The pinna of the ear consists of what two main parts?
Auricle & Lobule
The ear is what kind of receptor?
The ear performs two major sensory functions. What are they?
Hearing & Balance
What structure separates the external ear from the middle ear?
Name the three ear ossicles.
Malleus, Incus, & Stapes
From the following choices, select the function of the cochlea. (Static balance / Taste / Hearing / Dynamic balance)
What area is found between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani?
What is the name of the nerve that takes information about balance and hearing to the brain?
What units are used to measure sound energy?
What part of the inner ear is involved in perceiving static balance?
Name the parts of the ear that might be impaired if a person demonstrates conduction deafness.
Tympanic membrane or the ear ossicles
What two diagnostic tests are used to determine conduction deafness?
Wever test & Rinne test
What is the name of the tube that runs from the auricle to the tympanic membrane?
The auditory tube connects what two cavities?
Tympanic cavity to the nasopharynx
What tube is responsible for the equalization of pressure when you change elevation?
What is the name of the space that encloses the ear ossicles?
Place the ear ossicles in sequence from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.
Malleus, Incus, & Stapes
Name all the parts of the inner ear.
Cochlea, Vestibule, & Semicircular canals
Background noise affects hearing tests. In the ticking watch test or audiometer test, what kind of result, in terms of auditory sensitivity, would you have recorded if moderate background noise were present?
The subject would not have been able to perceive the ticking sound as easily; therefore the test would indicate more hearing loss than actual.
In the Weber test, the ear that perceives the sound as being louder is the deaf ear. Why is this the case?
Conduction deafness leads to an increased sensitivity of the cochlear apparatus which picks up sound from vibration through the skull bones. Vibrations pass through the skull to temporal bone. The hearing impaired ear would be more sensitive to this perception of sound than an ear where sound is transmitted through the tympanic membrane.
"Eye shine" in nocturnal mammals is different from the "red eye" seen in some flash photographs. Eye shine is the reflection of light off the tapetum lucidum. What visual mechanism might explain red eye?
Due to the bright light reflecting off the back of the retina
Since the lens is made of protein, what effect might the preserving fluid used in lab have on the structure of the lens? How might this affect the clarity?
The normally clear lens is denatured and becomes opaque due to the preserving fluid. The protein molecules unwind as they denature and this leads to refraction of light.
What is the consensual reflex of the pupil?
Increase or decrease of one pupil when the other pupil is exposed to a respective decrease or increase in light.
How does vitreous humor differ from aqueous humor in terms of location and viscosity?
Vitreous humor is located in the posterior cavity and is more viscous (thicker) than aqueous humor. Aqueous humor is located in the anterior cavity and is more watery.
What layer of the eye converts visible light into nerve impulses?
What nerve takes the impulse of sight to the brain?
What is another name for the sclera?
White of the eye
How would you define an extrinsic muscle of the eye?
Attaches to the sclera and moves the eyeball
What gland produces tears?
What is the name of the transparent layer of the eye in front of the anterior chamber?
The iris of the eye has what function?
Central size of pupil
Where is vitreous humor located?
What is the middle layer of the eye called?
Is the lens anterior or posterior to the iris?
Which retinal cells are responsible for vision in dim light?
How would you define the near point of the eye?
Minimum focusing distance of eye
What do the numbers 20/100 mean for visual acuity?
A person with this vision can see at 20 feet what an average sighted person can see at 100 feet.
What is astigmatism?
Defect in cornea or lens that causes an uneven bending of the light rays in that area of the eye
In what area of the eye is the blind spot located?
Why does material have to be in solution for it to be sensed as taste?
Allows the fluid to run down the sides of papilla
What are the primary tastes?
What nerves transmit the sense of smell to the brain?
What nerves transmit the sense of taste to the brain?
Facial & Glossopharyngeal nerves
Where are the taste buds located?
Sides of tongue papillae
What is the exact region of the nasal cavity that is sensitive to smell stimuli?
What is the adaptation for having taste buds that determine unpleasant bitter compounds in many plant species?
Bitter compounds frequently are poisons in plants
Some people with severe sinus infections can lose their sense of smell. How can an infection that spreads from the frontal or maxillary sinus impair the sense of smell? What structure or structures might be affected?
Spread to the ethmoid bone which houses the olfactory nerves. If these nerves were damaged severely, the sense of smell could be permanently affected.
Material must be in solution for it to be tasted. What process would be used (olfaction or gustation) to perceive a lipid-based food?
Olfaction; there are five sensations of taste which are sensitive to water-soluble materials. Lipid-based materials such as mint oil, and garlic oil are sensed by smell.
How does a cold (rhinovirus) influence our perception of taste?
A cold increases the mucus production in the upper nasal cavity where the olfactory epithelium is located. The increase in mucus reduces the amount of material that comes into contact with the epithelium thus reducing the sense of smell.
Does adaptation to one smell influence adaptation to another smell
Some smells that we perceive as two separate smells are actually identical. What other cues do we use to distinguish between these two smells?
In the spinal cord, what type of impulse (sensory/motor) travels through the: (anterior gray horn? posterior gray horn? ascending spinal tracts? descending spinal tracts?)
Anterior gray horn: motor Posterior gray horn: sensory Ascending spinal tracts: sensory Descending spinal tracts: motor Descending spinal tracts: motor
What causes the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord?
Increased neural information coming from and going to the upper extremities
Where is the filum terminale located?
Attaching the inferior portion of the spinal cord to the coccyx
What is the conus medullaris?
The terminal portion of the solid part of the spinal cord; found at L1 or L2
What is the cauda equina?
Parallel cluster of nerve fibers that continue from the conus medullaris into the spinal cord
In the spinal cord, which is deep to the other, the white matter or the gray matter?
Gray matter is deep to white matter
What is the area of gray matter that is found between the lateral halves of the spinal cord?
The subarachnoid space is filled with what fluid?
What major nerves arise from the following plexuses? (Cervical / Brachial / Lumbar / Sacral)
Cervical: Phrenic Brachial: axillary, musculocutaneous, median, radial, and ulnar Lumbar: femoral and obturator Sacral: sciatic
In terms of function, how does the dorsal spinal root vary from the ventral spinal root?
The dorsal spinal root carries sensory impulses to the spinal cord and the ventral spinal root carries motor impulses from the spinal cord.
What is the endoneurium?
The connective tissue sheath that wraps around the individual nerve fiber.
How do tracts differ from nerves?
Tracts are parallel nerve fibers in the CNS, while nerves are parallel nerve fibers in the PNS
What is a mixed nerve?
One that carries both sensory and motor information
The diaphragm's contractions are regulated by what nerve?
The muscles of the arm, such as the biceps brachii, have what innervation?
Innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve
The extensor muscles of the hand are controlled by what nerve?
The sciatic nerve is composed of two nerves. What are they?
Tibial nerve & Common fibular nerve
Which one of the meninges is just superficial to the brain?
What fluid is found in the ventricles of the brain?
CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid)
Into what space does fluid flow from the cerebral aqueduct?
What is the difference between a gyrus and a sulcus?
Gyrus: ridges of the convolutions / Sulcus: depressions of the convolutions
Name all the lobes of the cerebrum.
Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, & Temporal lobes
What is the function of the precentral gyrus?
Directs part of the body to move
What sense does the temporal lobe alone interpret?
What physical depression separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe?
What structure connects the cerebral hemispheres?
Name the major regions of the midbrain.
Corpora quadrigemina, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, substantia nigra, cerebral peduncles, cerebral aqueduct, and tectum
What is the function of the cerebellum?
The cerebellum is a location primarily noted for muscle coordination and maintenance of posture.
John "pulled a no-brainer" by hitting his forehead against a wall. What damage might he have done to the function of his brain, particularly the functions associated with the frontal lobe?
Broca's area and precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex) may have been damaged.
If a stroke had affected all the sensations interpreted by the brain concerning only the face and the hands, how much of the post-central gurus would be affected?
Describe what effect the loss of an entire cerebral hemisphere would have on specific functions, such as spatial awareness or the ability to speak.
The motor speech area is normally only found on the left side of the brain. Damage to this area would cause lasting speech impairment in that thoughts cannot be articulated as fluent speech.
Aphasia is loss of speech. Different types of aphasia can occur. If Broca's area were affected by a stroke, would the content of the spoken word be affected, or would the ability to pronounce the words be affected?
The ability to pronounce words would be affected.
Describe the following nerves in terms of function (sensory, motor, or both). (Optic / Trochlear nerve / Glossopharyngeal nerve / Hypoglossal nerve / Vagus nerve)
Optic nerve: sensory Trochlear nerve: motor Glossopharyngeal nerve: both Hypoglossal nerve: motor Vagus nerve: both
Name the cranial nerve that innervates each of the following areas. (Anterior tongue / Ear / Mandible / Retina of the eye / Stomach / Lateral rectus muscle of the eye)
Anterior tongue: facial Ear: vestibulocochlear Mandible: trigeminal Retina of the eye: optic Stomach: vagus Lateral rectus muscle of the eye: abducent
Describe the function of an astrocyte
Astrocytes nourish and provide a barrier between the nervous tissue and the blood.
Describe the function of an ependymal cell.
Ependymal cells serve as a barrier between cerebrospinal fluid and the nervous tissue.
Describe the function of an oligodendrocyte.
Produce myelin in the CNS.
The brain belongs to what division of the nervous system?
A spinal nerve belongs to what division of the nervous system
To what major division of the nervous system does the spinal cord belong?
Which division of the nervous system is dedicated to subconscious function?
ANS (Autonomic Nervous System)
What does CNS stand for?
Central Nervous System
What kind of cell has an axon, a dendrite, and a nerve cell body?
In what part of the neuron is the nucleus found?
Neuron cell body
What is another name for an efferent neuron?
If a neuron has a soma with a dendrite on one side and an axon on the other, what kind of neuron is it?
Two adjacent neurons communicate with one another across a space. What is this space called?
Association neurons (Interneurons)
How is neuroglia different from neurons in terms of function?
In which one of the three nervous system divisions are neurolemmocytes located?
Myelin is made of what kind of material?
What is the action of the serratus anterior muscle?
Name four muscles that extend the vertebral column.