77 terms

USJ 2018-2019 - Week 7 Science Vocabulary

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cholesterol
- found in animal tissues, too much can lead to heart disease
signals
- messages sent from brain to nerves
synapse
- place where nerve messages are sent and received
relay
- to transmit a signal
extend
- to increase in length
involuntary
- muscle controlled without thinking about it (pumping heart)
ligaments
- tissues that connect bones, hold organs in place
muscles
- tissues that cause motion in the body when contracted
cardiac muscle
- type of muscle in the heart
musculoskeletal
- muscular and skeletal systems
skeletal muscle
- muscle connected at either end with a bone
smooth muscle
- found in the walls of internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles
tendons
- connects muscle to bone
skeleton
- framework that support the body
Organ
- Similar tissues with a specific function
Inherited traits
- Characteristics passed down through genes given to you by parents
Trait
- distinguishing characteristics
Characteristics-
quality of an organism
DNA-
material in life forms that transfers genetic characteristics
Inherited
-characteristics from parents
Likeness
similarity in appearance or nature between persons or things
Organism
- individual living system
parents
organisms that produce offspring
Offspring
- the young/babies of a person, animal or plant
Generations
- a group of individuals born or living at the same time, such as siblings.
Cell
- the basic unit of life
Multicellular
- composed of several of many cells
Learned Behavior
- A skill you learn through experience such as walking, language, sports...
Unicellular
- composed of one cell
Permeable
- able to pass through
Tissues
- similar cells with a specific function
bones
- forms the substance of a skeleton, support the body
cranium
- skull
femur
- longest, largest, and strongest bone in the human body; located in the leg
cartilage
- flexible connective tissue
fracture
- to break or crack
joints
-place where two parts are joined or united to allow motion
voluntary
- muscle whose action is controlled by the person (example: lifting an arm)
humerus
- long bone in arm extending from the shoulder to the elbow
flex
- to bend
contract
- to draw together
Autonomic Nervous system
- system of nerves that control involuntary functions
axon
- part of neuron that takes information away from a cell body
brain
- controls mental and physical actions, located in the cranium (skull)
brain stem
- part of brain near spinal cord; controls reflexes, breathing, and heartbeat
cerebellum
- large portion of the brain, controls voluntary motions
Immovable joint
- not able to be moved
cerebrum
- largest part of the brain, controls voluntary movements and mental actions
dendrites
- part of a neuron that brings information to a cell body
nerves
- bundle of fibers that send impulses from the brain to other parts of the body
neurons
- specialized, impulse-conducting cells (composed of cell body, axon, dendrites)
spinal cord
- cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal column
stimuli
- something that causes an action (example-stimulus: hot stove, response: moving hand away from hot stove)
Aerobic exercise
- exercise that increases the need for oxygen
anaerobic exercise examples
- exercise that builds muscles through tension
atrium
- two upper chambers on each side of the heart, receives blood from veins and forces blood into ventricles
blood
- circulates in body to sustain life
blood vessels
- any of the vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries) through which the blood circulates
Cardiac
- relating to the heart
Heart
- organ (consisting of four chambers) that circulates blood, divided into four chambers (valves)
Circulation
- flowing (such as the flow of blood throughout the body)
plasma
- contains blood's proteins, suspends blood cells
pulmonary artery
- transports blood from the heart to the lungs
red blood cells
- carries oxygen to your body
Pulse
- regular throbbing of arteries caused by heart contractions
Ventricles
- located in the heart, left and right, pumps blood to the entire body
White blood cells
- fight off infections and diseases
platelets
- smallest blood cells to help form clots if you have an injury
Diaphragm
- sheet-like muscle separating the chest from the abdominal cavity; creates suction to draw in air and expand lungs.
exhale
to breathe out
inhale
to breathe in
Larynx (voice box)
Voice box, Triangular shaped chamber below pharynx that contain vocal cords and Adam's Apple. Is covered by the Epiglottis when swallowing.
Lungs
- two respiratory organs.
nasal passages (nasal cavity)
- helps with inhaling and exhaling of air through the nose.
Pharynx (throat)
- throat; collects incoming air from the nose and passes air to the trachea.
Respiration
- inhaling and exhaling air, breathing.
sinuses
- hollow spaces in the bones of the head, helps regulate temperature of air breathed in.
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