likely to experience cardiovascular deterioration
When people are confronted with stressors, the hypothalamus signals the ________ gland to release the adrenocorticotropic hormone.
the vague sense of being in danger
Generalized anxiety disorder
general and persistent feelings of worry and anxiety
Panic disorder
people have recurrent attacks of terror
people experience a persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity or situation
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
people feel overrun by recurrent thoughts that cause anxiety or by the need to perform repetitive actions to reduce anxiety
cognitive perspective
suggests that psychological problems are often caused by dysfunctional ways of thinking
avoidance theory
people have greater bodily arousal than other people and that worrying actually serves to reduce this arousal
The leading biological approach to treating generalized anxiety disorder is:
drug therapy
human beings, theoretically are "prepared" to acquire some phobias and not others
psychology debriefing
a form of crisis intervention that has victims of trauma talk extensively
According to Freud, children who face actual danger experience __________ anxiety
When a person engages in repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts because they feel they must perform them in order to prevent or reduce anxiety, they are engaging in __________
. __________ are persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that seem to invade a person's consciousness.
Dr. Werthol observes that in many of his clients with anxiety problems, there seems to be a very serious intolerance of __________, which means that the clients believe that any possibility of a negative event occurring, no matter how slim, means that the event is likely to occur.
uncertainty theory
Some behaviorists suggest that specific phobias can lead to more widespread anxiety through a process called stimulus __________, where responses to one stimulus are also elicited by similar stimuli
In __________ a client is given information about electrical signals in the body so (s) he can learn to control these physiological responses voluntarily
EMG (electromyograph)
Little Eli is only two years old, but already his father has started giving him light spankings whenever he raises his voice or does not obey when he is told to do something. The fear and worry that Eli develops would be categorized as __________ anxiety according to the psychodynamic perspective
moral anxiety- when children are punished or threatened for expressing their id impulses
Giselle often experiences periodic, short bursts of anxiety that occur suddenly, peak with in ten minutes, and then gradually pass. Her attacks are often accompanied by physical symptoms that are similar to a heart attack, and she sometimes thinks she is about to die during these attacks. Giselle would best be diagnosed with __________ disorder
Vanna has difficulty leaving her house, because she has a terrible fear that she may do something stupid in public that will cause her intense embarrassment. Because these symptoms interferes significantly with Vanna's life, she might be diagnosed as suffering from a(n)
__________ phobia
Social Phobia
rational-emotive therapy
points out the irrational assumptions held by clients, suggests more appropriate assumptions, and assigns homework that helps the client practice this 'assumption substitution' on his or her own
People who engage in __________ perform acts that are meant to erase or "cancel out" their unacceptable or undesirable wishes or impulses
Katarina has noticed lately that she seems to be anxious and uptight no matter where she is. When she is at home, she worries about things at work. When she is at work, she worries about things at school. When she is in class, she worries about things at home. If she visits a therapist, she might be diagnosed with __________ anxiety disorder
__________ is a Freudian ego defense mechanism in which a person suppresses an
unacceptable desire or impulse by taking on a lifestyle that expresses the opposite desire
According to __________ theorists, generalized anxiety disorder is more likely to develop in people who are faced with conditions that are truly dangerous. In fact, research has found that those who live in highly threatening environments are more likely to develop feelings of tension, anxiety, fatigue, and increased startle response
The constant and nonspecific worry that people with generalized anxiety disorder experience is something described as free-__________ anxiety because it seems like a cloud of worry is always hovering over the sufferer
Systematic desensitization, flooding, and modeling are all approaches that are forms of __________ therapy, because in all of them individuals are encouraged to face the objects or situations that cause them anxiety
Norma's mother and father constantly forbid her from doing things that give her pleasure. She is not allowed to run around, make noise, play with toys the way she wants to, and generally indulge her id impulses. According to the psychodynamic perspective, Normal is likely to develop __________ anxiety
A state of immediate alarm that is experienced when a person is faced with a serious threat to their well-being is called
One behavioral-evolutionary explanation of phobias suggests that human beings are biologically wired to be afraid of certain things, particularly stimuli that can be hazardous or even life-threatening. This concept is known as __________
Albert Ellis proposed that many people are guided by believes that cause them to act and react in inappropriate ways. He called these basic __________ assumptions and claimed that they are commonly held by people with generalized anxiety disorder
basic irrational assumptions
PTSD, a serious stress-related disorder often experienced by combat veterans, has been referred to by many names in the past. It was called "__________" during World War I, and "combat fatigue" during World War II and the Korean War
shell shocked
Immediately after the attacks in New York on September 11, 2001, teams of clinicians and counselors were on hand to conduct critical incident stress __________, which is a form of crisis intervention that has victims talk extensively about their feelings and reactions to highly traumatic and stressful events.
psychology defriefing
The individual reactions a person has to demands or opportunities that require us to change are referred to as their stress ________
Jamilla was driving down the street when a small dog suddenly ran out in front of her. Her body immediately responded by releasing adrenaline, increasing her pulse and respiratory rates, and causing the pupils of her eyes to dilate. These involuntary processes are controlled by the __________ nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
__________ is a general term that refers to a chronic state of high blood pressure, and can be extremely serious, leading to other conditions such as stroke, kidney problems, and coronary heart disease
Debra was in a very serious car accident last week, and is now suffering from nightmares, flashbacks, and other stress-related symptoms. Because her condition has lasted less than one month, the best diagnosis for her problem would be __________ stress disorder
acute stress disorder
Any event that creates demands or opportunities that require us to change in some manner is referred to as a __________.
A form of behavioral therapy that teaches an individual to lower their physical arousal and maintain and enhance a calm and tranquil state is called __________ training
relaxation training