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Unit 1 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (65)
A new method, idea, product, etc. Innovation is also viewed as the application of better solutions.
any incident that causes harm or unauthorized access to systems or their data
A step-by-step procedure for solving a problem, especially by a computer.
Programming paradigm that defines applications as networks of "black box" processes, which exchange data across predefined connections.
an action, or event, leads to the next ordered action in a predetermined order. The sequence can contain any number of actions, but no actions can be skipped in the sequence.
Process in a set of instructions that are repeated in a sequence a specified number of times or until a condition is met
One of the three basic logic structures in computer programming. A question is asked and depending on the answer, the program takes on of two courses of action, after which the program moves on to the next event.
Queries that compare two values (=,<=) with each other then returns the value true or false
A sequence of instructions that is continually repeated until a certain condition is reached
Sequence of instructions in a computer program who loops endlessly, either due to no terminating condition or having one that can never be met
The number of iterations is known before we start the execution of the body of the loop.
the steps of an algarithm in a visual writen out format
Statement that changes a program state
the art of writing or solving codes.
Information that is readable without performing any cryptographic operations.
plaintext that was transformed into unreadable gibberish using encryption
Offsetting the alphabet by a certain number to scramble the letters of a communication
Measures taken to protect a computer or computer system against unauthorized access or attack
Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability
a set of rules or a promise that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information.
The correctness of data after processing, storage or transmission.
ability of a user to access information or resources in a specified location and in the correct format.
The process of identifying an individual, usually based on a username and password.
Secure Sockets Layer(SSL)
standard security technology for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser. This link ensures that all data passed between the web server and browsers remain private and integral.
The most common use of a digital certificate is to verify that a user sending a message is who he or she claims to be, and to provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply. Electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key
distributed denial of service attack
attacks from multiple computers that flood a website with so many requests for service that it slows down or crashes
a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication.
Public key encryption
A method of paired key encryption in which the key used to encrypt data is made available to anybody and its corresponding decryption key is kept secret.
malicious software that can attach itself to other computer programs without the owner of the program being aware of the infection
the same key is used to encode and decode
techniques that trick a person into disclosing confidential information
the fraudulent practice of sending emails purporting to be from reputable companies in order to induce individuals to reveal personal information, such as passwords and credit card numbers.
software that is intended to damage or disable computers and computer systems.
Any one of the languages that people speak that evolved naturally.
a language which has been invented for a particular purpose and which has no native speakers.
visual programming language
A language that uses a visual or graphical interface for creating all source code.
A programming language that is designed to be easy for humans to read and write.
A programming language that is designed to be easy for a computer to execute; also called machine language or assembly language.
a text listing of commands to be compiled or assembled into an executable computer program.
Zeros and ones that represent simple instructions executed by a processor.
specialized computer program that converts source code written in one programming language into another language, usually machine language (also called machine code) so that it can be understood by processors
computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language)
The physical components of a computer.
Random Access Memory
Storage that is remote to the CPU and permanently holds data, even when the PC is turned off, such as a hard drive.
The computer's main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU
Central processing unit
the part of a computer in which operations are controlled and executed.
A method of writing code that does not require knowledge of a particular programming language.
consecutive execution of statements.
A problem that cannot be solved using any algorithm.
the problem of determining, from a description of an arbitrary computer program and an input, whether the program will finish running or continue to run forever.
Where no algorithm can be made that always leads to a correct yes or no answer.
The capacity to provide increasing amounts of computing power, storage, and/or software.
a notation that expresses computing time (complexity) as the term in a function that increases most rapidly relative to the size of a problem
A search algorithm that scans through a list of items, one at a time, until it finds the target or until the list is exhausted. Also known as "linear search".
Trial and error method used to decode encrypted data such as passwords.
A form of computing where systems in different locations communicate and collaborate to complete a task.
networks of computers that have been appropriated by hackers without the knowledge of their owners
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