Weather Chapters 1 & 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (53)
What is the definition of atmosphere?
the envelope of gases that surround the planet
What is the composition of the atmosphere?
Earth's atmosphere is made up of nitrogen , oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and many other gases as well as particles of liquids and solids
Why is the atmosphere important to living things?
Living things need warmth and water; the atmosphere traps the sun's energy; keeps the earth warm. It also protects living things from dangerous radiation from the sun and protects the Earth from meteoroids, rocks
What is air pressure?
The weight of the atmosphere as is pushes down against the Earth's surface.
What instrument is used to measure air pressure?
The amount of mass in a given volume of air
What is altitude?
or elevation is the distance above sea level the average level of the surface of the oceans
What happens to air pressure and density as altitude increases?
air pressure decreases as altitude increases and so does its density
Name the layers of the atmosphere from ground to space
How are the layers of the atmosphere classified?
troposphere-inner or lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere where weather occurs
stratosphere-the second layer up in the Earth's atmosphere and contains the ozone layer
mesosphere-the middle layer of the atmosphere that protects Earth's surface from being hit by most meteorites
thermosphere-the outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere-it has no definite outer limit but blends with outer space. (divided into two parts: Ionosphere and exosphere
Describe the temperature changes in each layer of the atmosphere
as you continue traveling outward through the atmosphere, you will find that as you approach the troposphere the temperature will stop decreasing, and for several miles will remain constant. It will then actually begin to increase again as you travel through the upper stratosphere. As you enter the mesosphere, the temperature will once again begin to drop, getting cooler and cooler. Then, as you travel up through the thermosphere, the temperature again begins to increase, eventually becoming even warmer than the temperature on the surface of the Earth. Finally, as you continue to travel outward leaving the atmosphere via the exosphere, the temperature drops again, becoming very cold.
In which layer of the atmosphere does weather occur?
What is ozone?
is a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the usual two
Where is ozone found?
What is the role of ozone in the atmosphere?
it protects Earth's living things from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from sun
What is the greenhouse effect?
is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because greenhouse gases trap energy from the sun.
Sunlight enters the Earth's atmosphere, passing through the blanket of greenhouse gases. The Earth's surface absorb the sunlight's energy. Once absorbed, this energy is sent back into the atmosphere. Some of the energy passes back into space, but much of it remains trapped in the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases, causing our world to heat up.
Without it e Earth would not be warm enough for humans to live. But if the greenhouse effect becomes stronger, it could make the Earth warmer than usual. Even a little extra warming may cause problems for humans, plants, and animals.
What is air pollution?
harmful substances in air, water, or soil. Air that contains harmful particles and gases is said to be polluted.
What can happen to the energy from the sun on its way down to the Earth's surface?
Most of the energy from the sun travels to the Earth in a form of visible sunlight and infrared radiation. A small amount arrives as ultraviolet radiation.
What wavelengths of energy get absorbed by Earth and what wavelength is given off by Earth?
infrared energy gets absorbed
infrared is given off
the average amount of energy of motion of each particle of a substance
define thermal energy
the total energy of motion in the particles of a substance
the transfer of heat in solids when one particle collides with another
the transfer of heat by movement of a fluid
Is the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
What causes wind?
the horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure (cool) to an area of low pressure (warm)
winds are caused by differences in air pressure-most differences can be caused by unequal heating of the atmosphere
its direction is influenced by Earth's rotation
Define wind chill
the increased cooling a wind can cause
the wind blowing over your skin removes body heat-the stronger the wind, the colder you feel
How is wind measured?
Be able to label wind direction and explain local winds-land breeze
At night, the process is reversed
land cools more quickly than water, so the air over the land becomes cooler than the air over the water. As the warmer air over the water expands and rises, cooler air from the land moves beneath it. The flow of air from land to a body of water is called...
How are global winds different from local winds?
winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
different from local winds because they occur over a large area
What role does the Coriolis Effect play in wind direction?
the way the Earth's rotation makes wind curve , if the earth did not rotate the global winds would blow in a straight line from the poles to the equator
because of the Coriolis effect global winds in the Northern Hemisphere gradually turn right and in the Southern Hemisphere the winds curve left
What is relative humidity and how is it measured?
the percentage of water vapor that is actually in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at a particular temperature.
Air with relative humidity of 100 perfect is said to be saturated.
This is measured with a psychrometer.
What conditions are necessary for cloud formation?
when water in the air condenses to form liquid water or ice crystals
two conditions are required for condensation: cooling of the air and the presence of particles in the air
What gas forms clouds?
Define melting point
The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid, The solid reaches 100'C and becomes a liquid
Define freezing point
The temperature which a liquid becomes a solid.
Define boiling point
the temperature and pressure at which a liquid becomes a gas
Define condensation point
the process by which water vapor gas changes into liquid water
What is sling psychrometer? What is it used for?
to measure the amount of water vapor in the air - that is, its humidity.
How do you read a sling psychrometer
When a reading is to be taken, the wick is first dipped in water and then the instrument is whirled around. During the whirling, the water evaporates from the wick, cooling the wet-bulb thermometer. Then the temperatures of both thermometers are read.
If the surrounding air is dry, more moisture evaporates from the wick, cooling the wet-bulb thermometer more so there is a greater difference between the temperatures of the two thermometers. If the surrounding air is holding as much moisture as possible - if the relative humidity is 100% - there is no difference between the two temperatures.
is water in the form of a gas
consists of a glass tube open at the bottom end and partially filled with mercury
a barometer that has an airtight metal chamber sensitive to change in air pressure. When air pressure increases the thin walls of the chamber are pushed in. When the pressure drops, the walls bulge out. The chamber is connected to a dial by a series of springs and levers. As the shape of the chamber changes the needle on the dial moves.
How does altitude affect air pressure?
sea-level air has weight of the whole atmosphere pressing on it. So air pressure is greater at sea level. Air near the top of the atmosphere has less weight pressing on it, so it has lower air pressure
inner or lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere where weather occurs
-contains almost all of the mass of the atmosphere
-the depth varies from 16 kilometers above the equator to less than 9 kilometers above the poles
-as the altitude increases the temperature decreases
-radiation, conduction and convection work together to heat the troposphere
-the second layer up in the Earth's atmosphere and contains the ozone layer
-temperature increases as you travel up through the stratosphere due to the ozone layer
-the ozone layer is important because it protects Earth's living things from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from sun
-the middle layer of the atmosphere that protects Earth's surface from being hit by most meteorites(chunks of stone and metal from space)
-the outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere-it has no definite outer limit but blends with outer space. (divided into two parts: Ionosphere and exosphere)
-the thin air there is very hot because sunlight strikes it first
-the lower layer of the thermosphere
-energy from the sun causes gas molecules in the ionosphere to become electrically charged particles called ions. Radio waves bounce off ions in the ionosphere back to the Earth's surface. Auroras are caused by particles from the sun that enter the ionosphere near the poles. There particles strike atoms in the ionosphere causing them to glow.
the outer portion of the thermosphere. it extends from about 400 kilometers outwards for thousands of kilometers.
What is the main cause of it air pollution?
They occur naturally but many types are a result of human activity.
forest fires, soil erosion, and dust storms release a great deal of smoke and dust into the air. The wind carries particles of mold and pollen. Erupting volcanoes spew out clouds of dust and ash along with poisonous gas.
farming and construction can send soil and dust into the air. Burning fossil fuels such as coal, oil , gasoline and diesel fuel. Almost half of this pollution comes from car and other motor vehicles. Factories and power plants that burn coal and oil also release pollution
winds that blow over short distances and caused by the unequal heating of Earth's surface within a small area
Local winds form only when large-scale winds are week
-sea breeze and land breeze
Be able to label wind direction and explain sea breeze
As the sun heats Earth's surface during the day, the land warms up faster than water. As a result the air over the land becomes warmer than the air over the water. The warm air expands and rises, creating low air pressure area. Cool air blows inland from over the water and moves underneath the warm air
local wind that blows from an ocean or lake
Psychrometer measures humidity by
it has two thermometers, a wet bulb thermometer and a dry bulb thermometer
the wet bulb thermometer has a cloth covering that is moistened with water. When the psychrometer spun by its handle, air blows over both thermometers. The wet bulb thermometer is cooled by evaporation, its reading drops below that of the dry bulb thermometer
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Climate and Weather
Weather and Climate
Science 3 Study Guide
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Holy Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire and Russia
The Cold War Part 1-Mr. Hoefer
Chapter 2 Motion, Forces Energy
Motion, Force & Energy