Persuasive Techniques and Satire Terms

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association
This persuasion technique tries to LINK a PRODUCT, SERVICE, or IDEA with something already LIKED or DESIRED by the target audience, such as fun, pleasure, beauty, security, intimacy, success, wealth, etc. (family = Coke, victory = Nike).
bandwagon
Many ads show lots of people using the product, implying that "EVERYONE IS DOING IT" (or at least, "all the cool people are doing it"). No one likes to be left out or left behind, and these ads urge us to "jump on board."
fear
This technique uses something DISLIKED by the intended audience (like bad breath, failure, high taxes or terrorism) to promote a "solution."
humor
Advertisers make us LAUGH and then show us their product or logo because they're trying to connect that GOO FEELING to their product. They hope that when we see their product in a store, we'll subtly re-experience that good feeling and select their product.
plain folks
This technique uses a "REGULAR PERSON" more than an intellectual or a highly-paid celebrity to sell everyday products like laundry detergent because we can more easily see ourselves using the product, too.
testimonials
Media messages often show people ENDORSING or PROMOTING about the value or quality of a product. They can be EXPERTS, CELEBRITIES, or PLAIN FOLKS. We tend to believe them because they appear to be a neutral third party (a pop star, for example, not the lipstick maker, or a community member instead of the politician running for office.)
intensifiers
The language includes SUPERLATIVES (greatest, best, most, fastest, lowest prices), COMPARATIVES (more, better than, improved, increased, fewer calories), HYPERBOLE (amazing,
incredible, forever), EXAGGERATION, and many other ways to hype the product.
euphemism
Technique tries to pacify audiences in order to make an UNPLEASANT REALITY MORE ACCEPTABLE. Bland or abstract terms are used instead of clearer, more graphic words. Thus, we hear about corporate "downsizing" instead of "layoffs," or "intensive interrogation techniques" instead of "torture."
glittering generalities.
This is the use of so-called "VIRTUE WORDS" such as civilization, democracy, freedom, patriotism, motherhood, fatherhood, science, health, beauty, and love. Persuaders use these words in the hope that we will approve and accept their statements without examining the evidence.
name-calling
This technique links a person or idea to a NEGATIVE SYMBOL OR IDEA (liar, creep, gossip, etc.). Persuaders use this technique to make us reject the person or the idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence.
rhetorical questions
These are QUESTIONS designed to get us to agree with the speaker. They are set up so that the "correct" answer is obvious. ("Do you want to get out of debt?" "Do you want quick relief from headache pain?" and "Should we leave our nation vulnerable to terrorist attacks?" --they used to build trust and alignment.
slippery slope
Instead of predicting a positive future, it WARNS against a NEGATIVE OUTCOME claiming it's just the first step down toward something the target audience opposes. ("If we let them ban smoking in restaurants because it's unhealthy, eventually they'll ban fast food, too."
ad hominem
Latin for "AGAINST THE MAN," the technique responds to an argument by attacking the opponent instead of addressing the argument itself.
analogy
This technique COMPARES ONE SITUATION WITH ANOTHER where the situations are reasonably similar, can aid decision-making. E.g. Finding a Good Man is Like Finding a Needle in a Haystack
faulty cause vs. correlation
Persuaders can fool us by intentionally CONFUSING CORRELATION with CAUSE. For example: Babies drink milk. Babies cry. Therefore, drinking milk makes babies cry.
group dynamics
We are greatly INFLUENCED BY WHAT OTHER PEOPLE THINK especially in an atmosphere of live audiences & rallies. Politicians can use "we" in speeches in order to persuade others
scapegoating
This technique BLAMES a PROBLEM on ONE PERSON or GROUP. Some people, for example, claim that undocumented ("illegal") immigrants are the main cause of unemployment in the United States, even though unemployment is a complex problem with many causes.
strawman
A fallacy that occurs when a speaker chooses a deliberately POOR or OVERSIMPLIFIED example in order to RIDICULE and REFUTE an idea. This technique builds up an illogical or deliberately damaged idea and presents it as something that one's opponent supports or represents. It may include someone EXAGGERATING someone's position through HYPERBOLE or ABSOLUTES (never, always) or DISTORTING the opponent's argument in some way.
card stacking
Only the GOOD ASPECTS of the product are emphasized; negative aspects appear in fine print
stereotyping
BROAD GENERALIZATIONS are made of people based on their gender, ethnicity, race, political, social
begging the question or circular reasoning
The argument goes around and around, with evidence REPEATING the SAME CLAIM without really providing logical reasoning
non sequitur
(logic) a conclusion that DOES NOT FOLLOW from the premises; there is a DISCONNECT between two statements
either/or fallacy
a statement that identifies TWO ALTERNATIVES and FALSELY suggests that if one is rejected, the other must be accepted--EITHER this OR that
false analogy
a fallacy making a MISLEADING COMPARISON between logically unconnected ideas
red herring
a DISTRACTION from the argument typically with some sentiment that seems to be relevant but isn't really on-topic.
satire
the use of humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize people's stupidity or vices, particularly in the context of contemporary politics and other topical issues.
Horatian Satire
Satire which pokes fun at human weaknesses with a LIGHT HEARTED or SOFT TONE; gently criticizes human nature
Juvenialian satire
Satire which really criticizes HUMAN PROBLEMS OR SOCIAL ISSUES in dignified and SERIOUS TONES; more angry and personal, attempting to produce a negative emotion in the reader.
verbal irony
A literary device where WHAT IS SAID is the OPPOSITE of what is MEANT.
dramatic irony
This type of irony occurs when the AUDIENCE KNOWS MORE about a character's situation than the character does.
situational irony
Irony involving actual events end up OPPOSITE FROM WHAT IS EXPECTED
caricature
EXAGGERATION of an individual's strongest characteristics to the point of ridiculousness
wit
CLEVER SAYINGS (aggressive or harmless); with or without mean intent.
sarcasm
A CUTTING REMARK involves obvious, verbal irony; sayings that are the opposite of what is meant ("Nice shoes.")
ridicule
to CONDEMN or CRITICIZE by making the thing, idea, or person seem laughable and ridiculous
parody
take the style of the author or work and REPLICATE THE STYLE but doing so with humor
incongruity
To present things that are OUT OF PLACE or are ABSURD in relation to its surroundings.
paradox
A statement or proposition that seems SELF-CONTRADICTORY or absurd but in reality expresses a possible TRUTH. Examples: I know one thing; that I know nothing. OR This is the beginning of the end.
oxymoron
Using contradiction in a way that seems ridiculous. Simple or joking examples include TWO CONTRASTING WORDS NEXT TO EACH OTHER such as jumbo shrimp, sophisticated rednecks, and military intelligence.
juxtaposition
CONTRASTING IMAGES OR IDEAS to highlight the differences between them
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