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135 terms

Counseling Theories

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Psychoanalytic
Freud, Erikson, Jung
psychoanalytic theory
reconstruct the personality rather than solve immediate problems; focus on the past and analyze the aspects of the unconscious that are manifested in present behavior
psycopathology
the result of failing to meet some critical developmental task or becoming fixated at somem early level of development
stages of psychosexual development
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
neurotic personality development
incomplete resolution of one of the stages of psychosexual development
free association
(psychoanalytic) permitting the client to say whatever come to mind in order to reveal the unconscious
interpreation
(psychoanalytic) the process of analyzing the material that the cleitn reveals from the unconsicious
dream analysis
(psychoanalytic) sharing the clients dreams and then free associate to parts and symbols in the dream
contributions of Freud's theory
first theory, framework for exploring a person's history, resolving resistance to therapy
analysis and interpretation resistance or transference
(psychoanalytic) therapist interprets to the client the significance of resistance or transference
limitations Freud's theory
prolonged training, lengthy period of therapy, importance of action is not realized, not measurable, does not take into account social, cultrual, and interpersonal variables, cannot be used in crisis counseling
who developed 8 stages of life in his psychosocial theory
Erikson
Basic Trust vs Basic Mistrust
birth to 18 months-are the nourishment and care needs met?
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
18 to 30 months-can the child demonstrate some level of independence?
initiative vs guilt
2 1/2 to 5 years-child begins to develop imagination and learns and enjoys to perform adult roles, begins to realize restraints are necessary
industry vs inferiority
elementary and middle years-child becomes curious and needs to explore and manipulate the environment, competency is through accomplishments, aware of interaction, school and neighborhood, is the child adequate?
identitiy vs role confusion
adolescence-striving for identity, formulate own values, beliefs, and life style, experiment with different types
intimacy vs isolation
young adulthood-willing to be open about self and commit to a close personal relationship
generativity vs stagnation
maturity is achieved, establish and guide the next generation and come to terms with one's dream and accomplishments
ego integrity vs despair
during later life-has one led a satisfied life
id
pleasure principle
ego
mediator
super ego
morals/perfection
countertransference
therapist reaction to tward the interferes with objectivity, usually a result of a need of the therapist
personality disorder
individual fails to adequately develop in the separation-indivudation phase, instability, irritablity, self-destruction, impulsive anger, extreme mood shifts
projection
client attributes to others the qualities that are unacceptable in his/her personality
symbiosis
relationship between two individuls that is advantageous or necessary to both
transference
clt is angry and someone and takes it out on the clr
adlerian therapy
psychosocial-learn about attitude toward life-main goal is confronting basic mistakes and assumption the clt holds and attempting to redirect them
lifestyle assessment
main tool of adlerian theory, questionnaire about the clt's family, memories, dreams, and self-concepts, explores birth order and interaction
therapist's role in adlerian therapy
a guide, responsibility is placed on the client a contract may be completed
contribution of Adler's therapy
started other humanistic theories, influential on the cognitive-behavioral theories, family therapies and mental health work and those culturally diverse,
limitations of Adler's theory
inability to validate concepts, oversimplication of complex human functioning
avoiding trap
(adlerian) avoiding reinforcing destructive clt behavior
basic mistakes
(adlerian) self-defeating beliefs influence a person's behavior
catching oneself
(adlerian) clt becoming aware of self-destructive behavior, irrational thoughts, and anticipation of events before they happen
ficitonal finalism
(adlerian) one's ultimate goal
life style
(adlerian) the way in which one copes iwth life
motivational modification
(adlerian) clr's interest in changing the clt's negative lifestyle goals and of challenging their basic negative concepts
paradoxical intention
(adlerian) helping the client invoke exaggerated negative thoughts to help the clt become aware of his behavior and the consequences of that behavior
phenomenological orientation
(adlerian) attempting to view the world from the clt's point of view
spitting in the clt's soup
(adlerian) reduces the usefulness of a clt's manipulative behavior to spoil the effects
behavior theory
Lazarus, Bandura, Wolpe, Kazdin
main goal of behavior theory
eliminate negative learned behavior; goals should be specific, concrete, with specific problems,
role clt in behavior theory
make the problem clear, verbalize the consequences , serves as a model for the clt formulate alternate outcomes
techniques that can be used with behavior theory
relaxation, reinforcement, modeling, assertive training, mutimodal therapy, self-management programs
contributions of behavior theory
techniques are based on empirical research, treatment is based on the asessment of ind. needs, effective on short-term, can be applied to culturally diverse
limitations of behavior theory
success depends upone the ability to control environmental factors, danger of imposing conforming behaviors, does not address philosophical problems, clr could direct towards own personal goals, past history may not be considered important
contingency contracting
(behvavior) specific behavior change contract, the rewards that follow as well as the time limit for completion
counterconditioning
(behvavior) redoing the behaviors that have caused the problem and performing new behaviors that can eliminate the problem
multimodal therapy
(behvavior) clr evaluates clt's level of functioning at beginning and then adjusts procedures and techniques to the goals of the clt (Lazarus)
operant conditioning
(behvavior) Skinner's concept that says behaviors of active organisms are controlled and controllable
social learning theory
(behvavior) Bandura's theory that says behavior is understood by taking into consideration social condtion under which learning occurs
systematic desensitization
(behvavior) teaching clt to not respond with anxiety with gradual and progressive anxiety producing situations ending in defusing the anxeity
technical eclecticism
(behvavior) using different techniques from different theories to achienve the goals of the behavior change
founder of rational-emotive therapy
Ellis
cognitive-behavior therapy
clts explore reasons for their behavior and seek to understand the ramifications of such behavior
cogntivie-behavior therapists
Ellis, Beck, Meichenbaum
key concept of RET
even thought emotional malfunction is rooted in childhood ind continue to reinforce themselves in irrational and illogical thinking
the approach that serves as the basis for RET
ABC
A-B-C
actual event, belief system, consequences
Meichenbaum's cognitive-behavior phases
conceptual phase (montior behavior and thoughts) rehearsal phase (create a new internal system through substitution) application phase (apply more effective coping skills to real life situations
Aaron Beck's approach assumed
that clts' conservsations with themselves played a major role in their behavior
goal of Beck's approach
help clts to recognize and discard self-defeating thinking and correct erronenous beliefs
cbt is used for
depression, anxiety, and phobic behavior
contributions of cbt
clg is brief, practice is emphasized, clts ability to control destiny, dialogue helps clt to change behavior, clts accept responsibility, good for crisis situations
limitations of cbt
reason for irrational beliefs is not explored, clt of low intelligence might not understand dialogue, clr could impose personal views, emotional issues are nto explored
arbitrary inferences
(beck's cbt) making conclusions without the basis of supporting evidence
collaborative empiricism
(beck's cbt) clt is capable of making objective interpreations of behavior, clt and clr work to uncover faulty interpretations
disputational method
(ret) method to helps clts challenge irrational beliefs
musturbation
(ellis) belief that there are musts, shoulds, and oughts,
personalization
(cbt) tendency for ind to relate events to themselves when there is no basis for this connection
selective abstraction
(cbt) distorted views of forming conclusions based on an isolated detail of an event
shame-attacking exercises
(ret) encouraging the ind to do things w/o feeling they are foolish, avoid depending on behaving according to the impressions of others
stress-inoculation
(cb modification) give clt the coping tools to restructure stressful thinking, rehearse needed behavior changes, solve emotional problems caused by stress, change a persona' self-statements
therapeutic collaboration
(cbt) active cooperation between clt and clr in all phases of therapy
existential therapy
relationship oriented, experiential and philosophical, focuses on freedom, isolation, death, and meaninglessness
assumption of existential therapy
we are free and therefore responsible for our actions and the results of those actions and choices, authors of our lives not the victims of circumstances
goals of existential therapy
help clts become aware they are free to expand this awareness to increase options on the basis of their freedom to choose other options, accept responsibility of those choices to recognize the factors that hinder their freedom to choose, and become all they are capable fo being
contributions of existential therapy
clt-clr relastionship is based on the humanity of the ind, focuses on issues important to attaining life satisfaction
limitations of existential therapy
lack of systematic procedure, concepts are difficult to comprehend, no scientific research, lower functioning clts, those in crisis, and others may not benefit
existential therapist
Frankl, Yalom, May
founder of person-centered therapy
carl rogers
assumption of person-centered therapy
ind have internal resources to work toward wholeness and self-actualization and can move forward constructively on their own
goal of person-centered therapy
create an atmosphere of safety and trust enabling the clt to use this relationshp to beocme aware of what is blocking growth, and eventually transferring this awareness to other relatioships, experience the immediate moment
clr role in person-centered therapy
create an atmosphere of empathy, acceptance, warmth, and caring, unconditional positive regard
three characteristics of clr for person-centered therapy
genuineness, unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding
contributions of person-centered therapy
clr is not an expert providing advice, relationship-centered rather than technique-centered, clt assumes responsibility for the direcition of the therapy, person needs to account for his inner experience reasearch valedated
limitation of person-centered therapy
clr has lack of genuine empathy, clr anxious to solve problems rather than understand the problem, clr does not appropriately self-disclose, clr uses sterotypes, clr does not believe the clt can change behavior, not effective in crises
congruence
(pct) clr demonstrate true genuineness
humanistic psychology
(pct) movement emphasizing freedom, choice, values, growth, self-actualization, becoming, spontatneity, creativity, play, humor, and psychological health
nondirective counseling
(pct) clt is the one who knows himself and should not be in the passive role, clt leads therapy
incongruence
(pct) discrepancy between self-concept and ideal self-concept and the experience of anxiety and awareness of the existence of a problem
personal power
clr to be aware his feelings. needs, and values in order to not attempt to control the clt but allow the clt to tap into their own source of self-direction
self-acutalization
development of one's potential and the basis of people being trusted to resolve their own problems in a therapeutic relationship
founder of gestalt theory
frederick perls with the Polsters
gestalt theory stresses
here and now, what and how of behavior, the part unfinished business from the past prevents the ind from functioning in the present
gestalt theory says that the most frequent cause of unfinished business is
resentment
(gestalt) other sources of unfinished business are
avoidance, guilt, anger, grief, and other not resolved
Perls sees five layers of neurosis
(gestalt) phonly layer, phobic layer, impasse layer, implosive layer, explosive layer
Perls saw anxiety as
the distance between the now and later
goals of Gestalt therapy are
clt to develop self-support system, replace current support system, more aware of here and now and self, recognize parts of self that have been denied, assume ownership and responsibility
contributions of Gestalt therapy
de-emphasizing the intellectualizations of problems, brief therapy, working with past to recognize past, work with dreams to increase awareness of unconscious, focus on experiencing rather than just talking about the problems, can be used in group, school and classroom, workshops and ind counseling sessions
limitations of Gestalt therapy
little theoroetical underpinnings, ignores cognitive factors, clr can direct therapy, lack of research
aboutism
(gestalt) speaking of an incident in the past in contrast to speaking of the same incident in the present
confluence
(gestalt) blurring of awareness of the difference between onself and environment
dichotomy/polarity
(gestalt) split by which a person experiences opposing forces
explosive layer
(gestalt) releasing phony role pretenses to achieve a sense of relief and release
implosive level
(gestalt) stage at which we allow ourselves to fully experience our deadness or inauthentic ways in order to make contact with our own genuine self
introjection
(gestalt) acceptance of others' beliefs and standards without analyzing, assimilating and internalizing them
phobic layer
(gestalt) avoiding emotional pain of our real selves
phony layer
(gestalt) reacting to other in stereotypical and inauthentic ways playing games
impasse layer
(gestalt) sense of deadness or foreboding dom
projection (gestalt)
disowning the parts of ourselves and blaming them on the environment
retroflection
(gestalt) turning back to ourselves what we would like to do or have done to others
founder of reality theory
Glasser
reality theory attempts to explain
why and how people behave from the point of view of the subjective internal perception of the ir world,
reality theory assumes
that we are in charge of our lives, we choose our forms of behavior, and that behavior is directe towards increasing self-esteem, increasing belonging and attaining power and freedom
reality theory does not dwell
on the past, the unconscious, the role of insight, or take into consideration the process of transference
reality theory identifies four psychological needs that drive us
belonging, power, freedom, and fun
clr role with clt in reality theory
is one of concern, support, warmth, involved with clt in positive way, not acceptiong excuses for inappropriate behavior, and continously prodding and pushing to help the clt accept the reality and responsibility for her actions
goals of reality theory
clt to assume responsibility for deciding what goals to pursue, be committed to those goals, make a value judgement about his behavior, plan a specific course of action for have the experience of success, carry about these plans in every day life
model of reality-theory groups
WDEP model
WDEP
(reality) wants, doing, evaluation, planning and commitment
contributions of reality theory
clt is responsible in evaluating behavior, change that behavior, and determine the types of behavior to be changed, clt is the catalyst in making specific plans, forming contracts fora ction and evaluating success of the actions, emphasis is accoutnablility, structure to evaluate the degree and nature of the changes effected, short-term clear and simply understood therapy that is applicable to different situations and all clients
limitations of reality theory
consideration not give to feelings, unconscioius, and past, influence of culture and environment not taken into account, origins of behavior not considered, lack of research to establish effectiveness
control theory
(reality) theory of why people act the way they do internal motivation ot have the power to master one's own world
involvement
(reality) role of clrwith the clt in reality therapy, establish relationship with the clt
paining behaviors
(reality) manifesting pain symptoms, such as depression, to refocus the problem on the symptoms instead of the behavior
perceived world
(reality) subjective world
picture album
(reality) perceived reality of the clt formulated in order to meet their psychological needs, ideal situation
positive addiction
(reality) acts performed to gain psychological strength such as physical activity and mediation
responsibility
(reality) manner in which we satisfy our needs without interfering iwth the rights of others
success identity
(reality) ind is able to give and receive love, has a sense of self worth and pssess the strenght to create a satisfying life
total behavior
(reality) blend of the sum of all our activities that forms our personality and the person we have become