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Freud, Erikson, Jung

psychoanalytic theory

reconstruct the personality rather than solve immediate problems; focus on the past and analyze the aspects of the unconscious that are manifested in present behavior


the result of failing to meet some critical developmental task or becoming fixated at somem early level of development

stages of psychosexual development

oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

neurotic personality development

incomplete resolution of one of the stages of psychosexual development

free association

(psychoanalytic) permitting the client to say whatever come to mind in order to reveal the unconscious


(psychoanalytic) the process of analyzing the material that the cleitn reveals from the unconsicious

dream analysis

(psychoanalytic) sharing the clients dreams and then free associate to parts and symbols in the dream

contributions of Freud's theory

first theory, framework for exploring a person's history, resolving resistance to therapy

analysis and interpretation resistance or transference

(psychoanalytic) therapist interprets to the client the significance of resistance or transference

limitations Freud's theory

prolonged training, lengthy period of therapy, importance of action is not realized, not measurable, does not take into account social, cultrual, and interpersonal variables, cannot be used in crisis counseling

who developed 8 stages of life in his psychosocial theory


Basic Trust vs Basic Mistrust

birth to 18 months-are the nourishment and care needs met?

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt

18 to 30 months-can the child demonstrate some level of independence?

initiative vs guilt

2 1/2 to 5 years-child begins to develop imagination and learns and enjoys to perform adult roles, begins to realize restraints are necessary

industry vs inferiority

elementary and middle years-child becomes curious and needs to explore and manipulate the environment, competency is through accomplishments, aware of interaction, school and neighborhood, is the child adequate?

identitiy vs role confusion

adolescence-striving for identity, formulate own values, beliefs, and life style, experiment with different types

intimacy vs isolation

young adulthood-willing to be open about self and commit to a close personal relationship

generativity vs stagnation

maturity is achieved, establish and guide the next generation and come to terms with one's dream and accomplishments

ego integrity vs despair

during later life-has one led a satisfied life


pleasure principle



super ego



therapist reaction to tward the interferes with objectivity, usually a result of a need of the therapist

personality disorder

individual fails to adequately develop in the separation-indivudation phase, instability, irritablity, self-destruction, impulsive anger, extreme mood shifts


client attributes to others the qualities that are unacceptable in his/her personality


relationship between two individuls that is advantageous or necessary to both


clt is angry and someone and takes it out on the clr

adlerian therapy

psychosocial-learn about attitude toward life-main goal is confronting basic mistakes and assumption the clt holds and attempting to redirect them

lifestyle assessment

main tool of adlerian theory, questionnaire about the clt's family, memories, dreams, and self-concepts, explores birth order and interaction

therapist's role in adlerian therapy

a guide, responsibility is placed on the client a contract may be completed

contribution of Adler's therapy

started other humanistic theories, influential on the cognitive-behavioral theories, family therapies and mental health work and those culturally diverse,

limitations of Adler's theory

inability to validate concepts, oversimplication of complex human functioning

avoiding trap

(adlerian) avoiding reinforcing destructive clt behavior

basic mistakes

(adlerian) self-defeating beliefs influence a person's behavior

catching oneself

(adlerian) clt becoming aware of self-destructive behavior, irrational thoughts, and anticipation of events before they happen

ficitonal finalism

(adlerian) one's ultimate goal

life style

(adlerian) the way in which one copes iwth life

motivational modification

(adlerian) clr's interest in changing the clt's negative lifestyle goals and of challenging their basic negative concepts

paradoxical intention

(adlerian) helping the client invoke exaggerated negative thoughts to help the clt become aware of his behavior and the consequences of that behavior

phenomenological orientation

(adlerian) attempting to view the world from the clt's point of view

spitting in the clt's soup

(adlerian) reduces the usefulness of a clt's manipulative behavior to spoil the effects

behavior theory

Lazarus, Bandura, Wolpe, Kazdin

main goal of behavior theory

eliminate negative learned behavior; goals should be specific, concrete, with specific problems,

role clt in behavior theory

make the problem clear, verbalize the consequences , serves as a model for the clt formulate alternate outcomes

techniques that can be used with behavior theory

relaxation, reinforcement, modeling, assertive training, mutimodal therapy, self-management programs

contributions of behavior theory

techniques are based on empirical research, treatment is based on the asessment of ind. needs, effective on short-term, can be applied to culturally diverse

limitations of behavior theory

success depends upone the ability to control environmental factors, danger of imposing conforming behaviors, does not address philosophical problems, clr could direct towards own personal goals, past history may not be considered important

contingency contracting

(behvavior) specific behavior change contract, the rewards that follow as well as the time limit for completion


(behvavior) redoing the behaviors that have caused the problem and performing new behaviors that can eliminate the problem

multimodal therapy

(behvavior) clr evaluates clt's level of functioning at beginning and then adjusts procedures and techniques to the goals of the clt (Lazarus)

operant conditioning

(behvavior) Skinner's concept that says behaviors of active organisms are controlled and controllable

social learning theory

(behvavior) Bandura's theory that says behavior is understood by taking into consideration social condtion under which learning occurs

systematic desensitization

(behvavior) teaching clt to not respond with anxiety with gradual and progressive anxiety producing situations ending in defusing the anxeity

technical eclecticism

(behvavior) using different techniques from different theories to achienve the goals of the behavior change

founder of rational-emotive therapy


cognitive-behavior therapy

clts explore reasons for their behavior and seek to understand the ramifications of such behavior

cogntivie-behavior therapists

Ellis, Beck, Meichenbaum

key concept of RET

even thought emotional malfunction is rooted in childhood ind continue to reinforce themselves in irrational and illogical thinking

the approach that serves as the basis for RET



actual event, belief system, consequences

Meichenbaum's cognitive-behavior phases

conceptual phase (montior behavior and thoughts) rehearsal phase (create a new internal system through substitution) application phase (apply more effective coping skills to real life situations

Aaron Beck's approach assumed

that clts' conservsations with themselves played a major role in their behavior

goal of Beck's approach

help clts to recognize and discard self-defeating thinking and correct erronenous beliefs

cbt is used for

depression, anxiety, and phobic behavior

contributions of cbt

clg is brief, practice is emphasized, clts ability to control destiny, dialogue helps clt to change behavior, clts accept responsibility, good for crisis situations

limitations of cbt

reason for irrational beliefs is not explored, clt of low intelligence might not understand dialogue, clr could impose personal views, emotional issues are nto explored

arbitrary inferences

(beck's cbt) making conclusions without the basis of supporting evidence

collaborative empiricism

(beck's cbt) clt is capable of making objective interpreations of behavior, clt and clr work to uncover faulty interpretations

disputational method

(ret) method to helps clts challenge irrational beliefs


(ellis) belief that there are musts, shoulds, and oughts,


(cbt) tendency for ind to relate events to themselves when there is no basis for this connection

selective abstraction

(cbt) distorted views of forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event

shame-attacking exercises

(ret) encouraging the ind to do things w/o feeling they are foolish, avoid depending on behaving according to the impressions of others


(cb modification) give clt the coping tools to restructure stressful thinking, rehearse needed behavior changes, solve emotional problems caused by stress, change a persona' self-statements

therapeutic collaboration

(cbt) active cooperation between clt and clr in all phases of therapy

existential therapy

relationship oriented, experiential and philosophical, focuses on freedom, isolation, death, and meaninglessness

assumption of existential therapy

we are free and therefore responsible for our actions and the results of those actions and choices, authors of our lives not the victims of circumstances

goals of existential therapy

help clts become aware they are free to expand this awareness to increase options on the basis of their freedom to choose other options, accept responsibility of those choices to recognize the factors that hinder their freedom to choose, and become all they are capable fo being

contributions of existential therapy

clt-clr relastionship is based on the humanity of the ind, focuses on issues important to attaining life satisfaction

limitations of existential therapy

lack of systematic procedure, concepts are difficult to comprehend, no scientific research, lower functioning clts, those in crisis, and others may not benefit

existential therapist

Frankl, Yalom, May

founder of person-centered therapy

carl rogers

assumption of person-centered therapy

ind have internal resources to work toward wholeness and self-actualization and can move forward constructively on their own

goal of person-centered therapy

create an atmosphere of safety and trust enabling the clt to use this relationshp to beocme aware of what is blocking growth, and eventually transferring this awareness to other relatioships, experience the immediate moment

clr role in person-centered therapy

create an atmosphere of empathy, acceptance, warmth, and caring, unconditional positive regard

three characteristics of clr for person-centered therapy

genuineness, unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding

contributions of person-centered therapy

clr is not an expert providing advice, relationship-centered rather than technique-centered, clt assumes responsibility for the direcition of the therapy, person needs to account for his inner experience reasearch valedated

limitation of person-centered therapy

clr has lack of genuine empathy, clr anxious to solve problems rather than understand the problem, clr does not appropriately self-disclose, clr uses sterotypes, clr does not believe the clt can change behavior, not effective in crises


(pct) clr demonstrate true genuineness

humanistic psychology

(pct) movement emphasizing freedom, choice, values, growth, self-actualization, becoming, spontatneity, creativity, play, humor, and psychological health

nondirective counseling

(pct) clt is the one who knows himself and should not be in the passive role, clt leads therapy


(pct) discrepancy between self-concept and ideal self-concept and the experience of anxiety and awareness of the existence of a problem

personal power

clr to be aware his feelings. needs, and values in order to not attempt to control the clt but allow the clt to tap into their own source of self-direction


development of one's potential and the basis of people being trusted to resolve their own problems in a therapeutic relationship

founder of gestalt theory

frederick perls with the Polsters

gestalt theory stresses

here and now, what and how of behavior, the part unfinished business from the past prevents the ind from functioning in the present

gestalt theory says that the most frequent cause of unfinished business is


(gestalt) other sources of unfinished business are

avoidance, guilt, anger, grief, and other not resolved

Perls sees five layers of neurosis

(gestalt) phonly layer, phobic layer, impasse layer, implosive layer, explosive layer

Perls saw anxiety as

the distance between the now and later

goals of Gestalt therapy are

clt to develop self-support system, replace current support system, more aware of here and now and self, recognize parts of self that have been denied, assume ownership and responsibility

contributions of Gestalt therapy

de-emphasizing the intellectualizations of problems, brief therapy, working with past to recognize past, work with dreams to increase awareness of unconscious, focus on experiencing rather than just talking about the problems, can be used in group, school and classroom, workshops and ind counseling sessions

limitations of Gestalt therapy

little theoroetical underpinnings, ignores cognitive factors, clr can direct therapy, lack of research


(gestalt) speaking of an incident in the past in contrast to speaking of the same incident in the present


(gestalt) blurring of awareness of the difference between onself and environment


(gestalt) split by which a person experiences opposing forces

explosive layer

(gestalt) releasing phony role pretenses to achieve a sense of relief and release

implosive level

(gestalt) stage at which we allow ourselves to fully experience our deadness or inauthentic ways in order to make contact with our own genuine self


(gestalt) acceptance of others' beliefs and standards without analyzing, assimilating and internalizing them

phobic layer

(gestalt) avoiding emotional pain of our real selves

phony layer

(gestalt) reacting to other in stereotypical and inauthentic ways playing games

impasse layer

(gestalt) sense of deadness or foreboding dom

projection (gestalt)

disowning the parts of ourselves and blaming them on the environment


(gestalt) turning back to ourselves what we would like to do or have done to others

founder of reality theory


reality theory attempts to explain

why and how people behave from the point of view of the subjective internal perception of the ir world,

reality theory assumes

that we are in charge of our lives, we choose our forms of behavior, and that behavior is directe towards increasing self-esteem, increasing belonging and attaining power and freedom

reality theory does not dwell

on the past, the unconscious, the role of insight, or take into consideration the process of transference

reality theory identifies four psychological needs that drive us

belonging, power, freedom, and fun

clr role with clt in reality theory

is one of concern, support, warmth, involved with clt in positive way, not acceptiong excuses for inappropriate behavior, and continously prodding and pushing to help the clt accept the reality and responsibility for her actions

goals of reality theory

clt to assume responsibility for deciding what goals to pursue, be committed to those goals, make a value judgement about his behavior, plan a specific course of action for have the experience of success, carry about these plans in every day life

model of reality-theory groups

WDEP model


(reality) wants, doing, evaluation, planning and commitment

contributions of reality theory

clt is responsible in evaluating behavior, change that behavior, and determine the types of behavior to be changed, clt is the catalyst in making specific plans, forming contracts fora ction and evaluating success of the actions, emphasis is accoutnablility, structure to evaluate the degree and nature of the changes effected, short-term clear and simply understood therapy that is applicable to different situations and all clients

limitations of reality theory

consideration not give to feelings, unconscioius, and past, influence of culture and environment not taken into account, origins of behavior not considered, lack of research to establish effectiveness

control theory

(reality) theory of why people act the way they do internal motivation ot have the power to master one's own world


(reality) role of clrwith the clt in reality therapy, establish relationship with the clt

paining behaviors

(reality) manifesting pain symptoms, such as depression, to refocus the problem on the symptoms instead of the behavior

perceived world

(reality) subjective world

picture album

(reality) perceived reality of the clt formulated in order to meet their psychological needs, ideal situation

positive addiction

(reality) acts performed to gain psychological strength such as physical activity and mediation


(reality) manner in which we satisfy our needs without interfering iwth the rights of others

success identity

(reality) ind is able to give and receive love, has a sense of self worth and pssess the strenght to create a satisfying life

total behavior

(reality) blend of the sum of all our activities that forms our personality and the person we have become

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