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Personality Pysch Exam I
Terms in this set (125)
Allport defines personality as:
within the individual of those
characteristic pattern of behavior, thoughts and feelings
What does this mean?
: Personality is constantly growing and changing in an organized manner. Change in personality is not random.
: Personality is composed of both mind and body functioning together as a unit. Both biological and mental.
: All facets of personality activate or direct specific behaviors and thoughts. Personality causes behavior.
Characteristic pattern etc.
: Everything we do is typical of us because we are highly individualized and unique.
Lewin defines personality as:
"The momentary condition of the individual and the structure of the psychological situation."
What does this mean?
To understand a person, one must acknowledge their state in a certain situation. People act differently given the circumstances they are in.
Murray defines personality as:
"... the study of human lives and the factors which influence their course...investigates individual difference."
Believed that personality was extremely individualized. Richness of the life of each person (personology)
The textbook defines personality psychology as ?
The scientific study of the psychological forces that make people uniquely themselves
A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
Ego (Neoanalytic) Theory
Self and identity
Personality can be explained as a result of genetic expression in the brain
Personality is constructed by a series of learning experiences that occur through interactions between the individual and their environment.
People behave based on what they predict will yield the most favorable outcome
View personality with a focus on the potential for healthy personal growth (Spiritual growth, self-fulfillment and dignity)
Any individual is a collection of characteristics, motives etc.
Personality is modified and behavior is formed when genetically-inherited traits are triggered by an environmental circumstance
Theory then collect data
Collect data then formulate a theory
Intense study of individual people or a case.
Allows for a detailed study with conclusions based on specifics that cannot be generalized to include multiple people
Study variables across many people --> to make universal laws or principles
Subjective (Pros and Cons)
Open to many interpretations
Rich data --> Great insight
Multiple interpretations (All could be valid)
Objective (Pros and Cons)
One answer/interpretation is correct
Clear data --> One valid interpretation
Is a measure always fully subjective or objective?
No, a measure could be a hybrid of the two.
Experimental design (Pros and Cons)
Determines whether an independent variable impacts a dependent variable
Ability to determine what
causes an outcome
Not exactly sure what is being manipulated (If it is an emotion, it is not 100% clear if one is manipulating anxiety, anger, sadness etc.) to get a certain outcome
Often requires deception
Not necessarily reflective of real life
Some things cannot be manipulated due to ethics or practicality
Correlational Design (Pros and Cons)
Measure of associations between two variables
Assess real-life levels of variables/constructs
Usually does not involve deception
Can assess relations between variables that are too harmful or difficult to induce in a lab
Less controlled outside lab
Can't be sure about what is causing an outcome
There could always be a 3rd variable that a researcher fails to take into account
Correlation coefficient (R)
Measures the association between two variables
Used to determine the degree and direction of relation between them
Negative, Positive and No correlation
(Any negative number greater than or equal to -1.00): Variables move in opposite direction
(Any positive number less than or equal to 1.00): Variables move in the same direction
No correlation: The "R" is equal to 0
Refers to the consistency of scores that are expected to be the same (Precision)
Internal consistency reliability
The assessment of reliability using responses at only
one point in time
A correlation of 0.80 or better is ideal
Degree of consistency on different occasions
The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
The extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct.
Ex. A cardiology exam should test that exact subject. If a person tests high on this exam then their expertise on the subject is valid
If the test had nothing to do with cardiology then their knowledge of the topic cannot be backed up by the scores.
Scores on the measure are related to other measures of the same construct
Ex. If someone scores high in extroversion then, in theory, they should score high in charisma because they are thought to be related
Scores on the measure are not related to other measures that are theoretically different
Ex. If someone scores high in extroversion then it has no relationship with intelligence because an extrovert could, in theory, be dumb or smart
The extent to which a test measures characteristics related to what is being tested
Ex. A test of extroversion should measure enthusiasm, how outgoing a person is etc.
Specific methods to measure personality
Self-report measure (Pros and Cons)
Best expert to describe yourself is YOURSELF
Some things may be held back for concern of judgement or one is simply unaware of a characteristic
Ex. SAT, ACT
Other-report measure (Pros and Cons)
ex> ADHD measures
Limited information because another person is reporting on someone
Their may some bias if a family member (parent) is reporting on a relative's behalf
Interviews (Pros and Cons)
Can collect sensitive information
Method is systematic and structured
Loose, subjective and interviewee-driven
Interviewer could be bias
Expensive and time-consuming
Behavioral Observations (Naturalistic Setting)
There is a direct and indirect method
Direct: Researcher monitors the subject on their own
Indirect: Researcher relies on he subject's reports
: Able to measure real-life
: Expensive, difficult and accessibility issue
Behavioral Observations (Lab Setting)
: Range of situations
Direct, repeatable observation
: Cannot recreate all situations, uncertain on how to interpret data
: Direct, "objective" --> not relying on another person's word
Quantifiable (Often with high precision)
: Uncertain interpretation
New, complex, expensive technology
Ex. TAT, Rorschach, Draw-a-person
: Measure non-conscious phenomena (motives)
: Questionable reliability and validity
A type of bias in which a test fails to take into account the relevant culture or subculture of the person being tested
Ex. Asians Americans teach children to be modest and humble
Italian Americans teach children to be outgoing and assertive
Not knowing this, the AA child may be considered shy or the IA child may be considered aggressive
Stereotypical views and differential treatment of males and females, often favoring one gender over the other.
ex. A nurturing, submissive, woman who loves makeup may be considered mentally healthy
An aggressive, dominant, and out-spoken woman may be viewed as hurt
Tendencies of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items
Changes the direction of the scale by asking the question in a positive (or negative) voice
Acquiescence response set
A bias in which people are more likely to agree than disagree with anything that is asked of them
Social desirability response set
A bias in which people are likely to want to present themselves in a favorable light or to try to please the experimenter or test administrator
Notion that all thoughts and behaviors from mind have a specific internal cause --> no accident
"sex drive" that drives the id --> any bodily, erotic pleasure that drives us to gratification in life
Life drive and energy that powers the mind
Exists in limited supply
If energy is used for one purpose, that energy cannot be used for another
The self destructive Death instinct of the id; transformed into aggression toward others.
Unconscious id impulse to commit suicide.
Doctrine of opposites
Everything in life has an opposite
Life --> death
Libido --> Thanatos
How to access the unconscious? According to Freud
Hypnosis, free-association, dream analysis
A method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Manifest content of a dream (Freud)
The remembered story line of a dream
Latent content of a dream (Freud)
The underlying meaning of a dream
"Freudian slip": a leakage from the unconscious mind manifesting as a mistake, accident, omission, or memory lapse.
Describe Id (Origin, level, guiding principle, content)
Origin: Present at birth
Guiding principle: Pleasure principle
Content: Instincts; needs; feelings
Describe Ego (Origin, level, guiding principle, content)
Origin: Life experiences
Level: Unconscious and conscious
Guiding principle: Reality principle
Content: Reason; problem-solving; control of id
Describe Superego (Origin, level, guiding principle, content)
Origin: Parents; society
Level: Unconscious and conscious
Guiding principle: Guilt
Content: Morality; rules; religion
The main job of the ego is to find a compromise among ID and Superego. What the individual actually thinks and does is the result of this compromise.
What are the psychosexual stages a source of? Name the 5 stages (in order) and parts of life (age range).
Source of libido satisfaction (part of body seeking pleasure)
Libido gratification comes from oral exploration of the world (Sucking)
Unfulfilled: Dependency problems in adulthood
Overfulfilled: Passive adult
Pleasure and libido satisfaction from expelling and withholding feces
Theme: control, obedience
Potential causes of fixation:
Overly permissive parents --> adult without self-control
Authoritarian parents --> Adult who is overly controlling
Focus on penis for both sexes
Potential causes of fixation:
Overemphasis on gender, love, sexuality --> hypersexuality
Underemphasis on gender, love, sexuality --> Asexual adult
Boy develops unconscious desire to take father's place and have sex with mother
Boy believes father knows of this and will castrate him
Identifies with father's masculinity to get over this desire
Girls develop penis envy when they figure out they do not have one. Blames mother for misfortune
Develops urge to kill mother and have sex with father
Identifies with mother to accept femininity and follows mom's superego
Focus on genitals, reproduction, giving life
Theme: creation of life, contributions to life
Successful attainment: genital character
Anxiety from psychic conflict
Id, ego, and superego battle unconsciously causing anxiety
Defense mechanisms (Purpose, used by, organized by)
Purpose: anxiety management
Used by: Ego (unconscious)
Refuse to acknowledge the problem --> think source of anxiety does not exist
Push memory to the unconscious
Keeping fantasies repressed because they might threaten superego
ex. "Never thought about parents as sexual beings"
Over-emphasize the opposite
Forbidden by superego to express true urge
Ex. Homophobe -> is actually homosexual
Redirect to a safe target
Redirecting target to avoid interference with superego
Ex. A child angry at his parents might tease and insult her younger sibling instead--a person like the parent in some ways, but more psychologically acceptable as a target
Attribute internal impulses to other people
Ex. A man with unconscious homosexual desires avoids public bathrooms because he believes "you can't trust the other guys in there - they may be out to seduce you"
Justifying actions to align with superego. Not necessarily lying because individual may believe what they're saying.
Ex. "I patronize prostitutes only so I can get material for my latest novel."
Reverting to the comfort of behaviors of an earlier stage of development in order to cope
Unconscious so its unintentional. Prompted by a need for care and affection
Ex. Children who crawl around the floor and produce baby talk when a new baby enters the family
Redirecting anxiety-causing impulses into socially acceptable actions
Ex. Instead of pursuing gratification of sexual urges, authoring a literary masterpiece of romantic fiction
Likes killing things --> joins army
Limitations to Freudian Theory
Unscientific --> Can't be disproved (has an answer for everything no matter how outlandish it is)
Based on confidential case studies
No control group
Freud major contributions
1. The unconcious
2. Defenses to mental conflict
3. Influenced psychotherapy "talking cure"
Following Freud's original thinking and follow Freud's readings literally
Neo-analytic Theorists (names, important deviations)
People who develop their own psychoanalytic theories similar to Freud's
Jung, Adler, Horney, Erikson
1. Less emphasis on sexual libido
2. More emphasis on interpersonal relations
3. More emphasis on conscious thought
4. Modern "ego psychology"
What does "striving for compensation" mean? (Adlerian Theory)?
Adler believes that children are born with an inferior complex due to being around powerful and strong adults. This causes children to compensate for the inferiority by working hard to be competent and important.
The idea that everyone is born with some physical weakness.
Compensation for one's inferiorities
What is a complex? Inferiority vs superiority
A complex in unbalance in psyche. Superiority (Overcompensation). Inferiority (Failure to compensate)
Social Intrest Theory
For Adler, social interest is a primary source of motivation
Lack of social interest = mental illness
Social interest and energy (4 types)
Socially useful: High energy and social interest
Ruling-dominant: High energy, low social interest
Getting-leaning: Low energy and social interest
Avoiding: Low energy, extremely low social interest
Aggressive and domineering
Takes from others; somewhat passive, reserved, sensitive --> relies on others to take care of them
Conquers problems by running away
Socially useful type
Meets problems realistically; is cooperative and caring
"Crown prince of psychoanalysis"
Jung's interest that differed from Freud's
Religion, philosophy, mythology, the occult (supernatural)
Direct their libido (psychic energy) toward things in the external world
Introversion Personality Types
Extroversion Personality Types
Jung's theory of the mind
Ego (unconscious mind)
Unconscious thoughts that can be brought to the conscious mind if needed
-also includes repressed thoughts/memories
Carl G. Jung saw similarities in various cultures around the world so he concluded that we must share memories.
Most inaccessible layer, shared by all people
What is an archetype? (Jungian Theory)
Collective unconscious is stored as archetypes.
Symbolic representations of ancestral information not necessarily memories
Based on patient-dream analysis
What did Horney introduce to psychology?
1. Feminine psychology
2. Recognized societal influence
3. Proposed "womb envy"
Some men are sexist because they have womb envy. Men cant carry children or be mothers so they must be unconsciously jealous of women
The "self" according to horney
Real self: who you perceive yourself to be
Ideal self: Who you want to. Your idea of perfect
Goal of therapy is to accept real self
What causes self hate according to Horney?
Person may strive for idea self because they and others do not accept their real self --> never feel like they can reach ideal self
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
Focused on entire lifespan unlike Freud
Born with a potential for a certain personality but our environment shapes what traits are expressed
Each stage is a necessary foundation for the next
trust vs mistrust
autonomy vs shame and doubt
initiative vs guilt
industry vs inferiority
identity vs role confusion
intimacy vs isolation
generativity vs stagnation
integrity vs despair
Trust vs. Mistrust
Good care giving is needed for trust
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Control of one's body and impulses through exploration and self-confidence
Initiative vs. Guilt
Focus on independence
Industry vs. Inferiority
child learns to be productive
identity vs. role confusion
Experimentation with various identities to find out who you are
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Commitment to intimate relationships and deep friendships
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Concern or caring for future generations, making a legacy that will benefit subsequent generations
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Reviewing life and realizing if it was satisfying
Gene sharing percentages (Child/parents, full siblings, half siblings, distant relatives)
Full siblings: 50%
Half siblings: 25%
Distant relatives: <25%
Marcia's identity statuses
One's sense of identity is determined largely by the choices and commitments made regarding certain personal and social traits
Exploration and commitment: Identity achievement
Exploration, no commitment: Moratorium
No Exploration, commitment: Identity foreclosure
No Exploration, no commitment: Identity diffusion
Eysenck's theory of personality
Based on personality traits, physiological functioning, ease of conditioning
Anxiety, insecurity, emotional instability
Eysenck's Theory of the Nervous System Temperament
Nervous system regulates the sensory stimuli
Overstimulation --> introversion
Understimulation --> extroversion
Nervous system regulates emotion
Emotional stability --> well controlled nervous system
Emotional instability --> neuroticism, very active nervous system
Dopamine (neurotransmitter) is implicated in
Movement, approach, sociability, motivation, emotion
Low dopamine levels
Movement disorders (ex. Parkinson's disease)
Absence of emotion, motivation, sociability
Sensation seekers may use cocaine to increase dopamine levels
Inhibits behavioral and emotional impulses
Helps us avoid excess worry, anger and sensitivity
Low serotonin levels
Decreased mood, impulsiveness, may be prone to sensation seeking and addiction
raises serotonin levels
Travel through bloodstream
Present in men and women --> Higher levels in men
Thought to make people more sociable, dominant
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