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Lab Manual Chapters 11-18, 21-23

What are the three general regions of the ear?

Inner, Middle, & External

The pinna of the ear consists of what two main parts?

Auricle & Lobule

The ear is what kind of receptor?


The ear performs two major sensory functions. What are they?

Hearing & Balance

What structure separates the external ear from the middle ear?

Tympanic membrane

Name the three ear ossicles.

Malleus, Incus, & Stapes

From the following choices, select the function of the cochlea. (Static balance / Taste / Hearing / Dynamic balance)


What area is found between the scala vestibuli and the scala tympani?

Scala media

What is the name of the nerve that takes information about balance and hearing to the brain?

Vestibulocochlear nerve

What units are used to measure sound energy?


What part of the inner ear is involved in perceiving static balance?


Name the parts of the ear that might be impaired if a person demonstrates conduction deafness.

Tympanic membrane or the ear ossicles

What two diagnostic tests are used to determine conduction deafness?

Wever test & Rinne test

What is the name of the tube that runs from the auricle to the tympanic membrane?

External auditory

The auditory tube connects what two cavities?

Tympanic cavity to the nasopharynx

What tube is responsible for the equalization of pressure when you change elevation?

Auditory tube

What is the name of the space that encloses the ear ossicles?

Tympanic cavity

Place the ear ossicles in sequence from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.

Malleus, Incus, & Stapes

Name all the parts of the inner ear.

Cochlea, Vestibule, & Semicircular canals

Background noise affects hearing tests. In the ticking watch test or audiometer test, what kind of result, in terms of auditory sensitivity, would you have recorded if moderate background noise were present?

The subject would not have been able to perceive the ticking sound as easily; therefore the test would indicate more hearing loss than actual.

In the Weber test, the ear that perceives the sound as being louder is the deaf ear. Why is this the case?

Conduction deafness leads to an increased sensitivity of the cochlear apparatus which picks up sound from vibration through the skull bones. Vibrations pass through the skull to temporal bone. The hearing impaired ear would be more sensitive to this perception of sound than an ear where sound is transmitted through the tympanic membrane.

"Eye shine" in nocturnal mammals is different from the "red eye" seen in some flash photographs. Eye shine is the reflection of light off the tapetum lucidum. What visual mechanism might explain red eye?

Due to the bright light reflecting off the back of the retina

Since the lens is made of protein, what effect might the preserving fluid used in lab have on the structure of the lens? How might this affect the clarity?

The normally clear lens is denatured and becomes opaque due to the preserving fluid. The protein molecules unwind as they denature and this leads to refraction of light.

What is the consensual reflex of the pupil?

Increase or decrease of one pupil when the other pupil is exposed to a respective decrease or increase in light.

How does vitreous humor differ from aqueous humor in terms of location and viscosity?

Vitreous humor is located in the posterior cavity and is more viscous (thicker) than aqueous humor. Aqueous humor is located in the anterior cavity and is more watery.

What layer of the eye converts visible light into nerve impulses?


What nerve takes the impulse of sight to the brain?

Optic nerve

What is another name for the sclera?

White of the eye

How would you define an extrinsic muscle of the eye?

Attaches to the sclera and moves the eyeball

What gland produces tears?

Lacrimal gland

What is the name of the transparent layer of the eye in front of the anterior chamber?


The iris of the eye has what function?

Central size of pupil

Where is vitreous humor located?

Posterior cavity

What is the middle layer of the eye called?


Is the lens anterior or posterior to the iris?


Which retinal cells are responsible for vision in dim light?


How would you define the near point of the eye?

Minimum focusing distance of eye

What do the numbers 20/100 mean for visual acuity?

A person with this vision can see at 20 feet what an average sighted person can see at 100 feet.

What is astigmatism?

Defect in cornea or lens that causes an uneven bending of the light rays in that area of the eye

In what area of the eye is the blind spot located?

Optic nerve

Why does material have to be in solution for it to be sensed as taste?

Allows the fluid to run down the sides of papilla

What are the primary tastes?

Sour, sweet

What nerves transmit the sense of smell to the brain?

Olfactory nerves

What nerves transmit the sense of taste to the brain?

Facial & Glossopharyngeal nerves

Where are the taste buds located?

Sides of tongue papillae

What is the exact region of the nasal cavity that is sensitive to smell stimuli?

Olfactory epithelium

What is the adaptation for having taste buds that determine unpleasant bitter compounds in many plant species?

Bitter compounds frequently are poisons in plants

Some people with severe sinus infections can lose their sense of smell. How can an infection that spreads from the frontal or maxillary sinus impair the sense of smell? What structure or structures might be affected?

Spread to the ethmoid bone which houses the olfactory nerves. If these nerves were damaged severely, the sense of smell could be permanently affected.

Material must be in solution for it to be tasted. What process would be used (olfaction or gustation) to perceive a lipid-based food?

Olfaction; there are five sensations of taste which are sensitive to water-soluble materials. Lipid-based materials such as mint oil, and garlic oil are sensed by smell.

How does a cold (rhinovirus) influence our perception of taste?

A cold increases the mucus production in the upper nasal cavity where the olfactory epithelium is located. The increase in mucus reduces the amount of material that comes into contact with the epithelium thus reducing the sense of smell.

Does adaptation to one smell influence adaptation to another smell


Some smells that we perceive as two separate smells are actually identical. What other cues do we use to distinguish between these two smells?


In the spinal cord, what type of impulse (sensory/motor) travels through the: (anterior gray horn? posterior gray horn? ascending spinal tracts? descending spinal tracts?)

Anterior gray horn: motor
Posterior gray horn: sensory
Ascending spinal tracts: sensory
Descending spinal tracts: motor
Descending spinal tracts: motor

What causes the cervical enlargement of the spinal cord?

Increased neural information coming from and going to the upper extremities

Where is the filum terminale located?

Attaching the inferior portion of the spinal cord to the coccyx

What is the conus medullaris?

The terminal portion of the solid part of the spinal cord; found at L1 or L2

What is the cauda equina?

Parallel cluster of nerve fibers that continue from the conus medullaris into the spinal cord

In the spinal cord, which is deep to the other, the white matter or the gray matter?

Gray matter is deep to white matter

What is the area of gray matter that is found between the lateral halves of the spinal cord?

Central commissure

The subarachnoid space is filled with what fluid?

Cerebrospinal fluid

What major nerves arise from the following plexuses? (Cervical / Brachial / Lumbar / Sacral)

Cervical: Phrenic
Brachial: axillary, musculocutaneous, median, radial, and ulnar
Lumbar: femoral and obturator
Sacral: sciatic

In terms of function, how does the dorsal spinal root vary from the ventral spinal root?

The dorsal spinal root carries sensory impulses to the spinal cord and the ventral spinal root carries motor impulses from the spinal cord.

What is the endoneurium?

The connective tissue sheath that wraps around the individual nerve fiber.

How do tracts differ from nerves?

Tracts are parallel nerve fibers in the CNS, while nerves are parallel nerve fibers in the PNS

What is a mixed nerve?

One that carries both sensory and motor information

The diaphragm's contractions are regulated by what nerve?

Phrenic nerve

The muscles of the arm, such as the biceps brachii, have what innervation?

Innervated by the musculocutaneous nerve

The extensor muscles of the hand are controlled by what nerve?

Radial nerve

The sciatic nerve is composed of two nerves. What are they?

Tibial nerve & Common fibular nerve

Which one of the meninges is just superficial to the brain?

Pia mater

What fluid is found in the ventricles of the brain?

CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid)

Into what space does fluid flow from the cerebral aqueduct?

Fourth ventricle

What is the difference between a gyrus and a sulcus?

Gyrus: ridges of the convolutions / Sulcus: depressions of the convolutions

Name all the lobes of the cerebrum.

Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, & Temporal lobes

What is the function of the precentral gyrus?

Directs part of the body to move

What sense does the temporal lobe alone interpret?


What physical depression separates the temporal lobe from the parietal lobe?

Lateral fissure

What structure connects the cerebral hemispheres?

Longitudinal fissure

Name the major regions of the midbrain.

Corpora quadrigemina, superior colliculi, inferior colliculi, substantia nigra, cerebral peduncles, cerebral aqueduct, and tectum

What is the function of the cerebellum?

The cerebellum is a location primarily noted for muscle coordination and maintenance of posture.

John "pulled a no-brainer" by hitting his forehead against a wall. What damage might he have done to the function of his brain, particularly the functions associated with the frontal lobe?

Broca's area and precentral gyrus (primary motor cortex) may have been damaged.

If a stroke had affected all the sensations interpreted by the brain concerning only the face and the hands, how much of the post-central gurus would be affected?

Approximately half

Describe what effect the loss of an entire cerebral hemisphere would have on specific functions, such as spatial awareness or the ability to speak.

The motor speech area is normally only found on the left side of the brain. Damage to this area would cause lasting speech impairment in that thoughts cannot be articulated as fluent speech.

Aphasia is loss of speech. Different types of aphasia can occur. If Broca's area were affected by a stroke, would the content of the spoken word be affected, or would the ability to pronounce the words be affected?

The ability to pronounce words would be affected.

Describe the following nerves in terms of function (sensory, motor, or both). (Optic / Trochlear nerve / Glossopharyngeal nerve / Hypoglossal nerve / Vagus nerve)

Optic nerve: sensory
Trochlear nerve: motor
Glossopharyngeal nerve: both
Hypoglossal nerve: motor
Vagus nerve: both

Name the cranial nerve that innervates each of the following areas. (Anterior tongue / Ear / Mandible / Retina of the eye / Stomach / Lateral rectus muscle of the eye)

Anterior tongue: facial
Ear: vestibulocochlear
Mandible: trigeminal
Retina of the eye: optic
Stomach: vagus
Lateral rectus muscle of the eye: abducent

Describe the function of an astrocyte

Astrocytes nourish and provide a barrier between the nervous tissue and the blood.

Describe the function of an ependymal cell.

Ependymal cells serve as a barrier between cerebrospinal fluid and the nervous tissue.

Describe the function of an oligodendrocyte.

Produce myelin in the CNS.

The brain belongs to what division of the nervous system?


A spinal nerve belongs to what division of the nervous system


To what major division of the nervous system does the spinal cord belong?


Which division of the nervous system is dedicated to subconscious function?

ANS (Autonomic Nervous System)

What does CNS stand for?

Central Nervous System

What kind of cell has an axon, a dendrite, and a nerve cell body?


In what part of the neuron is the nucleus found?

Neuron cell body

What is another name for an efferent neuron?

Motor neuron

If a neuron has a soma with a dendrite on one side and an axon on the other, what kind of neuron is it?


Two adjacent neurons communicate with one another across a space. What is this space called?

Association neurons (Interneurons)

How is neuroglia different from neurons in terms of function?


In which one of the three nervous system divisions are neurolemmocytes located?


Myelin is made of what kind of material?

Lipoprotein material

What is the action of the serratus anterior muscle?

Abducts scapula

Name four muscles that extend the vertebral column.

Multifidus, spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis & semispinalis

How does the serratus anterior function as an antagonist to the rhomboideus muscles?

Serratus anterior: abducts scapula / Rhomboideus: adducts scapula

How does the action of the rectus abdominis differ from that of the other abdominal muss

Rectus abdominis: flexes the vertebral column and compresses the abdominal wall / Abdominal muscles: compress the abdominal wall

What is the physical relationship of the intercostal muscles to each other?

Internal intercostal is deep to the external intercostal

What two muscles, originating on the neck, have an action to extend the head?

Splenius and semispinalis

Extension and rotation of the vertebral column occur by what group of muscles?

Erector spinae

What is the action of the intercostal muscles?

External intercostal: elevate ribs and inspiration / Internal intercostalis: depresses ribs and expiration

What muscle inserts on the central tendon?


What is the action of the quadratus lumborum?

Laterally flexes vertebral column and depresses rib 12

The tendinous intersections are found in what muscle?

Rectus abdominis

Flexion of the vertebral column occurs by what abdominal muscle?

Rectus abdominis

Which is the deepest abdominal muscle?

Transversus abdominis

How do the abdominal muscles in the cat compare with those in the human in terms of relative position?

They are very similar. The external abdominal oblique is a broad, superficial muscle on the ventral abdomen.

What is the origin of the masseter muscle?

Zygomatic arch

What is the action of the risorius?

Abducts corner of mouth

What kind of muscle is the orbicularis oculi or orbicularis oris muscle in terms of action?

Sphincter muscles

What muscle originates on the temporal fossa?


Name two muscles that close the jaw.

Masseter & Temporalis

What muscle closes the lips?

Obicularis oris

Where does the sternocleidomastoid muscle insert?

Mastoid process & Superior nuchal line

Where does the orbicularis oculi insert?

Skin of eyelid

What is the insertion of the temporalis?

Coronoid process & Mandibular ramus

Name a muscle that closes the eye.

Orbicularis oculi

What is the action of the sternocleidomastoid?

One: rotates and extends neck; Both: flex neck

What muscle is a synergist with the masseter?


You were to ride a horse, what muscles would you use to keep your seat out of the saddle as you rode?

Adductor muscle

How do the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus prevent you from toppling over as you walk?

They help maintain our center of gravity

What is a muscle that is an antagonist to the biceps femoris muscle?

Rectus femoris

What are two muscles that are synergists with the biceps femoris muscle?

Semitendinosus & Semimembranosus

How does the action of the rectus femoris differ from that of the other quadriceps muscles?

Flexes the thigh

What is the insertion of all the muscles of the quadriceps group?

Patellar tendon

How many adductor muscles are there?


List two muscles in this exercise that are responsible for thigh flexion.

Iliopsoas, sartorius, and rectus femoris

Where do the hamstring muscles originate as a group?

Ischial tuberosity

What is the action of the vastus lateralis?

Extend leg

Which muscle group is located on the anterior part of the thigh?

Quadriceps femoris

Is abduction of the thigh movement away from or toward the midline?

Away from the midline

What muscle flexes the lumbar vertebrae as part of its action?


What is the origin of the gastrocnemius?

Condyle of femur

What is the insertion of the tibialis anterior in humans?

Metatarsal 1 & Cuneiform 1

How does the action of the fibularis longus in humans differ from that of the fibularis tertius?

Fibularis longus: plantar flexes foot; Fibularis tertius: dorsi flexes foot

What is the action of the extensor hallucis longus?

Extend hallux (the dorsi flexes foot and inverts foot)

The calf is made up of what two major muscles?

Soleus & Gastrocnemius

Plantar flexion occurs by what muscles?

Fibularis longus, fibularis brevis, soleus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, and flexor hallucis longus

What muscle extends the toes?

Extensor digitorum longus

Name a muscle in this exercise that dorsiflexes the foot.

Fibularis tertius, tibialis anterior

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