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insy test 3
Terms in this set (78)
- a company which does most of its business on the internet
relocating business processes such as development and production to lower cost locations in other countries. A business decision to move all or part of a company's operations overseas to minimize costs
the use of components or labor from outside suppliers. A decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers.
Analyzes a company's data to determine the most effective way to collect and store it
Designs and tests new hardware products such as computer chips, circuit boards, computers and peripheral devices
Creates documentation for large programming projects and write the online or printer user manuals that accompany computers, peripheral devices and software
Takes a disciplined approach to developing software that is reliable efficient affordable user friendly and scalable
Network Specialist/ Administrator
Plans, installs and maintains one or more local area networks. These specialists also provide network accounts and access rights to approved users
VAR Value Added Reseller
Combines commercially available products with specialty hardware or software to create a computer system that can meet the needs of a specific industry.
Contains information that is outside normal acceptable ranges. A report automatically produced when a situation is unusual or requires management action.
Combines, groups, or totals data. A report that summarizes data in some fashion (such as a total of the day's concession sales at an amusement park). Also known as a summary data report.
Ad hoc report
A customized report, generated to supply specific information not available in scheduled reports. Sometimes called a demand report.
Processes the shopper's request as they proceed to the virtual checkout counter
Decision Support System
Helps people made decisions be directly manipulating data, analyzing data from external sources, generating statistical projections and creating data models of various scenarios. An interactive, flexible computerized information system that enables managers to obtain and manipulate information as they are making decisions.
DELAYED METHOD: collect and hold a group of transactions until the end of a day or pay period, when the entire batch is processed
REAL TIME METHOD: online transaction processing system, uses a commit or rollback strategy to ensure that each transaction is processed correctly.
A software tool containing an inference engine and a user interface that developers use to enter facts and rules for knowledge base. Computerized advisory programs that imitate the reasoning processes of experts in solving difficult problems.
computer architecture in which processors are connected in a manner suggestive of connections between neurons
Program Evaluation and review technique - A program that can analyze how long the time needed to complete each project task and can identify the minimum amount of time needed to complete the total project. Its diagram uses arrows to map the sequence of tasks in a project
Work breakdown structure - Breaks a complex task into a series of subtasks. The hierarchy of tasks is typically shown as a hierarchical diagram, but it can also be formatted as a simple outline. It can be activity oriented to list tasks or deliverable oriented to list project milestones.
Uses bars to show the timing of development tasks as they occur over time. Each bar on the chart represents a task; the length of a bar indicates the tasks expected duration.
System Developmental Life Cycle - An information system progressed through several phases as it is developed, used and finally retired. These phases encompass a system development life cycle.
justification for new system
what needs to be done
CREATING A DESIGN TO FIGURE OUT HOW IT WILL BE DONE
TAKING THAT DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTING IT INTO A PROGRAM
involves day to day operations and modifications.
Centralized vs. Distributed Processing
Centralized processing - in which data is processed on a centrally located computer, leads to security problems, more powerful computer Distributed processing - processing tasks are distributed to servers and workstations, client/ server p2p because it has high levels of processing power at low costs
make sure each module of the application software works correctly step 1. Tests individual units or pieces of code for a system
that all the modules work together step 2. Testing that occurs between unit and system testing to test functionally grouped components to ensure a subset(s) of the entire system works together
ensures that modules function with hardware and software step 3. Testing the entire system as one entity to ensure that it is working properly
Collection of information. This is usually stored as a computer files. It can be used in a variety of ways, from simple tool for collecting and tracking data, to a comprehensive source for making decisions and predicting future trends. A collection of organized data that allows access, retrieval, and use of data.
Centralizes the organization's data into a common database that is shared by other users. Access is controlled by a database management system (DBMS).
Uses a mesh like structure to offer many to many relationships.
Stores a collection of data of related tables.
object oriented database
Stores data as objects that cn be grouped into classes and defined by attributes and methods
object relational database
Combines relational and O-O database methods. Organized as multiple tables like a relational database, however it has the flexibility to use codes to access the different tables.
Database Management System; a program that organizes data in a database, providing information storage, organization, and retrieval capacities.
The data accessed by data mining and other analysis techniques is often stored which is repository for data form more than one database. A logical collection of information - gathered from many different operational databases - that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks.
This refers to the process of analyzing existing database information to discover previously unknown and potentially useful information, including relationships and patterns. Data processing using sophisticated data search capabilities and statistical algorithms to discover patterns and correlations in large preexisting databases
the last number in a counting sequence indicates the quantity of items in a set
A markup language that allows field tags, data and tables to be incorporated into a web document. Extensible Markup Language, a way of writing data in a tree-structured form by enclosing it in tags.
This helps database designers create a database structure that can save storage space and increase processing efficiency. The goal of normalization is to minimize data redundancy- the amount of data that is repeated or duplicated in a database
The field selected as a unique identifier for the database.
A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
Structured Query Language - A programming and query language common to many large scale database systems
generate a table
add a record
change data in a field
remove data from a field
search for a record
allows you to access multiple tables
High Level Language
uses command words and grammar based on human languages to provide what computer scientists call a level of abstraction that hides the underlying low level assembly or machine language
Low Level language
typically includes commands specific to a particular CPU or microprocessor family
1 2 3 4 5 languages
1. Machine languages. 2. Assembly language
3. High level languages 4. Close to human or natural language 5. Based on declarative programming paradigm.
A part of a design brief that clearly and concisely identifies a client's or target consumer's problem, need, or want.
A set of steps for carrying out a task that can be written down and implemented. For instance the algorithm for making a cheesecake is set of steps that include... it is written down or expressed like a recipe instructions
Variable vs. constant
Number in a program that can possibly change. Constant - Number in a program that will always be the same.
GoTo vs. GoSub
GoTo: Command, directs the computer to a different part of the program. GoSub: Command, directs the computer to a different section of the program, this statement jumps to a line elsewhere in the program. That line and the following lines up to a return are used as a simple subroutine.
occurs when an instruction does not follow the syntax rules or grammar of the programming languages. Syntax Errors are the result of a mistake in the program language. Occur due to violations to the programming language rules. Will not compile.
Run time errors
The name shows up when you run a program. Some run-time errors result from instructions that the computer can execute like DiscountPrice= RegularPrice/0 produces a runtime error because dividing by 0 is a mathematically impossible operation that the commuter cannot perform. Occurs when the code is trying to do something that cannot be performed by the processor. Can be prevented with error checking code. Will compile but not until runtime that error occurs.
An error in the logic or design of a program, such as using the wrong formula to calculate the area around pizza. A mistake the programmer has made. Will compile. Not going to shut down program. Will produce unexpected or incorrect results.
Pseudocode/ Structured English
A notational system for algorithms that combines English and a programming language.
A diagram that shows different paths a program will take depending on what data is inputted.
Programming Control Structures
+Selection - Tells a computer what to do based on whether a condition is true or false.
+Repetition - Controls a computer to repeat an instruction until a certain condition is met.
+Sequence Control Structures - changes the orders in which instructions are carried out by directing the computer to execute and instruction elsewhere in the program
represent a model or an abstraction of real world entities. A unit of data that represents an abstract or real world entity.
template for a group of similar objects with similar characteristics
a classification of object types, denoting objects as the instantiations of classes (class is like a blueprint, the object is what is built from the blue print) interrelating the various classes by relationships such as "inherits", "extends", "is an abstraction of", "an interface definition".
A segment of code that defines an action
Refers to passing certain characteristics form one class to other classes. Hierarchy - The organization of classes in a hierarchical tree where each "parent" class is a superclass and each "child" class is a subclass. See also inheritance
The ability to redefine a method in a subclass. It allows programmers to create a single, genetic name for a procedure that behaves in unique ways for different classes
Grouping objects along with their attributes and methods into a class
Tells a computer what to do, based on whether a condition is true or false. Simple examples are IF....THEN....else command
Directs the computer to repeat one or more instructions until a certain condition is met. Some of the most frequently used repetition commands are FOR...NEXT,DO....WHILE,DO...UNTIL,and While...When
form of polymorphism where you have the same method defined with different signatures.
form of metamorphism where you have the same method redefined in different levels of a class hierarchy.