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OTD 501 - Paradigms Exam 1
Terms in this set (147)
a reasoned explanation known facts or phenomena that serves as a basis of action.
Basic assumptions and perspective that unify the field
3 Parts of a Paradigm
important beliefs that are part of the individual's personal identity
Directs practitioners attention to certain things in practice and offers a way of seeing those things (what they are focused on)
what the professions as a whole values
articulates theory that provide rationale for therapy and guide therapist in practice
Frame of Reference
a set of interrelated internally consistent concepts, definitions, and postulates that provide a systematic description of and prescription for a practitioner's interaction with a particular aspect of a profession's domain of concerns.
Elements of Frame of Reference (4)
1. theoretical base
2. delineation of fx/dysfx continuums related to the phenomena explained by theory
3. list of behaviors indicative of fx/dysfx
4. ideas governing intervention
Elements 1 of Frame of Reference
Elements 2 of Frame of Reference
delineation of fx/dysfx continuums related to the phenomena explained by theory
Elements 3 of Frame of Reference
list of behaviors indicative of function/disfunction
Elements 4 of Frame of Reference
ideas governing intervention
Parts of a frame of reference (6)
1. Domain of Concern
2. Basic Assumptions
4. Postulates of Change
6. Assessment & Treatment Techniques
frame of reference part 1
Domain of Concern
frame of reference part 2
frame of reference part 3
frame of reference part 4
Postulates of Change
frame of reference part 5
frame of reference part 6
Assessment & Treatment Techniques
Domain of Concern
focus of FOR, identifies which areas of functional activity are better addressed by this FOR
The area that you treat, areas that you apply it to
where the basic concepts originate from and how they fit with OT
Things that are believed
must define what constitutes healthy functioning in each FOR to establish a baseline. then go from there to identify any aspect that doesn't fall into that definition
What is functional and what is not functional- is it normal?
Postulates of Change:
relationship between two or more concepts. provides understanding about how it is possible for therapeutic change to occur in an individual (ie. behavior mod...) our philosophy states that individuals have an innate desire to change & grow
How do you make a change? Evidence based
the philosophy of being internally motivated to recover. each FOR requires differing motivating factors
How do you motivate the patient (social and psch)
Assmt & Tx:
specific tests, evaluations, assessments used within each FOR and the specific treatment techniques used within the FOR
When to know what to use
Professional/ Clinical Reasoning
thinking like an OT
Characteristics of Professional/ Clinical Reasoning
1. goal-oriented activity
2. practical ability to apply a general theory to a specific patient
3. cognitive process...
Pyramid Pieces of a Chosen Intervention Technique
1. Grand Theories
2. Models of Practice
3. Frames of Reference
Grand Theories (9)
9. Occupational Science
Models of Practice (5)
1. Canadian Model of Occ. Perform.
2. Occupational Adaptation
3. Person-Environ. Occ. Perform.
4. Ecology of Human Perform.
5. Model of Human Occ.
Frames of Reference
What is the Slagle Lecture Award?
Highest scholarly honor awarded in OT, named after Eleanor Clarke Slage, the best-known founder of OT.
What exactly is a Slagle Lecture?
Founded in 1955, Slagle lectures provides relevant themes and research, delivered by prominent members of OT.
What's changed about OT in the 21st Century?
-World Health Organization's revision of its classification system
-The 3rd edition of OT Practice Framework
-Increase in student enrollment as well as the job market
There is a trend in OT involving moving away from strictly using the medical model to something better for the clients. According to Dr. Anderson, what is this trend?
This trend means a departure from the reductionist approach of the medical model to a more.. whole approach.
This trend in OT helps us understand that occupations are more than activities.
An increase in research & technology concerning cognition, sensation, & neuroscience describes this trend.
Neuroscience is the common denominator for all human behavior.
This new theory, founded at USC, describes the form, function, & meaning of occupation-called an academic discipline
Healthcare demands evidence to support that OT really works.. what trend is this describing?
This trend is a new emphasis on ADAPTATION of the environment as a critical role for OT practice.
Adaptation Process in Context of Culture & Community
Empowering & respecting the client as a consumer who has choices, resources, & knows what he/she wants from life describes which trend?
Client Centered Practice
Theory is a __________ __________ of known facts or phenomena that serves as a basis of ___________.
REASONED EXPLANATION of known facts or phenomena that serves as a basis of ACTION
What term is defined as the basic assumptions and perspectives that unify the field?
Models articulate theory that provide rationale for ________ and guide therapists in _______
rationale for THERAPY and guide therapists in PRACTICE
Frame of Reference definition (this is a long one.. thanks MOSEY)
a set of interrelated interrelate internally consistent concepts, definitions, and postulates that provide a SYSTEMATIC DESCRIPTION of and prescription for a practitioner's INTERACTION with a particular aspect of a profession's DOMAIN OF CONCERN.
What are the (6) Parts of a Frame of Reference?
-Domain of Concern
-Postulates of Change
-Assessment & Treatment Techniques
Clinical Reasoning has 3 characteristics... what are they?
1) GOAL ORIENTED activity
2) Practical ability to apply a general theory to a SPECIFIC PATIENT
3) COGNITIVE process
Name the 4 Models of Health Care that impact the field of OT
1) Medical Model
2) World Health Organization Model
3) Client-Centered Practice
4) American Occupational Therapy Practice Framework
What are some aspects of the Medical Model described in class?
-Medical Diagnosis (symptom based)
-Scientific Evidence (reductionistic & mechanistic in perspective)
What are OT's roles in the Medical model?
-Restoring a state of health, normalcy, and homeostasis
-Approaches were developed for the treatment of specific disabilities and focused on performance components (not occupation-based)
What are the OT theories in the Medical Model?
-NDT (neural development theory?)
What are the Pros of the Medical Model?
+Brought initial prestige to OT
+Gave OT much of the knowledge it has in psychiatry, biomechanics, behaviorism, and neurophysiology
+Gave OT a common language to use
What are the Cons of the Medical Model?
-It limited OT's scope
-Not patient centered
Describe Client Centered Practice
-Emerged in 1960s & Deinstitutionalization
-Founded by the Canadian OTA
-Basic therapy model for the AOTA Practice Framework
What does Client Centered Practice Resemble?
Carl Roger's "person-centered" therapy approach
Describe Client Centered Practice's relationship with the client
-Holistic and global
-A collaborative partnership
-Client seeks the advice of a professional for life management
What are the assumptions of Client Centered Practice?
-Client knows what they want/need
-Ultimate relevance of client's perspective on problems
-Professional dominance is counter therapeutic :(
-Therapist is a facilitator, not an instrument
Describe the Canadian Model of Occupational Performance
"illustrates how occupational performance evolves from the interactions between the person, the environment, and the occupation itself'
What are some more general points of CMOP?
-There is not a specific plan for how to apply the therapeutic process
-Facilitating, guiding, coaching, prompting, listening, reflecting, encouraging, or otherwise collaborating with people are general intervention strategies
-Therapeutic process is guided by the 6 general principles of client centered practice
What are the general points of CMOP?
-Functioning ability is based on the interactive effects between person, occupation, and environment.
-Changes in any part of the system can impact occupational performance
-Motivation is considered to be intrinsic, and facilitated by clients' participation in identifying meaningful goals and occupational priorities.
What are some Pros of Client Centered Practice?
+Client's wishes are prioritized
+Better relationship between therapist and client
+More options for problem solving
+Clients are better motivated
What are the 6 Principles of Client Centered Practice?
1) Client is capable of choice
2) Flexibility & Individualized approach
3) Therapist's role as enabler (shares power to empower client)
4) Success measured by client's attainment of goals (client sets own priorities)
5) Need for contextual congruence - (interventions have meaning in client's own life settings)
6) Client readiness to use therapist expertise
Principle 1 of Client Centered Practice
Client is capable of choice
Principle 2 of Client Centered Practice
Flexibility & Individualized approach
Principle 3 of Client Centered Practice
Therapist's role as enabler (shares power to empower client)
Principle 4 of Client Centered Practice
Success measured by client's attainment of goals (client sets own priorities)
Principle 5 of Client Centered Practice
Need for contextual congruence - (interventions have meaning in client's own life settings)
Principle 6 of Client Centered Practice
Client readiness to use therapist expertise
What are some Cons of Client Centered Practice?
-Clients may not know what they want
-Conflict on healthcare team
-Clients lacking motivation can effect results
What is the ICF and who started it?
-Created by the World Health Organization
-Reflects the shift to a holistic and systems perspective of health care from a reductionistic view
What is the purpose of ICF model?
-Provide a scientific basis for studying health and health determinants
-Create a common language
-Allow comparison across countries, disciplines, and time
-Provides systematic coding (record keeping & research use)
Handicap is changed to ______ as defined by the ICF
Disability is changed to ______ as defined by the ICF
Impairment is changed to ______ as defined by the ICF
health condition (covers disease, disorder, injury, pregnancy, ageing, stress, congenital anomaly, and genetic predisposition)
What are some Pros of the ICF?
+Universal global language
+Bio-Psycho-Social model foundation
+Provides more data for research and better EBP
ICF conceives a person's functioning and/or disability as a "__________________" between a health condition and contextual factors
What are the ICF impacts on OT?
-Integration of the medical and social models by using a bio-psycho-social approach
-The language of the ICF has a strong resemblance to the OT Practice Framework
-Recognizes activities as the main determinant of disability (validates OT practice principles)
What are some Cons of the ICF?
-There's difficulty finding the right fit
Occupation is used to mean all the things people want, need, or have to do, whether of physical, mental, social, sexual, political, or spiritual nature and is inclusive of sleep and rest. It refers to all aspects of actual human doing, bring, becoming, and belonging.
Terms to Describe Occupation
Improve quality of life
Purpose of the American OT Practice Framework?
To describe the central concepts that grounds occupational therapy practice and builds a common understanding of the basic tenents and vision of the profession
What are the 2 parts of the American OT Practice Framework?
Domain and Process
Outlines the profession's PURVIEW and the areas in which its members have an established body of knowledge and EXPERTISE.
5 Areas of Domain
2. Client Factors
3. Performance Skills
4. Performance Patterns
5. Contexts and Environments
Describes the ACTIONS practitioners take when providing SERVICES that are CLIENT centered and focused on ENGEMENT in occupations.
What are the 8 areas of occupation?
3) Rest and sleep
8) Social participation
What Occupation is Bathing considered?
Care of Others
Care of Pets
Employment Interest and Public Pursuits
Formal Education Participation
Informal Education Participation
Informal Educational Needs Exploration
Personal Device Care
Rest and Sleep
Rest and Sleep
Rest and Sleep
activities of daily living (ADLs)
Activities that are oriented toward taking care of one's own body. Also called basic activities of daily living (BADL) or personal activities of daily living (PADL)
instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs)
Activities to support daily life within the home and community that often require more complex interactions than self-care used in ADL.
Rest and Sleep
Activities related to obtaining restorative rest and sleep to support healthy, active engagement in other occupations
Activities needed for being a student and participating in a learning environment
Activities needed for engaging in remunerative employment (where you are getting paid) or volunteer activities.
Any spontaneous or organized activity that provides enjoyment, entertainment, amusement, or diversion.
A nonobligatory activity that is intrinsically motivated and engaged in during free time, that is time not committed to obligatory occupations, such as work, self-care, or sleep.
Activities associated with organized patterns of behavior that are characteristic of an individual or a individual interacting with others, within a given social system.
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