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43 terms

Endocrine System- Study Table (Structure and Function)

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adenogenous
originating in a gland
adenohypophysis
the anterior pituitary gland
adrenal: glands, cortex (bark), medulla (marrow, innermost part)
two glands, one located at the top of each kidney; cortex is the outer portion, medulla is the inner portion
adrenaline
synonym for epinephrine, secreted from the adrenal medulla
adrenocorticotropic
pituitary secretion that stimulates the adrenal glands
androgen (andro- masculine)
male hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex
aldosterone
one of the corticosteroids, hormones produced by the adrenal glands
antidiuretic hormone
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland to prevent the kidneys from expelling too much water
calcitonin (ton- to stretch)
hormone secreted by the thyroid to prevent too much calcium from absorbing into the bones
corticosteroids
steroid produced by the cortices of the adrenal glands, cortisol
endocrine (krino- to separate)
adj. describing a gland that delivers its secretions directly into the blood stream
epinephrine (nephr/o- kidney)
synonym for adrenaline, secreted from the adrenal medulla
estrogen
one of two hormones secreted by the ovaries
exocrine
adj. describing a gland that delivers its secretion through a duct onto the skin or other epithelial surface
glucagon (ago-to lead)
hormone secreted by the pancreas
gonadotropin (FSH) (gone- seed)
follicle-stimulating hormone; hormone promoting gonadal growth
gonadotropin (ICSH)
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone; hormone promoting gonadal growth in the male
gonadotropin (LH)
luteinizing hormone; stimulates ovulation
hormone
chemical messenger that is secreted by an endocrine gland directly into the bloodstream
hydrocortisone
an adrenal gland hormone secretion
hypophysis
synonym for pituitary gland
insulin
one of two hormones produced in the pancreas
islets of Langerhans
clusters of specialized cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin
melanocyte-stimulating hormone
hormone secreted from the anterior pituitary gland
melatonin
hormone secreted by the pineal gland
neurohypophysis
synonym for norepinephrine; secreted from the adrenal medulla
norepinephrine (nephros- kidney)
synonym for noradrenaline; secreted from the adrenal medulla
ovaries
female gonads; two oval-shaped glands that are located in the pelvic cavity
oxytocin (oxytokos- swift birth)
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland
pancreas (sweetbread)
feather-shaped organ that lies posterior to the stomach
parathyroid gland
secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH)
parathyroid hormone
a hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland
pineal gland
gland that secretes melatonin, an antioxidant that is otherwise not well understood
pituitary gland
synonym for hypophysis; master gland
progesterone (gestare- to carry about)
one of two female hormones secreted by the ovary
prolactin
a secretion of the anterior pituitary gland
suprarenal glands
another name for the adrenal glands
testes
male gonads; two oval organs that lie in the scrotum
testosterone
male hormone secreted by the testes
thyroid gland
one of the four glands belonging solely to the endocrine system; located in the throat area
thyrotropin
thyroid-stimulating hormone
thyroxine
a secretion of the thyroid gland (t4)
triiodothyronine
another secretion of the thyroid gland that is often synthesized from the thyroxine by bodily organs (t3)