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Pain (vocabulary only best on random with the definitions first)
Terms in this set (39)
International Society for the Study of Pain says "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in such terms".
a vital, protective mechanism that permits us to live in an environment fraught with potential dangers. Rare cases of congenitally absent nociceptors show continuous environmental injuries and self mutilation usually resulting in death at a very young age.
- Pain which lasts beyond the ordinary duration for time that an insult or injury to the body needs to heal (between 4-6 wk and 3 months).
Chronic pain syndrome
no longer a symptom but a disease state. A condition of chronic pain often disproportionate to physical findings, associated with interference in function or coping in daily life (professional, social).
perception of nociceptive input in terms of tissue damage, either somatic or visceral.
arises from damage to body tissues. Well localized but variable in description and experience.
arises from viscera and is mediated by stretch receptors. Poorly localized, deep, full, and cramping, e.g. appendicitis, cholecystitis, pleurisy.
arises from abnormal neural activity secondary to disease or injury of the nervous system. It persists in the absence of ongoing disease. Examples include diabetic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, thalamic pain syndrome.
disturbance of function or pathologic changes in a nerve. Mononeuropathy in one nerve. Mononeuropathy multiplex in several nerves. Polyneuropathy in symmetric bilateral nerves.
a disturbance of function or pathologic changes in one or more nerve roots. Ex: Damage at the level of the 6th cervical nerve root presents as weakness and paresthesia of the thumb.
central pain syndrome
abnormal CNS activity (phantom limb pain, pain from spinal cord injury, post-stroke pain).
pain perceived at a site other than the site of tissue damage. Sclero/Myo/Dermatomal.
sympathetically mediated pain
pain that is mediated or maintained by norepinephrine secreted by the SNS, often due to nerve injury and associated with autonomic changes (CRPS). A sympathetic nerve block (ex: stellate ganglion block) terminates the pain.
non sympathetically mediated neuropathy
peripheral nerve damage without autonomic change (post-herpetic neuralgia, neuroma formation).
somatiform disorders (DSM 4)
presence of physical symptoms suggesting a medical condition despite the lack of any organic or physical findings. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. They do not appear to be under voluntary control. These diagnoses must be made with caution, especially given the incomplete knowledge about the physical bases of pain condition. For example, individual nociceptive cells in the dorsal horn respond to stimulation from receptor fields that are much wider than a single dermatome, and there is a certain plasticity in the nervous system that can result in alteration in the presence of persistent pain.
polysymptoms disorder involving multiple organ systems and often accompanied by a belief that one is sickly. High utilization of medical resources. Presentation is often overly dramatic, but vague, imprecise or inconsistent history.
pain, numbness and weakness is the triad. Often there is an unconscious conflict or motivation and a temporal relation between a psychosocial stressor and onset of symptoms. In up to 30% of cases, patients do eventually develop a diagnosable physical disorder.
preoccupation with a disease state - either fear that you have it or misinterpretation of bodily sensations/function leading to the belief that a serious condition exists. The preoccupation results in significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of function.
are intentionally created on the part of the patient (either producing or faking symptoms) in order to assume the sick role.
also intentional, but the motivation is often external incentives - financial compensation, avoiding work, evading prosecution, obtaining drugs.
somatic symptom disorder (DSM 5)
somatoform disorders are now referred to as somatic symptom and related disorders - the presence of somatic symptoms plus abnormal thoughts, feelings and behaviors in a person who may or may not have a diagnosed medical condition.
a process by which a painful stimulus elicits a decreasing response
a process by which pain becomes sustained by modulation of factors within the PNS and/or CNS.
decrease or absence of pain in response to stimulation that would normally be painful.
an agent that produces analgesia. This may be a pharmacologic agent such as an opioid, or a nonpharmacologic method such as a TENS unit.
derived from the opium poppy, including opium.
natural and synthetic derivatives of opiates, including opium or OxyContin.
substances that produce narcosis, legal definition includes opioids and cocaine. Not a useful medical term.
Drugs used in pain management that may or may not have intrinsic analgesic properties. However, they provide pain relief in certain pain syndromes or potentiate the common analgesics such as opioids.
increasing doses are required to elicit the same initial effect.
withdrawal symptoms develop with abrupt withdrawal of the substance (or administration of an antagonist).
primary chronic neurobiological disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its manifestation. Characterized by cravings, compulsive, uncontrolled use of a substance, resulting in physical, psychological or social harm to the user, and continued drug use despite negative consequences (even if acute use is associated with pleasant or euphoric effects).
pattern of drug-seeking behavior of patients with pain receiving inadequate pain management that can be mistaken for addiction (concerns about availability, 'clock watching', unsanctioned dose escalation).
pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain. Ex: a wisp on sunburn.
perception of more pain in response to a noxious stimulus than would normally be evoked by that stimulus.
increased sensitivity to sensory stimulation (painful or otherwise).
explosive response to normally painful stimulus.
abnormal sensation in the distribution of a nerve. Ex:Tinel sign, pins and needles.
abnormal and unpleasant sensation in the distribution of a nerve.
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