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Applied Behavior Analysis - Chapter 2
Cooper, Heron, Heward
Terms in this set (53)
An environmental condition or stimulus change existing or occurring prior to a behavior of interest.
automaticity of reinforcement
Refers to the fact that behavior is modified by its consequences irrespective of the person's awareness; a person does not have to recognize or verbalize the relation between her behavior and a reinforcing consequence, or even know that a consequence has occurred, for reinforcement to "work."
an unpleasant or noxious stimulus
A stimulus change or condition that functions to evoke a behavior that has terminated it in the past, as a punisher when presented following behavior, and/or as a reinforcer when withdrawn following behavior.
the activity of living organisms, includes everything that people do.
behavior change tactic
A technologically consistent method for changing behavior derived from one or more principles of behavior; possesses sufficient generality across subjects, settings, and/or behaviors to warrant its codification and dissemination.
A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers.
A learned stimulus-response functional relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the response it elicits (e.g salivation)
A stimulus change that functions as a reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more other reinforcers
Stimulus component of a conditioned reflex: a formerly neutral stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior only after it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus or another CS
A stimulus change that follows a behavior of interest.
Refers to dependent and/or temporal relations between operant behavior and its controlling variables.
Describes reinforcement (or punishment) that is delivered only after the target behavior has occurred.
The state of an organism with respect to how much time has elapsed since it has consumed or contacted a particular type of reinforcer
An operant that occurs more frequently under some antecedent conditions than under others.
a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced
Where the organism or referenced part of the organism exists; behavior cannot occur in the absence of environment.
The discontinuing of a reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior.
the decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus
Development of a conditioned reflex by pairing of a neutral stimulus (NS) with a conditioned stimulus (CS). Also known as secondary conditioning.
history of reinforcement
An inclusive term referring in general to all of a person's learning experiences and more specifically to past conditioning with respect to particular response classes or aspects of a person's repertoire.
An environmental variable that alters the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of some stimulus, object, or event; and alters the current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced or punished by that stimulus, object, or event
a stimulus whose termination functions as reinforcement
A stimulus change that does not elicit respondent behavior.
The history of development of an individual organism during its lifetime.
Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control by its consequences
The basic process by which operant learning occurs; consequences result in an increased (reinforcement) or decreased (punishment)frequency of the same type of behavior under similar motivational conditions in the future.
The history of the natural evolution of a species
Occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of a stimulus that increases the future frequency of the behavior in similar conditions.
principle of behavior
A statement describing a functional relation between behavior and one or more of its controlling variables with generality across organisms, species, settings, behaviors, and time.
A stimulus change that decreases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
Occurs when stimulus change immediately follows a response and decreases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
A stimulus-response relation consisting of an antecedent stimulus and the respondent behavior it elicits
Occurs when a stimulus change immediately follows a response and increases the future frequency of that type of behavior in similar conditions.
A stimulus change that increases the future frequency of behavior that immediately precedes it.
All of the behaviors a person can do; or a set of behaviors relevant to a particular setting or task.
The response component of a reflex; behavior that is elicited, or induced, by antecedent stimuli.
A stimulus-stimulus pairing procedures in which a neutral stimulus is presented with an unconditioned stimulus until the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that elicits the conditioned response.
The repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus; the CS gradually loses its ability to elicit the conditioned response until the conditioned reflex no longer appears in the individual's repertoire.
A single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior.
A group of responses of varying topography, all of which produce the same effect on the environment.
A decrease in the frequency of operant behavior presumed to be the result of continued contact with or consumption of a reinforcer that has followed the behavior.
selection by consequences
The fundamental principle underlying operant conditioning; all forms of operant behavior, from simple to complex, are selected, shaped, and maintained by their consequences during an individual's lifetime.
An energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells.
A group of stimuli that share specified common elements along formal, temporal, and/or functional dimensions.
A situation in which the frequency, latency, duration, or amplitude of a behavior is altered by the presence or absence of an antecedent stimulus.
A procedure in which two stimuli are presented at the same time, usually repeatedly for a number of trials, which often results in one stimulus acquiring the function of the other stimulus.
The basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior; encompasses the temporal and possibly dependent relations among an antecedent stimulus, behavior, and consequence.
A stimulus change that decreases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus.
A stimulus change that increases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus.
The stimulus component of an unconditioned reflex; a stimulus change that elicits respondent behavior without any prior learning.
physical shape or form of behavior
the environment influences behavior primarily by:
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Applied Behavior Analysis - Chapter 1
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