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Research Methods: Test 3
Chapters 11-14 of Invitation to Social Research
Terms in this set (103)
Data collection, organization, and analysis are discrete steps
Data collection, organization and analysis are often conducted simultaneously
Structured statistical tests are used
Unstructured methods of analysis are used
The goal of the analysis is to establish statistical significance
The goal of the analysis is to identify patterns in the data
Data are "separated" for analysis
Data are kept in context for analysis
Deductive process of analysis
Inductive process of analysis
Levels of Qualitative Analysis
Interpreting, Planning, Identifying Categories, Validating Data, Writing
First level of coding
identifying meaning units and fitting them into categories
Finding out data that fits together, fitting data into categories and naming categories, assigning codes or a form of shorthand, refining and organizing codes, and deciding when to stop.
Second level of coding
Retrieving meaning units from each of the interview categories and comparing and contrasting categories
Types of Categories
Researcher Constructed Categories
part of content analysis, identify the categories used by those observed
Researcher Constructed Categories
Part of content analysis, the content of interviews and documents is coded and inferences are made based on the incidences of codes
developed by researchers to interpret qualitative data are cluster diagrams, matrices,counts, missing link, and contradictory evidence
and visual representations that emerge from studying the data are used when developing hypotheses and theories for interpreting qualitative data analysis.
is an approach in which researchers seek converging information from different sources and a way to validate qualitative data.
Validating Qualitative Data
Keeping the Context of the Data
the researcher keeps a journal of events to assist in validating the collected qualitative data.
are the result of normal social variation, lack of knowledge about the range of appropriate behaviors, and a genuinely unusual case
Alternative/ Rival hypothesis
Factor other than the tested hypothesis that may explain observation.
Qualitative Research Design
biography, phenomenology, grounded theory, case study, and ethnography are examples of _______.
a biographical study of an individual and her experiences as told to the researcher or found in documents and archival material.
Documents and Interviews
are used to collect data when using a Biography design
Biography Data Analysis
Stories, epiphanies and historical content
Describes the meaning of the lived experiences for several individuals about a concept or phenomenon.
Researcher writes questions that explore the meaning of that experience for individuals and asks them to describe their everyday lived experiences. Report ends with the reader understanding better the essential essence of the experience, recognizing that a single unifying meaning of the experience exists. (the essence of the experience)
the researcher brackets her own preconceived ideas about the phenomenon.
a way of analyzing data within a phenomenology design which describes what was experienced
a way of analyzing data within a phenomenology design which describes how it was experienced
Challenges in Phenomology
1. Requires a solid grounding in phenomenology.
2.Participants need to be carefully chosen to be individuals who have experienced the phenomenon.
3.Bracketing personal experiences by the researcher may be difficult
4.The researcher needs to decide how and in what way his or her personal experiences will be introduced into the study
long interviews of up to 10 people are used to collect data for a phenomenology design.
meanings, themes and a general description of the experience are used in phenomenology design to analyze the collected data.
1. Generate or discover a theory that relates to a particular situation. Researcher starts with nothing.
2. The centerpiece is the development or generation of a theory closely related to the context of the phenomenon being studied.
3. The researcher typically conducts 20-30 interviews based on several visits to the field to collect interview data to saturate the categories
4. Researcher also collects and analyzes observations and documents
Challenges of Grounded Theory
1.Researcher needs to set aside theoretical ideas or notions so the theory can emerge
2.The researcher must recognize that this is a systematic approach to research with specific steps in data analysis
3.The researcher faces the difficulty of determining when categories are saturated or when the theory is sufficiently detailed
4.The researcher needs to recognize that the primary outcome of this study is a theory with specific components; a central phenomenon, causal conditions, strategies, conditions, and context, and consequences.
open coding, and selective coding are the data analysis methods for a grounded theory design
1.A description and interpretation of a cultural or social group or system
2.A product of research, typically found in book-length form.
3.Prolonged observation of the group, typically through participant observation in which the researcher is immersed in the day to day lives of the people.
4.Has its genesis in cultural anthropology
Challenges in Ethnography Design
1.Grounding in Cultural Anthropology
2.Time to collect data is extensive
3.Narratives are written in a literary almost storytelling approach - may limit the audience
Ethnography Narrative form
is a description of the cultural behavior of a group or an individual
Case Study Design
An exploration of a "bounded system" or a case (or multiple cases) over time through detailed, in depth data collection involving multiple sources of information rich in context.The bounded system is bounded by time and place, and it is the case being studied - a program, an event, an activity, or individuals.
Challenges of a case study
1.Researcher must identify whether to study a single case or multiple cases.
2.Selecting requires that the researcher establish a rationale for his or her purposeful sampling strategy
3.Having enough information to present an in-depth picture of the case limits the value
4.Deciding the boundaries-how it might be constrained in terms of time, events, and processes
such as documents, archival records, interviews, observations, and physical artifacts are used to collect data for a case study.
description, and themes are used as methods of data analysis for a case study.
a data collection method in which an interviewer adapts and modifies the interview for each interviewee.
a data collection method in which an interviewer reads a standardized list of questions to the respondent and records the respondent's answers.
a sense of interpersonal harmony, connection, or compatibility between an interviewer and an interviewee.
an interview with an interview guide containing primarily open ended questions that can be modified for each interview.
the list of topics to cover and the order in which to cover them that can be used to guide less structured interviews.
a data collection method in which the interviewer starts with only a general sense of the topics to be discussed and creates questions as the interaction proceeds.
Life story interview
a short account of an interviewee's life created in collaboration with an interviewer.
a technique where photographs help reveal information and encourage discussion of events and meanings in the participant's life.
a data collection technique using photographs to elicit information and encourage discussion usually in conjunction with qualitative interviewing.
a data collection method with one interviewer and two or more interviewees
Focus group interview
a type of group interview where participants converse with each other and have minimal interaction with a moderator.
someone who can get a researcher into a setting or facilitate access to participants.
Informed consent form
a statement that describes the study and the researcher and formally requests participation.
the change in a respondent's behavior or answers that is the result of being interviewed by a specific interviewer.
methods of collecting data by observing people, most typically in their natural settings.
observation performed by observers who take part in the activities they observe.
observation made by an observer who remains as aloof as possible from those observed.
Controlled (systematic) observations
observations that involve clear decisions about what is to be observed.
bare bone description of acts
reports about behavior that provide a sense of things like the intentions, motives, and meanings behind the behavior.
Complete participant role
being or pretending to be a genuine participant in a situation one observes.
Participant as observer role
being primarily a participant, while admitting an observer status.
Observer as participant role
being primarily a self-professed observer while occasionally participating in the situation.
Complete observer role
being an observer of a situation without becoming part of it.
the point where new interviewees or settings look a lot like interviewees or settings one has observed before.
a non-probability sampling procedure that involves selecting elements based on the researcher's judgment about which elements will facilitate his or her investigation.
a plausible and appealing explanation of the research that the researcher gives to prospective participants.
an approach to studying society and culture that employs images as a data source.
the video recording of participants and the reviewing of the resulting footage for insights into social life.
participants in a study situation who are interviewed for an in-depth understanding of the situation.
theory derived from data in the course of a particular study.
characteristics that the observed take on simply as a result of being observed.
already-existing data produced in the past that may help answer a present question
Locates previously collected info, often in the form of gov reports, or previously conducted surveys and reorganizes or combines the info in new ways to address a research question.
Data that have been collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand
Data obtained for the first time and used specifically for the particular problem or issue under study.
Occurs when we base our conclusions about individuals solely on the observations we make from larger groups.
pieces of data not specifically produced for the purpose of comparison and inference but available to be exploited by the observer
Measures of phenomenon through indirect observation of selective wear of some material.
Nonreactive measures of the residue of the activity of people and/or what they leave behind
Measures that record behavior in a way that keeps participants unaware that they are being observed
records of private lives; such as biographies, letters, diaries, and essays
Analyze the message in any form of communication by quantifying the surface content and/or interpreting the underlying themes.
Quantitative content analysis
the systematic and replicable examination of symbols of communication that have been assigned numerical value, describes and counts the characteristics of messages embedded in texts
Units of analysis
pertains to the individuals, groups, organizations, or social artifact that a researcher is analyzing. Similar to elements, but elements are a sampling term do not refer to data analysis.
Qualitative content analysis
A group of data analysis techniques used by qualitative researchers to derive meaning from the content of text data. It typically involves developing codes from the data.
A systematic approach for interpreting the results of behavioral research and treatment programs that entails visual inspection of graphed data for variability, level, and trend within and between experimental condition
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
Pure research that aims to confirm an existing theory or to learn more about a concept or phenomenon.
Form of quantitative research that involves finding out how well a program, practice, procedure, or policy is working
Evaluation that assesses whether a program is achieving its objectives and whether the outcomes are due to the programs interventions. May be based on research or client reports.
A decision-making technique that involves weighing the costs of a giving action against the benefits of that action.
Cost- effectiveness analysis
Done to evaluate some beneficial consequences to proposed changes in non-monetary terms
A person, group or organization that has interest or concern in an organization or study.
Discovering what is needed as a first step in determining a plan of action ro address a problem or instructional goal.
means that analysis is conducted on an ongoing basis.
research designed to assess procedures that are designed to produce certain changes or outcomes in a target population
Participatory action research (PAR)
an approach to social science research in which the people being studied are given control over the purpose and procedures of the research; intended as a counter to the implicit view that researchers are superior to those they study
This set is often in folders with...
Methods of Data collection Ch. 9 & 10
Chapter 5-9 Vocabularys
Research Methods and Statistics
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