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Second Language Acquisition

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The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis
there are two independent systems of Second Language performance 'the acquired system' and 'the learned system'. The acquired system or acquisition is the product of a subconscious process. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language-natural communication-in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. The learned system or learning is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge about the language, for example knowledge of grammar rules. According to Krashen learning is less important than acquisition.
The Monitor Hypothesis
The monitor acts in planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has sufficient time at his/her disposal, he/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness and he/she knows the rule. There is individual variation among language learners with regard to monitor use. He distinguishes those learners that use the monitor all the time (over-users), those learners who have not learned or who prefer not to use their conscious knowledge (under-users); and those learners that use the monitor appropriately (optimal users). Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. Lack of self-confidence is frequently related to the over-use of the monitor.
The Natural Order Hypothesis
The acquisition of grammatical structures follows a natural order which is predictable according to Krashen. For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. This order seemed to be independent of the learner's age, L1 background, conditions of exposure and although the agreement between individual acquirers was not always 100% in the studies, there were statistically significant similarities that reinforced the existence of a Natural Order of language acquisition.
The Input Hypothesis
explains how the learner acquires a second language. It is only concerned with acquisition and not learning. The learner improves and progresses along the natural order when he/she receives second language input that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. For instance, if a learner is at a stage 'I' then acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to comprehensible input that belongs to level 'I + 1'. Since not all of the learners can be at the same level of linguistic competence at the same time, Krashen suggests that natural communicative input is the key to designing a syllabus, ensuring in this way that each learner will receive some 'I + 1' input that is appropriate for his/her current stage of linguistic competence.
The Affective Filter Hypothesis
a number of affective variables play a facilitative but non-casual, role in second language acquisition. These variables include; motivation, self-confidence and anxiety. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence and good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition. Low motivation, low self-esteem and a debilitating anxiety can combine to raise the affective filter and form a mental block that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when the filter is up it impedes language acquisition. On the other hand, positive affect is necessary, but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place.
Krashen Views on Grammar
the study and teaching of the structure of the language (grammar) is language appreciation or linguistics and not language teaching. The only instance in which the teaching of grammar can result in language acquisition and proficiency is when the students are interested in the subject and the target language is used as a medium of instruction.
Krashen Views on a Foundation for Learning
during the stage of language acquisition the natural language that results from the communicative act itself, that is, from the input, the feedback, the responses, the non-verbal communication, and the affect that results as a consequence of establishing a communicative relationship are the key to establishing a foundation for further learning.
Krashen View on Natural Versus Learned Language
the acquisition of natural language is more important in terms of relevance than the instructional language learned in school. For once, people are constantly and consistently engaged in some sort of communication during school hours, socialization, work, and home. Language comes as a need to enter the immediate environment, and to establish connections among speakers. Learned language is the teaching of the proper use of language according to the accepted grammatical rules of the culture: The way to use it, tense agreement, subject and verb agreement, the use of articles and the proper use of adverbs, and every other regulation that makes it general and for formal usage, for deferential purposes, and for specific reasons. The manner in which he defines the preponderance of natural versus learned language lays in his Monitor hypothesis of language acquisition.
Krashen View on Student Motivation
a student becomes more motivated through free-based learning, free-based web surfing, and free-based reading. This reflects a vestige of Chomsky theory, since Chomsky also rejects that language could be learned without a context. In fact, as previously analyzed, Chomsky advocates for the integration of language as a natural acquisition to all humans. Therefore, Krashen's view on language to be learned without boundaries, in a natural environment, and with relevance, blends both theories together.
Evolution of Language
The sociolinguist Fishman studied how languages evolved and changed over time. His work on various languages studied closely the evolution of languages. Languages such a Gaelic, Welsh and Yiddish survive but with fewer speakers and literate adults. This work brought him to topics such as the forces in society that help such languages survive and the identity of the language users.Language is linked to ethnicity, religion, and nationalism. As such language within its history and belief systems works towards preserving languages as a link to history and ethnicity. Language is representational of a history and culture. If the language dies, so does the culture.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
is the day to day language needed to interact socially with other people. ELL's employ BIC skills when they are on the playground, in the lunch room, on the school bus, at parties, playing sports and talking on the telephone. Social interactions are usually context embedded. They occur in a meaningful social context. They are not very demanding cognitively. The language required is not specialized. These language skills usually develop within six months to two years after arrival in the U.S.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
CALP refers to formal academic learning. This includes listening, speaking, reading and writing about subject area content material. This level of language learning is essential for students to succeed in school. Students need time and support to become proficient in academic areas. This usually takes from five to seven years. Recent research has shown that if a child has no prior schooling or has no support in native language development, it may take seven to ten years for ELLs to catch up to peers. Academic language acquisition isn't just the understanding of content area vocabulary. It includes skills such as comparing, classifying, synthesizing, evaluating and inferring. Academic language tasks are context reduced. Information is read from a textbook or presented by the teacher. As a student gets older the context of academic tasks becomes more and more reduced. The language also becomes more cognitively demanding.
Additive Bilingualism Versus Subtractive Bilingualism
Cummins draws the distinction between additive bilingualism in which the first language continues to be developed and the first culture to be valued while the second language is added; and subtractive bilingualism in which the second language is added at the expense of the first language and culture, which diminish as a consequence. Cummins (1994) quotes research which suggests students working in an additive bilingual environment succeed to a greater extent than those whose first language and culture are devalued by their schools and by the wider society.
Vygotsky's view of Language Acquisition
the interactionists view of language acquisition (social constructivism). According to Vygotsky, all fundamental cognitive activities take shape in a matrix of social history and form the products of socio-historical development. That is, cognitive skills and patterns of thinking are not primarily determined by innate factors, but are the products of the activities practiced in the social institutions of the culture in which the individual grows up.
"Every function in the child's cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological). This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts. All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals
Zone of Proximal Development
(I + 1) the zone of proximal development includes all the functions and activities that a learner can perform only with the assistance of someone else. The person in this scaffolding process, providing non-intrusive intervention, could be an adult, or another peer who has already mastered that particular function. Therefore, when it comes to language learning, the authenticity of the environment and the affinity between its participants are essential elements to make the learner feel part of this environment. Mentoring, collaboration, and peer relations are the key factors to make this happen.
Vygotsky's view on Scaffolding
The process of scaffolding can be paraphrased as a period of constructive dialogue and interaction where the individual's prior and current knowledge comes together with that of other people. The discourse that comes from sharing, particularly when tasks need to be accomplished with the aid of others who can help accomplish them, are conducive to learning. Theoretically, the optimal learning environment is one in which students who know more than others will help their peers to attain the higher classroom goals by sharing their knowledge with others, thus benefitting everyone in the classroom as a learning community. These students serve as pillars within the classroom sociology and Vygotsky identifies them as the MKO's or More Knowledgeable Others.
More Knowledgeable Others
In Vygotsky's MKO is not a set individual. It is whoever possesses the skills or knowledge about a specific subject or task at hand which will eventually lead the rest of the group towards more learning on that subject or task. A MKO can be a peer, a family member, a role model, or the teacher. The discourse that occurs from the exchange of ideas and knowledge from those who are most knowledgeable to others, help people build upon their current body of knowledge, and learn new information. The strategy to do this is called scaffolding, and the aim of it is to create and build confidence and skill among the learners in their zones of proximal development.
Piaget's View on Language
According to Piaget, children construct knowledge about language through a complex process of assimilation, stressing the inherent capability of a child's brain to adapt to stimulation. By contrast, Vygotsky stresses the social nature of language learning, emphasizing the environment within which a child is raised. Language is a reflection of thought.
Operant Conditioning Theory
Skinner coined the term operant conditioning; it means roughly changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response. Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior.
• Neutral operants: responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated.
• Reinforcers: Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative.
• Punishers: Response from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.
Restricted Code Verses Elaborated Code
The two codes of Bernstein.The restricted code is used among speakers with similar backgrounds who share much of the same background knowledge and experiences. This code is more restricted in that the users tend to use certain grammatical features with less frequency because the interlocutors understand each other's assumptions, perspectives, feelings, ways of speaking. The elaborated code is used with speakers who do not share the same background or experiences. This code is more elaborate in the use of grammar structures, pronouns, amount of language used to express ideas because the interlocutors are not as familiar with the backgrounds, experiences, assumptions, outlooks, perspectives etc. of each other. Therefore they use more words, phrases, forms to express meaning.
Chomsky's Theory of Language Acquisition
Chomsky developed the idea of a "transformational grammar". It is the notion of language as a bi-partite concept: language is acquired by nature and language is enhanced by social exposure. Language acquisition is a comprehensive process that integrates innate and external elements under the assumption that there is a set apparatus within each human being that enables this to happen. The combination of social and cognitive elements that serve as triggers to learning is notable for giving more emphasis on the study of how the brain works during the process of language acquisition. For this focal reason, Chomsky views the theory of linguistics as a "meta-theory' where mental, psychological and cognitive processes supersede a mere behavioral input. Chomsky argues that language is comprehensive; it involves listening, accepting and rejecting information, conceptualizing the input, organizing it and producing further language within the parameters of the social context where the language take place is being shared and within the limits of our natural capabilities. However, there is an additional dimension that ultimately separated Chomsky from his contemporaries, and it is the idea that all these processes occur in a part of the brain where a proposed "apparatus" enables all this to occur: The Language Acquisition Device.
The Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
the meta-theory of linguistics, or language learning, according to Chomsky consists on two premises: The first premise states that humans are born with an already established body of common grammatical knowledge, or intelligence which can also be described as a capacity, or a competence for language. This intelligence, which he calls linguistic corpus, is triggered by social discourse and interaction. As interaction takes place and new language is acquired, the second premise states that a specific place in the brain which he class the LAD Language Acquisition Device. Chomsky proposes that the LAD exists inside the brain. It is, theoretically speaking, a congenital organ that enables the skill of acquiring language. This organ would allow individuals to use minimal rules and regulations of language to create more words and more sentences.
Chomsky Linguistic Perspective
intelligence is defined as a foundation of language that all humans already possess as part of our biological make-up. This innate body of knowledge is what he calls "universal grammar" or the "linguistic corpus". This body of language knowledge changes through time, as the individual makes additional social connections, acquires new words, or decides how to make use of language depending on the circumstances in which it is required. This ability to transform the language and change it through time make it generative in nature.The process of establishing the language rules, and expanding language further through time and level of complexity leads to deem it as a generative grammar.
Faculty of Language in the Broad Purpose (FLB)
language in the broad purpose is all the language produced for general and immediate responses. This faculty is not only inherent to humans, but also to animals. Its basis is the common need to express a message, and consists on any form of communication that is possible among living things. It is responsive, immediate and instinctive language usage that could also be explained as language of survival for immediate purpose.
Faculty of Language in the Narrow Purpose (FLN)
The FLN involves critical thinking, decision making, inferring, computation, if/then conclusions and the capacity of recursion. Recursion is the key element in FL and is the main ingredient that sets humans apart from other living things. Recursion is basically a programming technique within the brain which assigns tasks to diverse areas to do certain duties. In other words, it is uniquely human component that composes the generative and universal capacity for language.
Bandura's View on Social Learning
Bandura explains the manner in which individuals learn new behaviors through a process that involves observation, interaction and modeling. Similar to Chomsky, his theory reflects language as a very important element of development that requires both cognitive and social input. Throughout one's lifetime, the consistent interaction to other people's behavior lead to our own adoption or imitation of the behaviors of others depending on whether we choose to do it. This change in behavior is what Bandura defines as learning. The fact that such learning occurs in a social and interactive context is what renders the theory the name of social learning. The process through which social learning occurs is comprehensive, dynamic and interactive.
Bandura's Taxonomy of Learning
Interactive Methods-People learn from others through conversation, discourse and open communication. The exchange of new information and feedback mediates learning.
Dynamic Method-people go from one source to another to get different kinds of input and in the process of receiving this input new behaviors continue to be learned, accepted or rejected and then modeled and adopted.
Consistent Methods-people are constantly exposed to other people's behaviors either in communal context at work, school, church and the neighborhood, to an independent context through the media and the internet.
Intrapersonal Methods-people exchange of traits and characteristics that are inherent to each person involved in the process of communication. Engaging in conversation, sharing information, creating bonds, establishing rules, becoming part of a social system and a group allows for this method of communication to set the conditions for learning.
The Multiple Intelligences
Gardner's multiple intelligence theory combines both cognitive and behavioral concepts that are diverse and specific to the intelligences of each individual.
Visual and Spatial Intelligence
Linguistic Intelligence
Logical Mathematical Intelligence
Body Kinesthetic Intelligence
Musical and Rhythmic Intelligence
Interpersonal Intelligence
Intrapersonal Intelligence
Pinker's View on Language Acquisition
all normal human brains come primed for language acquisition. They have the innate ability to memorize vocabulary, internalize rules regarding their native language's grammar and syntax and remember irregular forms. The stages of acquiring language-from babbling to one-word utterances, two-word phrases, full sentences and eventually complex grammar. In general, the major infrastructure of language has been completed by ages six to eight, though some errors may remain and the conscious knowledge of advanced grammar is not commonly taught in American schools until children are twelve or older.
Linguistic Plasticity
a certain period of linguistic plasticity extends only to a certain age; beyond that point, language acquisition becomes a difficult and demanding process that is not always completed successfully. Estimates of linguistic plasticity period vary greatly, but in general it can be assumed that children must learn their first language before age eight at the outside. The same principles apply to the acquisition of foreign languages-learning to write and especially to speak a foreign language can be a difficult experience. The window of opportunity for proficiency with a foreign language is larger and more variable; in general, those who attempt to learn a new language after puberty are less likely to master writing and especially speaking a foreign language. Those who acquire multiple languages before puberty often speak both or several with ease, but those who acquire them later do much worse.
Labov's Language Theory
Labov worked in the area of dialects. His work and advanced study of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) proved that this dialect is a distinct variety of English, has rules and syntax, grammar just like any other language follows. He dedicated his work to de-stigmatizing this dialect and to show teachers that AAVE is a regular system of language and that if we teach speakers of this dialect w/methods as we teach ELLs, there should be success.
Five Principles of Linguistic Style
1. THE PRINCIPLE OF STYLE-SHIFTING: There are no single-style speakers.
2. PRINCIPLE OF FORMALITY: Any systematic observation defines a formal context in which more than the minimal attention is paid to speech.
3. THE VERNACULAR PRINCIPLE: The vernacular, in which minimal attention is paid to speech, is the most regular in its structure and in its relation to the history of the language.
4. THE PRINCIPLE OF ATTENTION: Styles may be ordered along a single dimension, measured by the amount of attention paid to speech.
5. PRINCIPLE OF SUBORDINATE SHIFT: Speakers of subordinate dialects who are asked direct questions on language shift their speech irregularly towards or away from the superordinate dialect.
Hymes' View of Language
Hymes' model of discourse analysis:There is a connection between society, culture and language His model of discourse analysis (SPEAKING)
S- setting and scene
P- participants
E- ends, purpose, goals
A- act sequence (form and order of event)
K- key (cues that establish the tone, manner or spirit
I- instrumentalities (forms and styles of speech)
N-norms
G- genre(kind of speech acts)
The Five Stages of Second Language Acquisition
Preproduction
Early Production
Speech Emergence
Intermediate Fluency
Advanced Fluency
Acquisition Activities for Second Language Learners
Teachers should devote most class time to acquisition activities. Learning activities should play a smaller role in the classroom, and can also be done as homework. In terms of academic content, Sha-nahan and Beck (2006) concluded that in terms of English literacy development, the core instructional components that are effective with native English speakers, such as phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, are effective with students learning English as a second language. Further, many of the same instructional approaches that are effective in delivering instruction with native English speakers, such as instruction that is systematic and explicit, will be effective with second language students.
Five Variables for Instructing Second Language Learners
(a) vocabulary as a major curricular objective
(b) using visuals to reinforce concepts and vocabulary
(c) implementing cooperative learning and peer-tutoring strategies
(d) using native language strategically
(e) modulation of cognitive and language demands
Sheltered Instruction
students learn English under conditions of high language support. In sheltered instruction, the acquisition of English is promoted through instruction in the language and instruction in academic content simultaneously. Frequently, however, explicit instruction in English gets less emphasis and it is more a hope that "language development occurs" (Gersten & Baker, 2000, p. 459) during content area lessons than a clear instructional objective.
Needs of Second Language Learners
Accepting Environment
Recognition of culture
ESL instruction
Meaningful Context
Academic Context
Academic Language
Content Instruction
Consideration for Testing and Daily Assignments
Accelerators to Second Language Learners
Purpose of using language is real and natural-the focus is on communication.
Acceptance of all language attempts made-promotes confidence.
Modeling of correct grammar as students responses is restated.
Students speak only when they're ready-not forced too soon.
Language has a purpose for the learner.
Roadblocks to Second Language Learners
Overemphasis on correctness.
Students are forced to speak-major cause of poor articulation and grammatical control, as well as stress overload.
Students are forced to complete work above their competence level-above their stage of development in language acquisition.
The Five Primary Linguistic Elements
Acquiring any language means learning five primary linguistic elements: phonology, syntax, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics.
Contextual Factors in Second Language Acquisition
Language distance
Native language proficiency
Knowledge of the second language
Dialect and register
Language status
Language attitudes
The Learner
Diverse needs
Diverse goals
Peer groups
Role models
Home support
The Learning Process
Learning styles
Motivation
Classroom interaction
Silent Period
The stage when a learner knows perhaps 500 receptive words but feels uncomfortable producing speech. The absence of speech does not indicate a lack of learning and teachers should not try to force the learner to speak. Comprehension can be checked by having the learner point or mime. Also known as the Receptive or Preproduction stage.
Private Speech
Also known as the early production stage. When the learner knows about 1,000 receptive words and speaks in one or two word phrases. The learners can use simple responses, such as yes/no, either/or.
Lexical Chunks
Also known as the Speech Emergence Stage. The learner knows about 3,000 receptive words and can communicate using short phrases and sentences. Long sentences typically have grammatical errors
Formulaic Speech
Also known as the Intermediate Language Proficiency stage. The learner knows about 6,000 receptive words and begins to make complex statements, state opinions, ask for clarification, share thoughts, and speak at greater length.
Experimental or Simplified Speech
Also known as the Advanced Language Proficiency stage. When the learner develops a level of fluency and can make semantic and grammar generalizations.
Grammar Translation Method
this method's main goal is to teach students how to read and write in the target language. Students are first taught the grammar rules and the vocabulary of the language and learn how to translate from one language to another. the teacher is the authority in the classroom and there is little to no emphasis on oral language. Techniques of this method might include, translation of literary passage, reading comprehension questions, recognize cognates, deductive application of rules, antonyms/synonyms, fill in the blanks and memorization of vocabulary
Direct Method
focuses on using the second language to communicate. The teacher directs class activities.emphasis is on direct associations that students make between objects and concepts and the corresponding words in the target language. Students' native language is avoided, but visuals, objects, and realia make the concept understandable.
Audio Lingual Method
the audio lingual method use only the target language. The teacher present dialogs; students repeat each line and practice changing one or more words in a sentence. This method assumes that language is learned by habit and that every language has a finite number of patterns. Therefore, pattern practice and drills are an essential component of this method. The goal is for students to over-learn so that they will come to respond automatically.
The Silent Way
Promoted that people learn language by forming rules and applying them, relying on their own thinking processes or cognition to learn.
Community Language Learning
This method evolves from Curran's counseling learning approach. It emphasizes a commitment between teacher and learners to trust one another and the learning process, and approaching learning as a dynamic and creative process. Teachers assist students in communications by supplying chunks of language in the first language to ensure comprehension.It is an approach in which students work together to develop what aspects of a language they would like to learn. The teacher acts as a counselor and a paraphraser, while the learner acts as a collaborator.
Total Physical Response
Developed by James Asher, and also called "The comprehension approach," this method relies on students beginning learning by listening. Use the target language communicatively from the beginning of instruction, and emphasizes communicative activities throughout the language learning course.
Interlanguage
is a strategy used by a second language learner to compensate for his/her lack of proficiency, while learning a second language
Instrumental Motivation
acquiring a second language for a specific reason, such as a job.
Overgeneralization
occurs when the learner attempts to apply a grammatical rule to instances where it does not apply.
Natural Approach
developed by Krashen andTerrell and emphasized the importance of listening comprehension and using the target language communicatively from the beginning of instruction. natural genuine learning situations where they use both conscious understanding of a language and subconscious (take cues from visual and commands)
Communicative Language Teaching
focus on students communicating naturally in second language; conversation instead of grammar; teaching strategies: role play, games, interviews, negotiation
Effective Strategies for Oral Skills
strategies for developing oral skills include frequent testing and surveys, speaking and vocabulary games for practice, flashcards, commands, and using visuals
Informal Methods to Assess Oral Language
informal assessments for oral language include interviews, oral reports, summaries, descriptions, presentations, dialogue journals
Formal Methods to Assess Oral Language
MELA-O, Woodcock Munoz Language, IDEA
Strategies for Teaching Reading for Literate ELLs
make connections between reading strategies, teach alphabetic and phonemic differences, use read a-louds, partner reading and modeling, and explicit instruction of vocabulary
Strategies for Teaching Reading for Non-literate ELLs
teach sight words, language orally, introduce written words, provide clues to remind, teach direction of reading,
Adaptation of Reading Instruction
explicitly teach vocabulary, grouped reading, multiple assessments, culturally relevant instruction, age-appropriate instruction, teach phonemic awareness and phonics
IDEA
The IDEA Oral Language Proficiency Test assesses four basic areas of English oral language proficiency: Vocabulary, Comprehension, Syntax, and Verbal Expression which includes Articulation; testing for mainstreaming
Language Experience Approach
approach to writing instruction from personal experience; stories about personal experiences are written by teacher and read together until learner associates written form of word with spoken; can also be a group activity restating stories read by teacher.
Dialogue Journal
journal kept by two people, usually student and adult
Approaches for Teaching Writing Instruction
building background, modeling text type, guided practice and independent writing
Knowledge of Writing Process for ELLs
brainstorming, outlining, drafting, revising and editing; teaching revision can be hard for students to rearrange and rephrase ideas
Formal Elements of Written English
narrative, poetic, expository, persuasive
Strategies for Teaching Subject Matter and for Developing ELL CALP
1) providing comprehensible input
2) providing explicit instruction
3) integrating content and language objectives
4) supporting students' use of English to discuss and consider subject matter content
Promotion of Content Area Learning
using visuals, explicitly teaching cognitive strategies, permitting students to use dictionaries
Woodcock Munoz Language Survey
tests CALP in Spanish and English; provide information on student's cognitive and academic language proficiency; individually administered; in both English and Spanish; test for ESL to determine bilingual eligibility; can also be used to identify LDs
Gersten Sheltered English Instruction Theory
Early Exit Bilingual: some initial instruction in L1, primarily for reading but also for clarification, instructions in L1 are phased out rapidly
Ramirez Sheltered English Instruction Theory
Late Exit Bilingual: students continue to have 40% of instruction in L1 even after classified fluent in English
Lambert Sheltered English Instruction Theory
Transitional Bilingual: initially instruction is 90% L1 then shifts towards English
Rossel and Baker Sheltered English Instruction Theory
SEI: students of different L1s together; teachers use English and aids to focus on content rather than language
Lexicon
total stock of morphemes in a language
Interlanguage
the emerging language system person creates based on L1 and L2 knowledge to communicate in L2
Language Transfer
student applies knowledge of L1 to L2
Role of 1st Language on 2nd Language
more academic understanding you have in L1, more you can apply to L2; cognitive development in L1 at home helps L2
Cognitive Processes
needed to internalize language rules and vocabulary in L2: memorization; categorization and generalization (categorize and generalize vocabulary); metacognition
Alphabetic Principles
letters making a word have corresponding sounds, letters and sounds can be placed together to build words
Fossilization
relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person's second language competence.
Inflectional Suffixes
an inflection that is added at the end of a root word
Register Variation
the change in language based on where the communication is happening, how the communication is taking place, who is talking to whom, and about what topic: Who , What, Where and How
CALLA-Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
Development of academic language skills & explicit instruction for content and language. Scaffold instruction. Explicit instruction of learning strategies and development of critical thinking to acquire language proficiency. Based on the cognitive approach. It teaches students to use their prior knowledge as a means to learning.
Code Switching
The alternating use of two languages at the word, phrase and sentence level with a complete break between languages in phonology
Connotative Meaning
The additional meanings that a word or phrase has beyond its central meanings. It shows emotions or attitudes towards what that word refers to. The non-literal, suggested or implied meaning of a word.
Contrastive Analysis
A comparison of the linguistic system of two languages.
Denotative Meaning
The central or core meaning of a lexical item. Its conceptual meaning.The literal meaning of a word
Dialect
A variety of language which is spoken in one part of a country or by people belonging to a particular social class.
Discourse Competence
The ability to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form a whole out of a series of utterances in logical cohesion. Mastery of how to combine meanings and forms to create a text in different modes
Examples:
Telephone inquiry
Narrative text
Oral report
Dual Language
Language majority and minority are schooled together
ELPBO-English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and Outcomes
English Language Proficiency Benchmarks and Outcomes. A document that is used as a basis to develop curriculum and program for ELLs.
Language Functions
A language function refers to the purpose for which speech or writing is being used for example, giving instructions or introducing ourselves. In academic writing we use a range of specific functions in order to communicate ideas clearly. These include: describing processes, comparing or contrasting things or ideas, and classifying objects or ideas.
Instructional Conversations
An interactive approach that emphasizes active student involvement. It involves talking about text w/ students to provide opportunities for using language to learn language and concepts. Language is expressed naturally and the content is meaningful and relevant to students.
Interactionist Approach
language acquisition is based both on learner's innate abilities and on opportunities to engage on conversations. Language development happens when the environment interacts with the child's innate capacity
Majority language
Language that is the official language used as medium of instruction in schools.
Metalinguistic Knowledge
An understanding of the properties and function of language...that is, an understanding of language as language.
Minority Language
It is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities
Phonemic Awareness
understanding that spoken words are made up of individual sounds called phonemes.
Separate Underlying Proficiency
Proficiency in English is separate from proficiency in a primary language. Content and skills learned through the primary language do not transfer to English.
SIOP-Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
A scientifically validated model of sheltered instruction designed to make grade level academic content understandable to ELLs.
Sociocultural Theory
An explanation for knowledge and learning that is based on the assumption that all learning is first social then individual.
Simplification Error
Leaving out elements of a sentence, for example, using the same form of a verb, regardless of person, number, tense. E.g: He go yesterday.
Threshold Hypothesis
Being proficient in native language facilitates being proficient in other languages being learned. Higher threshold divides the proficient bilingual from the partial bilingual. Lower threshold divides the partial bilingual from the limited bilingual.
Heritage Language
type of language learned at home under the dominion of another language used in the larger speech community
Whole Object Assumption
Children refer to a new word to the entire object. Example: All plants are "flowers"
Zib Test
a test for mutual exclusivity; a child has a set of everyday objects to choose from, including one unfamiliar object (example: ball, shoe, cup, car and garlic press). When asked for the ___, the child often points to the press.
Syntactic Bootstrapping
Figure out the new verb meaning according to its syntactic environment
Spelke objects
Nouns that are described by cohesion, continuity, solidity, and contact
MLU (The mean length of utterance)
Linguists measure a child's language growth and grammatical development by observing and recording the mean length of utterance.
Derivation (Conversion, Compounding, Clipping)
These strategies are the common ways to create a new word from an existing word, usually by the addition or subtraction of an affix or other morpheme.
Rule by Rule
When children make grammatical errors in the process of language acquisition, it means that they are figuring out the language structure rule by rule.
Analytic Language Learners
Breaking speech into its smallest components
The wug Experiment
This experiment or test provides evidence that children figure out grammatical rules and apply them to new words
Redesignation
Developmental progress of LEP students is reviewed annually. FEP (Fluent English Proficiency) re-designation will occur based on the following criteria: 1. Teacher recommendation. 2. SOLM (Student Oral Language Observation Matrix). 3.Oral English Fluency (LAS-O and other assessment tests) 4. Reading/Writing (LAS R/W and other assessment tests) 5. Student Writing sample 6. CTBS score of 36 percentile or greater in reading, language and math).
Specially Designated Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE)
Academic subject area instruction that takes into account the special needs of LEP and other students by fostering:
1. Active student participation
2. Social Interaction
3. Integrated oral and written language
4. Authentic books and tasks
5. Adequate coverage of background knowledge required to master a topic (vocabulary, key concepts, etc.)
Stages of Language Development (PEPSI)
Level I: Pre-Production Stage (Silent Period): Minimal Comprehension, no verbal production.
Level II: Early Production Stage. Limited Comprehension; One/two-word response. Level III : Speech Emergence Stage. Increased Comprehension; Simple sentences; Some errors in speech.
Level IV: Intermediate fluency Stage. Very good comprehension; More complex sentences; Complex errors in speech.
Submersion
Sink or swim approach to ELD instruction. L2 students are placed in the same classes as L1 students and are required to learn as much as they can.
Submersion + ESL
English learners are given a separate ESL class for a prescribed period of time, usually one hour per day. The rest of the day is spent in classes with L1 learners.
Transition
Bilingual program whose goal is to help English learners ultimately adjust to an all English educational program. May be early-exit (2nd grade) or late-exit (6th grade).
Comprehensible Input
way of speaking and explaining that the students can understand (modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations, gestures, body language)
Basic Inventory of Natural Language (BINL)
oral language test for tracking language development and progress; tests oral language proficiency. Assess language dominance, proficiency and development of students in language arts and reading programs. Used for placement and determination of language dominance. Oral language is elicited through the use of large photographic posters. These posters depict scenes from a variety of cultures which can be discussed without reference to cultural specifics. Testing is done individually. Testing takes 10 minutes. Grade K-12.
Two-Way Bilingual program
where L2 learners receive L1 instruction and L1 students receive L2 instruction. To be effective program must:
1. Allow for development of CALP.
2.Optimal input in both languages.
3. Focus on academic subjects.
4.Integrate the curriculum.
5. Allow for monolingual instruction for sustained periods.
6. Have home school collaborations.
7. Empower students as active learners.
8. Make sufficient use of minority language.
Error Analysis
An informal method of teacher assessment that involves the teacher noting the particular kinds of errors a student makes when doing academic work to understand how learners acquire and process language.
Sequential Bilingual
A second language is introduced after the primary language is established.
MELA-O (Massachusetts English Proficiency Assessment)
Assesses LEP students' proficiency in listening (comprehension) and speaking (production). Grades K-12. Students must be TESTED YEARLY
SOLOM (Student Oral Language Observation Matrix)
A rating scale that matches a student's language performance in 5 main areas to descriptions on a five-point scale. The 5 areas are: listening comp., vocabulary, fluency, grammar and pronunciation.
MEPA (Massachusetts English Proficiency Assessment)
Assesses LEP students' proficiency in reading and writing. Students must be tested YEARLY. Grades K-12.
IPT (Language Proficiency Test)
Determines the level of oral language proficiency of students. Assists in initial i.d., designation and re-designation of students as non, limited, or fluent English speaking. 6 domains: syntax, morphology, phonology, lexical items, comprehension and oral production. preK-12
Bilingual Syntax Measure II
Makes provision for sociolinguistic distinction between standard and nonstandard usage. Measures linguistic proficiency in both English and Spanish. Can provide information about relative proficiency in these two languages in addition to proficiency in each language independently tests oral skills for grade 3-12; can be used for placement and language development for IEPs
Homonym
A word which is spelled and pronounced identically to another word, but which has a different meaning. For example, a swimming POOL versus a POOL table.
Oral Blending
The teacher says each sound, for example, "/b/, /ɑ/, /l/" and students respond with the word, "ball."
Onset-Rime Recognition
which requires isolation, identification, segmentation, blending, or deletion of onsets (the single consonant or blend that precedes the vowel and following consonants), for example, j-ump, st-op, str-ong.
Oral Segmenting
The teacher says a word, for example, "ball," and students say the individual sounds, /b/, /ɑ/, and /l/.
Implicit Phonics Instruction
a way of instruction for encouraging students to look for words or word parts in environmental print.
Digraph
a pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
Norm-Referenced Assessment
This is a type of assessment that allows an individual child's score to be compared against the scores of other children who have previously taken the same assessment. With a norm-referenced assessment, the child's raw score can be converted into a comparative score such as a percentile rank.
Homophone
A word which is spelled differently from another word, but which is pronounced identically. For example, HOARSE versus HORSE; or TWO versus, TO, versus, TOO.
Structural Analysis
the process of using familiar word parts (base words, prefixes, and suffixes) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
Automatic Word Recognition Skills
Use Picture Clues; Look for Word Chunks; Apply Common Phonics Rules; Recognize Syllable Patterns; Connect to a Word You Know; Use Prior Knowledge
Phoneme Substitution
in which one can turn a word (such as "cat") into another (such as "hat") by substituting one phoneme (such as /h/) for another (/c/). Phoneme substitution can take place for initial sounds (cat-hat), middle sounds (cat-cut) or ending sounds (cat-can).
Cummins--CUP v. SUP
Common Underlying Proficiency v. Separate Underlying Proficiency Two different beliefs about how students acquire competency in a language. SUP is the idea that different languages are separated into different parts of the brain. CUP is the idea that in the course of learning one language a child acquires a set of skills and knowledge that can be drawn upon when working in another language.
Stages of First Language Acquisition
The Babbling Stage--The Holophrastic Stage--The Two-Word Stage--The Telegraph to Infinity Stage
Four Language Domains
Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing
Positive Language Transfer
The native language plays a helpful role in assisting second language development. Both languages may have similar sounds or the spelling of the words are similar.
Negative Language Transfer
The native language skills produce errors in second language acquisition. For example, there are no plurals or "T" does not make the tuh sound.Illustrated in many of the errors ELLs make when using a new language
Role of L1 in L2 Transfer
If L1 is highly developed, language transfer is easily facilitated. If L1 is similar to L2 in alphabet, root languages, or language family, transfer can be easily facilitated by cognates, similar grammar structures etc. Social status of L1 informs the rate and performance of L2 acquisition.
Dialect Diversity
There is diversity w/in a single language. Ex. American, Canadian and British English are all different.ELLs learn more than 1 standard English, many dialects
Communicative Competence
Knowledge necessary to use language in a social context.ability to understand appropriate behaviors and language for various situations
Ways to Make Grade Level Content Accessible for ESL's
build background, touch on prior knowledge, use language and content objectives, attention to vocab, frequent opportunity for interaction.
Strategic Competence
verbal & nonverbal behaviors - manipulation of language in order to meet communicative goals; paraphrase or gestures used to get meaning across. Used to compensate for breakdowns in communication (as when a speaker forgets or does not know a term and is forced to paraphrase or gesture to get the idea across) and to enhance the effectiveness of communication.
Examples of Informal Methods of Assessing Oral Language Proficiency
Audio or video tape of students in both bics and calp, self made rubrics for the content areas, rate learners at different times during the year and in different contexts
Strong Lesson Prep for ELLs
Explicit, observable, measurable, lesson based written in kid friendly language, good objectives, supplementary materials, adapting curricula, includes all four language domains
Keys to Sheltered Instruction
Lesson Prep, Building Background, Vocabulary Development, Comprehensible Input, Interaction, Strategies, Practice/Application, Lesson Delivery, Review and Assessment
Components of a Balance Literacy Approach
Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Word Study, Vocabulary Development, Reading Aloud, Shared Reading, Guided Reading, Reading Strategy Instruction, Literacy Centers, Independent Reading, Shared Writing, Interactive Writing, Mediated Writing
Reading Strategy Instruction
A form of CALLA. Teaching a student reading strategies. Visualizing, making connections, asking questions, making predictions, comparing and contrasting.
3 Major Communication Skills of Pragmatics
1) Using language for different purposes
2) Changing language to meet needs of listener
3) Following rules of conversation/storytelling
Common Signs of Pragmatic Problem
Saying inappropriate or unrelated things during a conversation, telling stories in a disorganized way, using little variety in language use.
Palatalization
nature: original sound for "t" comes out "ch"
Relationship and Transfer of 1st Language Reading Skills
rely on students' phonemic awareness in 1st language and make explicit the differences, effect on pronunciation and decoding strategies
Factors that Affect L2 Reading Development
literacy and literate background in L1, learning disability, academic experience, cultural background knowledge
Sheltered Strategies and Reading Intervention Approaches
1) students should have access to early literacy programs in L1
2) early assessments in L1 for learning disabilities and literacy level
3) provide grade-level content in English by giving simple directions
4) comprehensible input
5) make connections and use clear background
6) teach reading strategies and focus on vocabulary
7) word webs and KWL charts
LAB (Language Assessment Battery)
tests speaking, reading listening and writing, used to place ESL students
Selection of Purposeful Writing Activities for ELLs
writing about personal experiences, writing for a purpose, KWL< word wall, text reconstruction, sequencing sentences, cloze reading and writing, jumbled sentences
Explicit Instruction in Academic Language and Vocabulary for ELLs
KWL charts, vocab development, student experiences, illustrations, webbing
Integration of Content and Language Objectives for ELLs
practice strategies for marking up the text, review objective several times in class
Student Discussion of Subject Matter Content for ELLs
group discussion, hands-on, engaging, partners, independently, students can apply content and language objectives, 4 corners, send a problem, jigsaw
Diagnostic Test
is individually administered tests designed to identify weaknesses in the learning processes. Usually these are administered by trained professionals and are usually prescribed for elementary, sometimes middle school students
Bottom-up Reading Strategies
is a reading model that emphasizes the written or printed text, says reading is driven by a process that results in meaning (or, in other words, reading is driven by text), and proceeds from part to whole
Inductive Approach
used in direct method. A way to teach grammar. Having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language. Students see examples of language and try to work out the rules themselves
Suggestopedia
include a rich sensory learning environment (pictures, colour, music, etc.), a positive expectation of success and the use of a varied range of methods: dramatize texts, music, active participation in songs and games, etc. (Presentation) A preparatory stage in which students are helped to relax and move into a positive frame of mind, with the feeling that the learning is going to be easy and fun. (Second Concert - "Passive Review) The students are now invited to relax and listen to some Baroque music, with the text being read very quietly in the background. The music is specially selected to bring the students into the optimum mental state for the effortless acquisition of the material. (Practice) The use of a range of games, puzzles, etc. to review and consolidate the learning
Natural Approach (Method of Community Language Learners)
The foreign language learner's tasks, according to CLL are:
(1) to apprehend the sound system of the language
(2) assign fundamental meanings to individual lexical units
(3) construct a basic grammar.
In these three steps, the CLL resembles the Natural Approach to language teaching in which a learner is not expected to speak until he has achieved some basic level of comprehension.
Student Support Schema
four quadrants and provides a means for describing the linguistic and cognitive demands experienced by second language learners. Quadrant A&B students are exposed to cognitively undemanding tasks. Quadrant A the 'context embedded' tasks are less demanding than the 'context reduced' tasks in B. Quadrants C and D students are exposed to cognitively demanding tasks (CALP), but C is less demanding than D
Performance-Based assessments
student should produce evidence of accomplishment of curriculum goals which can be maintained for later use as a collection of evidence to demonstrate achievement, and perhaps also the teacher's efforts to educate the child. Sometimes characterized as assessing real life, with students assuming responsibility for self-evaluation. Done by the student as a form of self-reflection and self-assessment. Teachers should have access to information that can provide ways to improve achievement, demonstrate exactly what a student does or does not understand, relate learning experiences to instruction, and combine assessment with teaching. Types of performance based-assessments performances, portfolios, and projects
Summative Assessment
generally carried out at the end of a course or project. In an educational setting, summative assessments are typically used to assign students a course grade.
Formative Assessment
generally carried out throughout a course or project. Also referred to as "educative assessment," is used to aid learning. Usually implicates a written document, such as a test, quiz, or paper
Informal Assessment
occurs in a more casual manner and may include observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, performance and portfolio assessments, participation, peer and self evaluation, and discussion
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Teaching Strategies
Cooperative learning / Explicit, targeted vocabulary development / Slower speech with clear enunciation and fewer idiomatic expressions / Visuals, demonstrations and hands-on learning / Text adaptations / Homework adaptations / Supplementary materials
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Lesson Plan Sequence
Motivation, pre-knowledge activation / Modeling of new content / Practice scaffold from intense to minimal guidance / Review of content by students / Post lesson assessment of objectives / Extension homework /Teacher Reflections on what worked and didn't work
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Components
1) Lesson Preparation
2) Building Background
3) Comprehensible Input
4) Strategies
5) Interaction
6) Practice/Application
7) Lesson Delivery
8) Review/Assessment
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Component-Lesson Preparation
Write content and language objectives clearly for students to see and make sure they are appropriate for age & educational background. Identify supplementary materials. Adapt content where needed. Plan meaningful activities that integrate lesson concepts (e.g., surveys, letter writing, simulations) with practice in R/W/L/S
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Component-Building Background
Explicitly link concepts to students' backgrounds and experiences, linking past learning and new concepts. Emphasize key vocabulary (e.g., introduce, write, repeat, and highlight)
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Component-Comprehensible Input
Use speech appropriate for students' proficiency level. Explain academic tasks clearly. Use a variety of techniques to make content concepts clear (e.g. modeling, visuals, hands-on activities, demonstrations, gestures, body language)
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Component-Strategies
Provide ample opportunity for students to problem solve, predict, organize, summarize, categorize, evaluate, self-monitor, etc. Use scaffolding techniques consistently. Use a variety of question types to promote higher-order thinking (literal, analytical, and interpretive questions)
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Component-Interaction
Frequent opportunity for interactions and discussion b/w teachers & students and among students, encouraging elaborated responses. Use group configurations, provide sufficient wait time for responses and give ample opportunities for students to clarify in their L1.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Component- Practice/Application
Provide hands-on materials and/or manipulatives including activities that apply content and language knowledge in the classroom. Integrate all language skills (R/W/L/S)
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Component- Lesson Delivery
Support content and language objectives clearly. Engage students 90-100% of the time. Pace the lesson according to students' ability level.
Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) Model Component-Reveiw/Assessment
Give a comprehensive review of key vocabulary and key content concepts. Provide feedback regularly on their output (e.g., language, content, work). Conduct assessments of student comprehension & learning throughout lesson (e.g., spot checking, group response)
Structure-Based Syllabus
syllabus organized by grammatical features
Uptake
students' immediate self-corrections in class
Output
what students are able to produce on their own
Recasting
rephrasing but not in a direct way..."I go", oh, "I went too"
Repetition of the Error
teacher repeats what the student said but in a different tone
Structured Output Activities
present one thing at a time/ keep meaning in focus/ move from sentences to connected discourse/ use both oral and written input/ others must respond to the content of the output/ the learner must have some knowledge of the form or structure. (VanPatten)
Open-Ended (dialogue)
Terrell and Krashen strategy - two or three lined dialogues with open-ended sentences
Process Oriented vs. Product Oriented
first concerned with communicative competence. second concerned more with accurate grammar and pronunciation.
Information-Based Task
A task given to a learner that requires him to obtain information and do something with that information
Negotiations
interactions during which speakers come to terms, reach an agreement, make arrangements, resolve a problem, or settle an issue by conferring or discussing; the purpose of language use is to accomplish some task rather than to practice any particular language forms
Story-Based (approach to grammar instruction)
does include explicit grammar instruction, for those students who might benefit from it, but it does not 'allow' it to be taught first, or directly. It shares both 'focus on meaning' and a 'focus on form'. It is based on the assumption that the 'learner draws on both their automatic (non-analyzed) and controlled (analyzed) language knowledge
Communicative Value
the amount of 'need' for a specific grammatical feature for communication to be accurate.
Psycholinguistically (motivated approach to grammar)
This is an approach that uses the knowledge regarding what learners are doing with input when they are asked to comprehend it. - one that guides and helps learners focus their attention when they process input.
Notional/Functional (syllabus)
type of syllabus based on communication in real life - start with greeting, then narrating, then investigating...which will bring structures along.
Reading Theories and Models for ELLs
use culturally familiar texts, connect to life experiences, develop concepts before words, use predictable books, use L1 texts, read aloud, write often and for various purposes
Vocabulary Strategies for ELLs
directly teach academic words, multiple word meanings, cognates, strategies for figuring out word meaning from context; interactive read aloud; choose words for direct teaching that are central in a semantic field, teach word meaning in relation to other words that are known, use linguistic and situational context to develop word knowledge, teach denotative and connotative meanings, teach multiple meanings, teach idioms, metaphors, etc., identify referents for nouns and pronoun phrases
Reading Intervention Approaches for ELL's
access to early literacy programs in L1; early assessments in L1; grade-level content with simple directions; make connections and use clear background, teach reading strategies, focus on vocab, word webs, KWL
Stages of Reading Development
pre-alphabetic, partial alphabetic, alphabetic, consolidated
Strategies for Developing Oral Skills for ELL's
use surveys, drama, songs, flashcards, commands, visuals, 1. model 2. rehearse 3. activities for meaning; interact in conversation, converse with peers, periodic support and direct teaching; introduce new language structures through conversation, then repetition with games
Writing Approaches, Practices, Strategies for ELL's
use Language Experience Approach, Dialogue Journals, build background, model text type, guided practice, independent writing, read together until learner associates written form with spoken; can be individual or group; use purposeful writing activities; process writing; base on reading, shared and interactive writing
Selection and Adaptation of Reading Instruction and Materials for ELLs
teach vocab explicitly, group reading, multiple assessments, culturally relevant instruction, age-appropriate instruction, teach phonemic awareness and phonics and phonetics, interactive read aloud, meaningful, purposeful, functional with explicit phonics instruction; teach sight words and word families
Phonological/Phonics Skill for ELL's
same for native speakers for ELL's, focus on word meaning in context; phonics instruction: 1. single initial consonant 2. short and long vowel sounds; letter patterns and word families, digraphs and blends; syllabication
Balanced Literacy Approach
Phonemic Awareness; phonics, word study, vocab development, read aloud, shared reading, guided reading, teach reading strategies, literacy centers, independent reading, shared/interactive/mediated writing; emphasize word identification in proportion to individual words; acknowledge L1, immerse and real world experiences with various purposes; enrich environment with print; accept and celebrate progress (w/errors); encourage at home
Subject Matter Teaching Strategies
CALP- explicit instruction, integrate content and language objectives, support students use of English to discuss content, KWL, charts, vocab, experience, illustrations, webs, visuals, teach cognitive strategies, allow dictionaries, small group discussion, hand-on
Reading Strategy Instruction
A form of CALLA. Teaching a student reading strategies. Visualizing, making connections, asking questions, making predictions, comparing and contrasting; literacy scaffolds. Activating prior knowledge; predicting or asking questions; visualizing; drawing influences; determining important ideas; synthesizing information; repairing understanding; confirming; using parts of a book; reflecting
Strategies to Determine Unfamiliar Word Meaning in Texts
identify and pronounce multi-letter chunks, use shape and length, context, associate meaning, syntactic/semantic/graphonic cues; sight words, word families
Writing Process for ELLs
1. Brainstorm 2. Outline 3. Draft 4. Revise (rearrange and rephrase ideas - hard for ELL) 5. Edit
Descriptive (grammar)
A type of grammar that is more concerned with how language is actually used rather than the rules of grammar that might be taught in school.
Prescriptive (grammar)
The kind of grammar based on rules that we learn in school
Communicative-Based Instruction
Assumes that language production contains an infinite number of possible language combinations, so memorizing patterns and rules does little to prepare language learners for authentic language use
English for Special Purposes
Seek to prepare students to learn language for different environments, including the fields of medicine, engineering, computer science, and others
English as a Second Language
A programming model in which linguistically diverse students are instructed in the use of English as a means of communication and learning. This model is often used when native speakers of multiple first languages are present within the same classroom
Paraphrasing Skills
use problem solving in small groups, practicing persuasive or entertaining speeches, role plays, interviews, chain stories, talks, problems and discussions, retell stories heard in class and change the ending, illustrate or paraphrase lines of poems to add to their pictures
Cognitive Strategies
is vital to second-language acquisition; manipulation of the second language, practicing (repetition, imitate native speaker's accent, concentrate on sounds, practice in a realistic setting), receiving and sending messages (quickly locate salient points and then interpret meaning; skim information need vs. want to know, use available resources to interpret messages) , analyzing and reasoning (general rules to understand the meaning and then work into specifics, breakdown unfamiliar expressions into parts), creating structure for input and output (format for taking notes, practice summarizing long passages, use highlighters to focus on main idea and details)
Meta-Cognitive Strategies
students should have skills for planning, managing, and evaluating the language-learning process, center your learning (review a key concept and link to existing knowledge; decide to pay attention; ignore input that is distracting; learn skills in the proper order), arrange and plan your learning (take time to understand how a language is learned; create optimal learning conditions; set goals), evaluate your learning (keep track of progress or lack thereof)
Schema Theory
explains how the brain processes knowledge and how it facilitates comprehension and learning. Schemata is the prior knowledge that students have when beginning a new language, a schema is a framework around information that is stored in the brain, as new information is received, schemata are activated to store the new information by connecting what is known and what is being learned, understanding is achieved and learning can take place, if students lack sufficient prior knowledge, they cannot be expected to understand a new lesson
Analytic Learning Style
object-oriented, with the capacity for making connections and inferences
Visual Learner
learns from seeing words on the board or reading
Auditory Learner
learns from hearing words spoken, from oral explanations, and from listening to tapes or lectures
Kinesthetic Learner
learns by experience or by being physically involved
Tactile Learning
learns by hands-on learning, learning by doing, working on models and lab experiments
Positive Transfer
occurs when similar structures in the L1 facilitate the learning of the new language (example: cognates)
Labials
consonants in which the lips form their distinctive sound
Affricatives
stop consonants that are released slowly into a period of fricative noise (example: /ch/ in church)
Palatals
consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (middle part of the roof of the mouth)
Fricatives
consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together (example: /th/ sound in English)
Transitional Bilingual Education Model (TBE)
two-way bilingual model is based on strong content and other academic achievement in both languages. The goal of the program: to provide students with ample exposures to both languages that allow them to progress academically in both languages while appreciating another culture. methods- Content: Social studies and math are taught in French, while math, arts, and music are taught in English - Time: Instruction is given in each language on alternate days- Person: One teacher uses Navajo and one teacher uses English- Language development methods: Start at 90% instruction in native language (so 90-10, 80-20, 70-30, 60-40, 50-50...). * second language vs. foreign language learning
Immersion Education Models
instruction is initiated in the student's non-native language; L2 is used as a medium of instruction for both academic content and the second language
English Language Development (ELD) or English as a Second Language (ESL) Pull-Out
intent is to teach the ELL to communicate in social settings, engage in academic tasks, and use English in socially and culturally appropriate ways (approaches: Grammar-Based, Communication-Based, Content-Based) Grammar-Based ESL teaches about the language, stressing its structure, functions, and vocabulary through rules, drills, and error correction Communication-Based ESL instruction in English that emphasizes using the language in meaningful contexts. little stress on correctness in the early stages and more emphasis on comprehensible input in the early stages to foster communication and lower anxiety when risk-taking Content-Based ESL instruction in English that attempts to develop language skills and prepare ELLs to study grade-level content material in English emphasis on language, but with graded introduction to content areas, vocabulary, and basic concepts
Structured English Immersion
goal is English proficiency. ELLs are pulled out for structured instruction in English so that subject matter is comprehensible,used with sizeable groups of ELLs who speak the same language and are in the same grade level or with a diverse population of language minority students,little or no L1 language support,teachers use sheltered instructional techniques and have strong receptive skills in the students' native or heritage language
Submersion with Primary Language Support
-the goal is English proficiency-bilingual teachers or aides support the minority students in each grade level who are ELLs, in small groups, the ELLs are tutored by reviewing the content area in their primary language, teachers use the L1 to support English content classes,ELLs achieve limited literacy in L1
Characteristics of Effective Programs for Language Minority Groups
supportive whole-school contexts, high expectations for language minority groups supported by active learning environments that are academically challenging, intensive staff development programs designed to assist ALL teachers in providing effective instruction to language minority students, expert instructional leaders and teachers, emphasis on functional communication between teacher and students and among fellow students, organizing the instruction of basic skills and academic content around thematic units, frequent student interaction through the use of collaborative learning techniques, teachers with a high commitment of the educational success for all their students, principals supportive of their instructional staff and of teacher autonomy while maintaining an awareness of district policies on curriculum and academic accountability, involvement of majority and minority parents in formal parent support activities
Integrated Language Teaching
content based instruction and task-based instruction, require students to use language authentically to obtain information and to communicate information, based on theory: learners will learn authentic language and gain a truer picture of the complexities and richness of English when used as a real means of interacting and sharing among people.reading, writing and speaking are integrated; content and language instruction are integrated; collaborative and supportive environment
Content-Based Instruction
requires students to practice all the language skills in a highly integrated, communicative way while learning content (three models: theme-based - language skills are integrated in the study of themes or broad topics (e.g. drug abuse, recycling, homelessness); adjunct - language and content courses are taught separately but closely coordinated; sheltered - English is simplified to ELL's level of proficiency while teaching content)
Task-Based Instruction
students are guided through tasks formulated so that they are as realistic as possible (three main trends: communicativeness - learning is achieved though activities promoting real conversation between learners; tasks - learners who use language in a meaningful way to carry out tasks will learn language; meaningfulness - learners need to find meaning in the task for the learning tasks to be most effective)
Contextual Instructional Methods
use of gestures, body language, facial expressions, props, visual illustrations, and manipulatives in teaching
Linguistic Modifications
modifications for ELLs include standardizing vocabulary; set standard for sentence length and complexity; reinforcement through repetition, summarization, and restatement; slower speaking pace
Teaching Vocabulary
use of charades when trying to communicate a word (act it out), introduce new vocabulary through familiar vocabulary, utilizing visual props, antonyms, and synonyms to communicate vocabulary
Informal (formative) Ways to Assess Oral Language
comprehension check (thumbs up/thumbs down, verbal response of yes/no, end of lesson quizzes or surveys, interviews)
Formal (summative) Ways to Assess Oral Language
end of unit tests, national/state standardized tests
ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI)
created by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, designed to measure functional speaking ability, interview is structured, interactive conversation that continuously adapts to interest, experiences, and abilities of the person being tested, moves through specific communication tasks, ten proficiency levels
Activities which Require a Rubric to Assess Language
use of rubrics to assess interviews, read alouds (to check for oral fluency), retelling stories (to check for productive vocabulary/grammar), role playing, giving descriptions, directions or instructions orally, telling a story based on visual prompts (e.g. a sequence of three or more pictures), brainstorming, playing games, comprehension checks, exit tickets,formal and informal assessments - daily, weekly, monthly
Bottom-up Approach to Reading
phonics approach to reading-phonics instruction designed to "break the code" of reading in a systematic way (sounds of letters, letter-sound, syllables, words, sentences), reading is viewed as a linear, systematic process, spelling and language are taught as separate subjects
Top-down Approach to Reading
language based approach to reading, expose students to a variety of literature and reading materials, words are taught as individuals need and are ready for them, each student takes an individual route to developing proficiency in reading, teachers provide mini-lessons when needed and act as facilitators, authentic literature and writing tasks are emphasized
Interactive-Compensatory Model for Reading
middle ground between bottom-up and top-down, recognizes phonics as an important step in the reading process- students should receive early intensive instruction in phonological awareness and phonics, but with an emphasis on reading and writing- teachers should have accurate data about each students' strengths and weaknesses- instruction should be differentiated based on each students' needs- teachers should use research when considering what to teach and how to teach it
Classroom Strategies to Support Oral Language Development and Language Skills
strategies for Oral support include practice, making connections between concrete and abstract, supply many opportunities for interaction, teach elaboration, allow a proper wait time, have flexible small groups (multiple perspectives, encourages collaboration), partner students (provide practice opportunities, scaffold instruction, give assistance before independent practice), use cooperative learning ideas - informational gap activity, jigsaw, roundtable, 3 step interview, writing headlines
Reading Skills
decoding; accurate and fluent word recognition; comprehension at word, phase, sentence, and text level
Writing Skills
automatic letter formation; accurate and fluent spelling; sentence construction; ability to compose a variety of different text structures with coherence and cohesion
Instructional Components Necessary for Reading and Writing
motivating students according to their unique needs and interest, providing direct explicit instruction of reading and writing skills and strategies based on ongoing student assessment, modeling the effective thinking skills that good readers and writers employ, devoting fifty percent of the students' instructional time on a daily basis to reading and writing in the classroom, activating students' prior knowledge to help them make connections between what they know and what they would like to learn (e.g. KWL), providing opportunities for students to make text and writing connections to their lives, forms of media, and the world, offering both guided and independent reading experiences, differentiating instruction with a plentiful supply of multi-level books to accommodate interests and ability levels, motivating readers by offering a choice of books to read that are at their independent reading level, and that they can read with accuracy, fluency, and comprehension, promoting conversation though purposeful and guided discussion about a book, piece of writing, or topic, guiding discussions through open-ended questioning, creating a more personable learning environment, designing projects that excite and engage students as opposed to engaging in short disconnected tasks (integrating subjects), assessing student work based on common rubrics
Techniques for Beginning Reading Development, Skills and Strategies for ELLs
-teaching children to understand sentences, texts, and other materials is better than trying to teach the word skills in isolation, children can learn the alphabet principles by alphabetizing lists of spelling words or groups of objects, simple techniques such as holding up the left hand and recognizing the letter "L" can help children remember which side of the text to begin reading first, learning to decode words is best achieved by practicing while reading, sight words can be memorized, three major types of context clues are: syntactic (word order, word endings, function of words in a sentence), semantic (meaning clues), and phonemes and graphemes (/ph/ may sound like /f/ as in photograph, /ch/ sometimes sounds like a /k/ as in chemistry), reading fluency may be improved by observing the following strategies: reread for clarity and to improve understanding, ask for help when confused, realize that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." Venn diagrams, webs, and other graphics may be helpful in organizing texts for easier understanding, vocabulary cards or dictionaries may help ELLs to recall words they don't know. Word walls and instruction on idioms, antonyms, synonyms, and homonyms are useful, learning the structure of sentence patterns, question forms, and their punctuation can help the ELL to determine meaning
Communicative Tasks
focused on meaning and are open-ended; used in group work and have a written component to summarize work, information-gap tasks = transfer info, select relevant info, completeness and correctness, reasoning-gap tasks = derive new info from given info, inference, deduction, reasoning, logic, opinion-gap tasks = identify/articulate personal preference, feeling, attitude toward given situation
Skills to Master Reading Comprehension for ELLs
skimming to extract main idea, scanning for specific information, predicting based upon prior knowledge, restating the information to indicate comprehension of the text, recognizing inferred information, sounding out unfamiliar words, guessing at their meaning based upon previous understanding of the text, summarizing the text, preview vocabulary
Vocabulary Development for ELLs
same methods used with native speaker beginning readers: ample exposure to print, word walls, realia, signs on objects around the room, and so on* older children study true and false cognates, create personal dictionaries, journal writing between themselves and their teacher, and using learning strategies to augment their vocabulary (other strategies: activate the prior knowledge of ELL; repeat the new word in meaningful contexts; explore the word in depth through demonstrations, direct experience, concrete examples, and applications to real life; having students explain concepts and ideas in writing and speaking using the new words; provide explicit strategy instruction so that students can independently understand and use the new words)
Word Analysis
concepts about print; phonemic and morphemic awareness; vocabulary and concept development; decoding; word recognition, including structural analysis, recognition of cognates, and other word identification strategies (sound-symbol correspondence, cognates, false cognates, prefixes and suffixes)
Systematic Vocabulary Development
applying word recognition skills, using content-related vocabulary, recognizing multiple-meaning words, applying knowledge of text connectors, recognizing common abbreviations, and using a dictionary, using morphemes and context to understand unknown words, imposition of systematic vocabulary development, whether content-related or grouping by phonics or grammatical structures, relieves anxiety and lowers the affective filter- recognizable text connectors (and, but, because, until, unless, etc.) = help break down text into manageable segments- use of the dictionary, with its many abbreviations (v.t., n., pronunciation symbols, etc.) = research new words with confidence- recognizing common morphemes such as the prefix un- = help decode unfamiliar and unknown words
Reading Comprehension
features, structures, and rhetorical devices of different types of text; comprehension and analysis of grade-level-appropriate texts; identifying fact and opinion; identifying cause and effect; using a text to draw conclusions and make inferences; describing relationships between a text and one's own experience; evaluating an author's credibility. scaffolding techniques to help students recognize features of different types of texts:- key words to help differentiate fact from opinion (I believe; it seems to me...)- draw arrows between listed events from the text to determine what was a cause and what was an effect- directly taught to make inferences (The old woman was crying. What does that tell us?)- make text-to-self connections (Have you ever ____?)- evaluate credibility (Is the wolf a reliable narrator? Why or why not?)literary response and analysis narrative analysis of grade-level-appropriate texts, structural features of literature, literary criticisms)(examples: illustrate a story to demonstrate interpretive or reflective response to it; compare book and movie versions of the same story; develop their own versions of the same story with graphic art or poetry; use graphics to retell a story = graphics force the student to decide which story elements are important enough to include in the blank cartoon panels provided)
Key Elements of Sheltered Instruction
access to prior knowledge, contextualize a lesson's key concepts and language, modify and augment state content-area textbooks to address ELLs needs, demonstrate or model learning tasks, use questions to promote critical-thinking skills, explicit instruction in meta-cognitive and cognitive strategies, develop ELL's academic language, provide clear models of expected performance outcomes, transform text from one genre to another, provide opportunities for ELLs to engage in analysis and interpretation of text, provide ELL with opportunities to learn and use forms of L2 necessary to express content-specific academic language, provide authentic opportunities to use the L2 for content related communicative purposes, assess attainment of lesson content using multiple modalities, provide comprehensible and meaningful corrective feedback
Woodcock-Johnson III Diagnostic Reading Battery
an individually administered measure used to diagnose a student's strengths and weaknesses for needed areas of instruction
Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test
norm-referenced; group-administered instrument; scientifically researched and is effective in screening; K-12 students and adults, identifies instructional needs and generates a lexile score(calculation of the level of comprehension a student will have with a text), estimates that a student will understand 75% of the lexile score, and using software, generates a list of texts based on this score.
Degrees of Reading Power
given passages with missing words and are required to supply the missing word from a multiple-choice selection, grades 1-12, DRP scores can be matched with books of appropriate reading levels
Informal Reading Inventories
graded reading passages and comprehension questions, narrative and expository reading passages, retelling checklists, may incorporate prior knowledge questions for each passage(purpose: use to gauge oral reading comprehension; assess silent reading comprehension; passages read aloud by test administrator to test listening comprehension)
Improve Writing
frontload vocabulary and language functions, interactive journals, shared reading (natural rhythm and beauty of language; builds bridges between text and students; practice in strategies that make text comprehensible; models fluent reading; help build prior knowledge of texts and their world), learning log, process writing- prewriting = brainstorming, research, note taking, listening, clustering, organizing- drafting = format, write drafts, decide on audience- revising = rethinking, adding, dropping, rearranging, rewriting- proofreading = prepare for publication by polishing, spelling, punctuation, grammar- publishing = share with audience* graphic organizers (clusters, web, flowchart, process, problem-solution, compare/contrast)
Writing Process
composing process (prewriting, general material, organizing material, drafting), revision process (focus on audience, focus on purpose, editing - coherence, organization, development, mechanics)writing with younger children ,using literacy materials in dramatic play centers, making posters about favorite books, labeling classroom items, writing morning messages, recording questions and information on charts, writing notes to parents, reading and writing letters to pen pals, reading and writing charts and maps. writing with older children exhibits or projects; visual displays; organized lists; tables or graphs; short answers
Functions of Writing
narrative - tell fictional or nonfictional stories or accounts
descriptive - information about person, place, thing; fiction or non-fiction expository - explains/clarifies idea persuasive - convince reader of something
Derivational Relations
root words and derivational affixes, word clusters using root words, sort words into roots or language of origin assessment, gathering of information in order to make decisions, student performance, progress, behavior
Criterion Referenced Tests
measure a student's knowledge of specific content, usually related to classroom instruction, student's performance is compared to a set of criteria or a pre-established standard of information the student is expected to know, what the student knows is more important than how s/he compares to other students, criterion referenced tests are used to determine whether a student has mastered required skills (examples: math quizzes at the end of a chapter, or some state mandated test of specific content)
Rating Scales and Checklists
self-appraisal, observation by teacher or parents, used for behavior or affective areas such as interest, motivation, attention, depression, the norm referenced assessment is used for ADHD or Behavior Assessment System for Children
Formal Writing Assessments for ELLs
National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) (primary trait scoring),Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) Writing Test (holistic scoring),International English Language Test System (IELTS) (analytic scoring),Test of English for Educational Purposes (TEEP) (analytic scoring), essays with pre-established rubrics specific to the type of assignment, portfolios which include several pieces of writing
Informal Classroom Assessments
evaluate out-of-class writing as well as in-class writing, evaluate more than one writing sample, build authenticity and inter-activeness into timed writing tasks, use scoring instruments (e.g. rubrics) specific to the assignment and to the instructional focus of the class. Provide useful feedback to the students
Effective Instruction for ELLs
challenge; involvement; success; scaffolding/cognitive strategies; mediation/feedback; collaborative/cooperative learning; techniques for second-language; acquisition/sheltered English; respect for cultural diversity
Linguistic Interference
knowledge of the first language causes errors and misunderstanding in the second language
Semi-phonetic
indicated that spellers write only some of the letters in a word.
Primary Language
The language of most benefit in learning new and difficult information
Primary Language Assessment
Every LEP student must be assessed for primary language proficiency within ninety calendar days of enrollment
Interpretations and use of Assessment Information
affects placement, focus on mechanics and content strategies, future lessons
Formal and Informal Writing Assessments
dictation, samples, drafts, checklists, rubrics, scales, lists, logs, video, observe, interview, self-assess
Formal and Informal Reading Assessments
assess frequently to scaffold to higher levels; running records, observation survey tacks, miscue analysis (incl. retellings), cloze, checklists, lists, logs, reading response journals, self-assessment
Informal Oral Assessments
interview, oral reports, summaries, descriptions, presentations, reports, dialogue, group discussion, observation, audio/video tape (BICS CALP), self-made rubrics, scales, read aloud, explain tasks, tell story/rhyme/joke/riddle, self-assess
Interpretation of Oral Language Results
assess in L1 and L2 to see where the problem exists; look at education history and family education and history, psychological exam in L1.
Assessment
effects placement and future lessons and content; reasons for ass: placement, diagnose problems and needs, assess performance, determine program effectiveness; interview student and family in L1, assessment. in L1 for subject matter knowledge; assess oral and lit. fluency
4 Main ELL Learning Styles
concrete, analytic, communicative, authority-oriented
Concrete Learning Style
a learning style that is people-oriented, emotional, spontaneous
Communicative Learning Style
a learning style that the learner is autonomous, prefers social learning, likes making decisions
Authority-Oriented Learning Style
a learner that defers to teacher, does not enjoy learning by discovery, intolerant of facts that do not fit
Four Learning Tendencies
visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile
Vocabulary Strategies for ELLs
pictures, drawings can promote vocab retention. L1 translation equivalents, involvement in vocabulary use (composition task or summary) task-based vocabulary-learning (crosswords w/descriptions, matching w/definitions), index cards, picture/word matching game w/cards, column word-def-pic-use in sentence.Activate prior knowledge, Repeat word in meaningful context, Explore word in depth, Students use orally and in writing
Visual/Non-Verbal
Learn best when information is presented visually and in a picture or design format. Like film, video, maps, charts and diagrams. Prefer to work alone in quiet environments. They visualize an image of something in their mind when trying to remember it. May also be artistic.
Auditory/Verbal
Learn best when information is presented aurally. Like lecture and group discussions, audio tapes, streaming audio and computer conferencing. To remember, repeat it out loud and can mentally "hear" the way the information was explained to them.
Tactile/Kinisthetic
Learn best when doing a physical "hands-on" activity, labs, field work, in class demonstrations, simulations with 3-Dimensional graphics, group or individual projects and activities.
Learning Styles Four Types
Innovative - Personally involved through social interaction.
Analytic learner - thinks through ideas & concepts
Common sense - hands-on experience and solving practical problems
Dynamic - uses intuition and trial and error, taking risks and jumping to conclusions
PRAC Cognitive Strategies for L2.
Practicing: repetition, imitating accent & sounds, real settings. Receiving & sending messages: skim, main points, summary. Analyzing & reasoning: break down unfamiliar into parts. Creating structure for input & output: note formats, highlight,
Summarize
Metacognative Strategies for Learning L1
Create toolbox for planning managing and evaluating the learning process. 3 Keys: Center around an idea and connect to prior knowledge. Arrange/plan learning: understand how a language is learned, create good setting, proper resources, set realistic goals Evaluate: track progress and frequent errors
Integrative Testing
Taking dictation, filling in cloze tests and participating in structured interviews
Non-graded Writing Practice
write in pairs, rewrite a passage in own words, write from perspective of another, logs, journal, quick-write, summaries, compare, evaluate, critique or interpret, exit ticket - what did you learn today, use vocab in sentence or paragraph
Frontloading Vocab for Writing
sets up grammatical structures, connector words, improves writing accuracy/fluency, improves descriptions
Authentic Writing Tasks
pen pal letters, exhibits, projects, lists, posters, labels, charts
Writing Activities for Lower ELLs
Exhibits or Projects
Visual Displays, Organized Lists (lists of concepts. students organize, sequence or categorize), Tables or Graphs, Short Answers
Increasing Oral Comprehensibility of Teacher
face students, pause frequently, paraphrase often, most important ideas & vocab stressed and in writing on board, Avoid asides, Avoid or clarify pronouns, Use shorter sentences, Use subject-verb-object word order, Increase wait time, Avoid interpreting on a regular basis
Classroom Conversation Strategies
Focus on student's meaning, not grammar, Paraphrase what student said modeling grammar and vocab
Ask questions in simplified language, Establish a pattern in the questions, Ask for elaboration "tell me more about...", Be a good listener (eye contact, non-verbal support, plenty of time), Provide encouragement to continue "Uh-hah. Really? What happened then?"
Provide difficult words, Ask for clarification. "not sure I understand. Say again?"
Oral Comprehension Activities for Vocabulary
Duet Reading (students & teacher read aloud together), Races (to touch named object), Team drawing on board (Draw a desk with trash next to), Singing
Cooperative Learning Tasks
two-way exchanges of info show more benefits: 1. more negotiation of meaning 2. Better language with time to plan responses 3. If single solution, more negotiation work
Listening and Responding Skills Activities
Interviews, Instructions, Announcements, Radio news, Committee meetings, Shopping encounters, Theater, Telephone, Lessons/lectures, Conversation and gossip, Television, Story-Telling
Listening Skill Activity Guidelines
-informal conversation, listen only one time, Speaker visible to listener, Direct speaker-listener interaction
Give students background/setting/situation ahead of time, Students have GO or questions to answer
Structured Interview
1. Provide grammatical/syntactic structure to practice 2. Students interview each other w/real info while practicing
Participation Activities
Guided discussion, Interview of native speaker then record, organize, present info
Observation Activities
Students record verbal & nonverbal interactions between native speakers. Observe how people greet, request, interrupt, compliment, disagree, or receive compliments. Then role play verbal & non-verbal behaviors situation appropriate.
Discussion Activities
Describing pictures, Picture differences, Solving a problem
Performance Activities
Speech, Explanation of experiment, tell story, Role play, Drama, Debates, You could videotape student and have them then self-evaluate
Vocabulary Activities
charades, Pictionary
use familiar vocabulary (synonyms, antonyms, definition),Visual props
Assessment Activities
Interview
Reading aloud (check oral fluency)
Retelling stories (check vocab & grammar)
Role Playing
Giving descriptions or instructions orally
Story based on sequence of pictures
Brainstorming
Playing games
Comprehension checks
Exit tickets
Descriptive Assessment
a more holistic view by using data collected in variety of methods (language samples, narrative analysis, rating scales). Students then analyzed using language proficiency, previous performance, the multiple measures
Shared Reading
Students follow along while teacher reads. Benefits:
Demonstrates rhythm of the language
Connects student to text
Practice in strategies that make a text comprehensible
Models fluent reading
Helps students learn about texts and world
Reading Development Current Theories
Include phonics, but in texts
Learn to decode while practicing reading, Teach Idioms, antonyms, synonyms, homonyms
Duet Reading
fluency strategy in which students read aloud together with the teacher, helps the students develop proper intonation and pacing.
Choral Reading
two or more individuals reading aloud from the same text in unison to enhance oral reading fluency.
Fluency Strategies
Duet reading, Choral Reading, Listen/Repeat exercises, Singing
Reading Comprehension Strategies
Fact vs. Opinion, Cause and Effect chart, Inferences, Connect text to own lives, evaluate credibility of author or character
Effective ESL instruction
1. Challenge: Implicit and Explicit
2. Involvement: Active involvement all students
3. Success: Reasonable activities students can complete
4. Scaffolding/Cognitive Strategies:GO's, BBK, teacher models thinking out loud, builds on and clarifies their input
5.Mediation/Feedback
6. Collaborative/Cooperative learning
7. Sheltered English Techniques
8. Respect Cultural Diversity
Peer-Mediated Instruction
Research shows very effective. Active participation. Varied academic & language abilities work together in pairs & small groups toward a common goal. Interaction and interdependence. Effective in promoting higher levels of language and academic learning and social interaction(essential components: cooperative incentives; group rewards; individual accountability; task structures)
Main Components:
1. Cooperative incentives
2. Group rewards
3. Individual accountability
4. Task structures
Peer Tutoring
Each child takes turn to be both the tutor and the tutee. Students are trained in procedures. Main components:
1. Weekly competing teams
2. Highly structured teaching procedure (content material, teams, pairing, error correction, system of rewards)
3. Tutee point earning and public postings of scores
4. Direct practice of academic and language skills to mastery
CALP Development Strategies Use all 4 language skills each lesson
Integrated Approach Four Main Components
1. Cooperative Learning
2. Task-based or Experiential Learning
3. Whole Language Approach
4. Graphic Organizers
Whole Language Approach
Students must experience language as an integrated whole. Consistent with Integrated Language approach. Meaningful engagement and authentic language use. Content-centered. Link oral and written language. Includes dialogue journals, reading response journals, learning logs, process-based writing, language experience stories.
Transactive Process
The process by which the reader interacts with reading material to negotiate meaning.
Literature Based
A coordinated program using all types of literature as the catalyst in teaching reading.
Computer Assisted Instruction
Instruction that incorporates computerized software programs such as word processing, database applications, or literature presentations
Content Area Reading
Reading expository text requires students to identify the various types of organization patterns while reading silently and to use strategies to obtain meaning from content texts.
Spelling Instruction
Should be integrated with language arts. Spelling should evolve naturally from writing program. Activities such as crossword puzzles, Scrabble for Juniors, and Spelling Lotto create interest in learning about spelling.
Oral Language Development
Activities: Dramatics, Art, Small Groups, Puppets
Write-up
the teacher writes up the words on the board or shows a flashcard or has them on a handout or children look in their books to see the word; to clarify spelling and any necessary or appropriate features of word grammar, and pronunciation as appropriate
Common Core Standards
-Divided into Five categories:
1) Reading: Literature
2) Reading: Informational Text
3) Writing
4)Speaking and Listening
5) Language
-Reading Standards -Keys ideas and details
-Craft and structure
-Integration of knowledge and ideas
-Range of reading and level of text complexity
-Rigor and relevance - Take students beyond grade level
Right Brain Versus Left Brain
Adapted by Jean Piaget
Right brain: -Random
-Synthesis
-Subjective
-Imagistic
-Impressionistic
-Intuitive
-Putting things together
Left brain: -Logical
-Reason-oriented
-Analytical
-Objective
-Explanatory
-Clarifying
-Sequential
-Takes things apart
Learning through Experience
promotes individuality, free activity, and learning through experience, such as project-based learning, cooperative learning, and arts integration activities; theorized that school is primarily a social institution and a process of living, not an institution in which to prepare for future living; belief that students should be taught to be problem-solvers
Stages of Cognitive Development
four stages to cognitive development (Piaget)- sensorimotor (explore the world through senses and motor skills), preoperational (believe that others view the world as they do; can use symbols to represent objects), concrete operational (reason logically in familiar situations; can conserve and reverse operations), and formal operational (can reason in hypothetical situations and use abstract thought
Ways to Show Word Meaning
1. show a real object
2. show a picture or a drawing
3. mime
4. give an example, use the word in context
OR a combination of these techniques
Steps of Organizing Oral Practice
1. (set the context, check comprehension) give the model
2. have students repeat (repetition)
3. give prompts. students make sentences (prompts)
4. have students make their own sentences (free substitution)
types of visual aids whiteboard, realia, pictures, flashcards, wall charts/wall pictures, the T herself
Common Problems in Pronunciation
1. difficulty in producing particular sounds
2. confusion of similar sounds
3. using simple vowels instead of diphthongs
4. difficulty in pronouncing consonant clusters
5. giving all syllables equal stress and a flat intonation
Three Kinds of Learning
learning by heart
forming habits
acquiring rules
Plateau Effect
In intermediate level, students find they are not improving as rapidly as before, they think their English is good enough and find it difficult to learn more
Deductive Approach
students are given explanations for grammar rules, and then asked to make phrases with the new language based on these rules
Reading principles (6)
1) read as much/as often as possible
2) engaging
3) respond to context, not just language
4) prediction
5) match task to topic
6) exploit to fullest
Reading Sequence Examples
magazine article, news website, web quest
reading lesson examples jigsaw reading, reading puzzles, using newspapers
Writing Sequence Examples
postcards, instant writing, music and pictures, poetry, newspapers, collaborative writing
Speaking Sequence Examples
balloon debate, presentations, surveys, famous people, meeting and greeting, favorite object
Listening Principles (6)
1) listen as much or as often as possible
2) help prepare students to listen
3) once may not be enough
4) encourage to respond to context
5) different listening stages demand different tasks
6) exploit
Cloze Procedure
passage from text that contains blanks where words are deliberately omitted. It is designed to measure a student's comprehension, but may also be used to activate prior knowledge about a topic. To create a Cloze Activity, choose a passage of text and delete words based on a word count formula, such as every 5th word
Associationism
a learning theory that assumes that language learning takes place when learners associate forms with their meanings.
Banking Method of Education
a more 'traditional' form of education where the teacher 'deposits' information in the students, making the assumption that the teacher knows what the students need to learn.
Fostering Nonlinguistic Representations
Nonlinguistic Repr.( visual, Kinesthetic, whole body) have been found to stimulate and increase brain activity. Teachers can foster NonL. Repr. by using words and symbols to convey relationships and by using physical models and physical movement to represent new info.
Encouraging Cooperative Learning
Jigsaw, Numbered Heads Together, Think-Pair-Share. Cooperative Learning's essential elements: positive interdependence- work together to accomplish a task, Face to face interaction, Individual and group accountability, Interpersonal skills- use teamwork and positive social skills
Mastery Monitoring
Students need to complete a set of different tasks to demonstrate progress on the way to the learning goal
General Outcome Measurement
Students need to complete several brief but similar tasks to demonstrate progress on the way the learning goal
Characteristics of Written Language
permanence, production time, distance, orthography, complexity, vocabulary, formality.
Principles for Teaching Writing Skills
Incorporate practices of "good" writers, balance process and product, account for cultural/literary backgrounds, connect reading and writing, provide as much authentic writing as possible, frame your techniques in terms of pre-writing, drafting, and revising stages. Strive to offer techniques that are as interactive as possible, sensitively apply methods of responding to and correcting your students' writing, clearly instruct students on the rhetorical, formal conventions of writing.
Incorporate Practices of "good" Writers
Start by writing down ideas
Make a draft; don't concentrate on grammar at first, Consider your audience, Balance process and product, Give students a chance to produce
Guide them with feedback, Pay attention to the steps in writing
THEN have them produce the final product
Connect Reading and Writing
Students learn to write in part by carefully observing what is already written
Five Essential Components of Reading Instruction
• Phonemic Awareness
• Phonics
• Fluency
• Comprehension
• Vocabulary
Ten Instructional Components of a Balanced Literacy Program
1) Reading
2) Phonics and other literacy skills
3) Reading and Writing Strategies
4) Vocabulary
5) Comprehension
6) Literature
7) Content area study
8) Oral language
9) Writing
10) Spelling
Five Key Features of the Reading Process
1) Prereading: make predictions
2) Reading: Take notes, read alone, read with buddy, shared or guided reading
3) Responding: write in reading log
4) Exploring: learn new vocabulary, identify memorable lines or quotes
5) Applying: Construct projects or books
Five Key Features of the Writing Process
1) Prewriting: choose a topic
2) Drafting: write a rough draft
3) Revising: make substantive change that reflect peer and teacher comments
4) Editing: proofreading for spelling, capitalization, punctuation and grammar
5) Publishing: Final copy and sharing
Ways to Monitor Student Progress
1) Observations
2) Anecdotal notes
3) Conferences
4) Checklists
5) Rubrics
6) Student work samples
7) Running records
Bruner Theories
"Discovery Learning" and "Constructivism" Bruner suggests that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based on knowledge or past experiences. His constructivist theory emphasizes a student's ability to solve real-life problems and make new meaning through reflection. Discovery learning features teaching methods that enable students to discover information by themselves or in groups.
Dewey's Theory
"Learning through Experience" Dewey is considered the "father" of progressive education practice that promotes individuality, free activity, and learning through experiences, such as project-based learning, cooperative learning, and arts integration activities. He theorized that school is primarily a social institution and a process of living, not an institution to prepare for future living. He believed that schools should teach children to be problem-solvers by helping them learn to think as opposed to helping them learn only the content of a lesson. He also believed that students should be active decision-makers in their education. Dewey advanced the notion that teachers have rights and must have more academic autonomy.
Kohlberg's Theory
Theory of Moral Development; Elementary school-aged children are generally at the first level of moral development, known as Preconventional. At this level, some authority figure threat or application of punishment inspires obedience. The second level, Conventional; is found in society. Stage 3 is characterized by seeking to do what will gain the approval of peers or others. Stage 4 is characterized by abiding the law and responding to obligations. The third level of moral development, Post-conventional; is rarely achieved by the majority of adults, according to Kohlberg. Stage 5 shows an understanding of social mutuality and genuine interest in the welfare of others. Stage 6 is based on respect for universal principles and the requirements of individual conscience.
Methods of Assessing Reading Progress
Daily observation, Checklist, Rubric, Running record, Informal reading inventory, Diagnosis of errors,
Running Record
An assessment method that documents a student's reading as he or she reads aloud and allows the teacher to evaluate the reading level as well as to not explicit types of miscues. Specific marks are made to indicate the types of errors. Training is required, but once trained, it is quick and easy to do.
Informal Reading Inventory
Student reads aloud while teacher notes miscues. Student then answers comprehension questions. Then the student is timed while reading the passages silently and answering comprehension questions.
Lau Plan
identify ELL's, design an effective program reflective of their needs, employ appropriate ESL or bilingual personell or both, align ELL's to state and local content standards, and to provide ongoing authentic assessment
Acculturation Model
The process of adapting a new culture; the new language is seen as tied to the way the learners community and the target language community view one another.
Accommodation Theory
Motivation is the primary determinant of L2 proficiency; The more motivated you are the better you will perform
Discourse Theory
the flow and the structures of a conversation or topics within
Variable Competence Model
Learning the linguistic rules will help you develop competence of the new language
Neuro-Linguistics Theory
There is a connection between language function and neural anatomy, focusing on the right and left hemisphere. There is a focus of specific aspects of SLA; age differences; fossilization; pattern practice in classroom SLA
Key Elements of Bloom's Taxonomy
1)Knowledge-recalling info
2)Comprehension-translating, interpreting, or extrapolating info
3)Application-using principles or abstractions to solve novel or real-life simpler parts to understand how parts relate or are organized
4)Analysis-breaking down complex info or ideas into
5)Synthesis-creation of something that did not exist before problems
6)Evaluation-judging something against a given standard.
Cognitive Domain
Mental operations from the lowest level of simple recall of information to complex evaluative processes. What they will be able to do in class
Affective Domain
Feelings, attitudes, and values from lower levels of acquisition to the highest level of internalization and action.
Psychomotor Domain
Locomotor skills, from the low-level simple manipulation of materials to the higher level of communication of ideas, and finally to the highest level of creative performance (music and art).
Hunter's Model [8 Steps]
1.) Anticipatory Set
2.) The Objective and It's Purpose
3.) Input
4.) Modeling
5.) Check for Understanding
6.) Guided Practice
7.) Independent Practice (HW)
8.) Closure
Robert Gagne's [9 Steps]
1.) Gaining Attention
2.) Objectives
3.) Recall of Prior Learning
4.) Presenting the Stimulus
5.) Providing Learning Guidance
6.) Eliciting Performance
7.) Providing Feedback
8.) Assessing Performance
9.) Enhancing Retention and Transfer
Kelly's Model [3 P's]
Transition is CRITICAL: Planning, Preparing, Presenting.
1.) Plan objectives and relate to relevancy and interest needs of students
2.) Prepare the lesson sequence and allot approximate times for the lesson segments 3.) Organize lesson: a) attention getter, b) transition-to-lesson, c) lesson, d) transition-to-activity, e) activity: teacher-prepared, student prepared, f) transition-to-closure, g) closure
4. Determine assessment strategy.
Strategies that Make a Difference [8]
1. Compare/contrast activities
2. Summarizing and note taking
3. Homework and class practice
4. Non linguistic representation (concept maps, pictures, graphs, kinesthetic activity: vary routine- humans are visual learners), 5. Cooperative learning
6. Inference and prediction activities
7. Connecting prior knowledge to new learning through activity/example- must connect!
8. Specific knowledge tasks (ex. Vocabulary as it relates to a certain topic)
Reciprocal Reading (SACP)
Designed to teach reading comprehension strategies. SUMMARIZING the content of a passage, ASKING a question about the central point, CLARIFYING the difficult parts of the material, and PREDICTING what will come next. Have them read the statement to the class.
Individualized Lesson Plan
Teacher creates curriculum and activities for a student who is allowed to progress at his/her own rate. To create this: write content section (length varies from paragraph to 1-2 pages); number of content sections varies, content is followed by comprehension check, feedback section provides answers, solutions to each comprehension check section.
Subject-Centered Curriculum [3]
The oldest most widely used form of curriculum broken into 3 categories: Common Content, Special Content, and Elective Content
Student-Centered Curriculum
Content as it relates to student interests and real life.
Hidden Curriculum
Values or behaviors that students learn indirectly over the course of their schooling because of the structure of the educational system and the teaching methods used. Teachers must educate the "whole student" not just the part of the student that they encounter in class
Native Language Support
Whenever possible, ELL students should be
provided with academic support in their native language (Thomas & Collier,
2002). Teachers can use texts that are bilingual or that involve a student's
native culture, can decorate the classroom with posters and objects that reflect the students' diversity of language and culture, can organize entire lessons around cultural content, and can encourage students to use words from their native language when they cannot find the appropriate word in English.
Realia Strategies
is a term for any real, concrete object used in the classroom. It gives students the opportunity to use all of their senses to learn about a given subject, and is appropriate for any grade or skill level. Teachers can use models or semi-concrete objects, such as photographs, illustrations, and artwork. Use can also be an ideal way to incorporate cultural content into a lesson. For example, eating utensils and kitchen appliances (chopsticks, a
tortilla press, a tea set, a wok) can build vocabulary while also providing insight into different cultures. Studying clothing items from different cultures is another good example.
Writing (all levels) Explicit Instruction
-mini-lessons on specific writing strategies like how to generate ideas using webs or how to organize essays using outlines) and consistent conferences to work with each writer individually on his/her areas of strength and weakness
Adaptation of Content Material for ELLs
graphic organizers, rewrite dense texts, books-on-tape, jigsaw reading, highlighting concepts for newcomers so they do not have to read the whole thing, marginal notes, outlines to help students take notes, teacher-created study guides that go with textbooks
Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP)
is a common underlying proficiency between two languages. Skills, ideas and concepts students learn in their first language will be transferred to the second language. Cummins' states,"Conceptual knowledge developed in one language helps to make input in the other language comprehensible." If a child already understands the concepts of "justice" or "honesty" in her own language, all she has to do is acquire the label for these terms in English. She has a far more difficult task, however, if she has to acquire both the label and the concept in her second language.
Accelerated Language Programs
seek to override anxiety factors by having students play games, sing songs, and even take on the name and persona of someone else, so that it is not "the actual student" who might make a mistake--but "another"
Buddy System Pairing
combining a beginning speaker with a
more capable speaker
Circumlocution
Correcting an ELL's statement by restating the student's mistake several times in correct English within a conversation rather than drawing direct attention to it or
provide a rule
Conversational Repair Strategies
Self-initiated self-repair: Repair is both initiated and carried out by the speaker of the trouble source. Other-initiated self-repair: Repair is carried out by speaker of the trouble source but initiated by the recipient. Self-initiated other-repair: The speaker of a trouble source may try and get the recipient to repair the trouble--for instance if a name is proving troublesome to remember.Other-initiated other-repair: The recipient of a trouble source turn both initiates and carries out the repair. This is closes to what is conventionally called 'correction.'"
Contextual Analysis Reading Strategy
involves inferring the meaning of an unfamiliar word by analyzing the text surrounding it. Instruction in contextual analysis generally involves teaching students to use both generic and specific types of context clues.Contextual analysis helps students to determine the meaning of an unfamiliar word by drawing clues from the context—the sentence or paragraph—in which the word appears. Context clues include definitions; synonyms, antonyms, examples; restatements; graphic illustrations, such as charts, tables, figures, and diagrams; and syntactic and semantic clues found in the sentence structure and words that surround the unfamiliar word
Effective Reading Fluency Instruction
Modeling fluent reading
Providing explicit instruction in fluency. Teachers can read aloud a big book or another shared text and think aloud about prosodic aspects of the reading performance (e.g., interpreting punctuation in the printed text, using emphasis to express meaning). They should stress that reading at a conversational rate and with good phrasing, intonation, and expression supports reading comprehension.
Students can also benefit from listening to and rereading along with audio-recorded stories while following along in the printed text.
Word Analysis Reading Strategy
also called "phonics" or "decoding," is the process of using the relationships between spelling and pronunciation at the letter, syllable, and word levels to figure out unfamiliar words. For more proficient readers, Word Analysis also refers to knowledge of the meanings and spellings of prefixes, root words, and suffixes. Word Analysis instruction can be very effective in helping beginning readers learn to read with understanding.
Natural Order of Strategies of Second Language Development
Chesterfield & Chesterfield (1985) identified a natural order of strategies in the development of a second language.
1) repetition (imitating a word or structure);
2) memorization (recalling songs, rhymes or sequences by rote);
3) formulaic expressions (words or phrases that function as units i.e. greetings);
4) verbal attention getters (language that initiates interaction);
5) answering in unison (responding with others);
6) talking to self (engaging in internal monologue);
7) elaboration (information beyond what is necessary);
8) anticipatory answers (completing another's phrase or statement);
9) monitoring (self-correcting errors);
10) appeal for assistance (asking someone for help);
11) request for clarification (asking the speaker to explain or repeat); and
12) role-playing (interacting with another by taking on roles).
Universalist Theory
Universalist Theory defines linguistic universals from two perspectives:
The data-driven perspective which looks at surface features of a wide-range of languages to find out how languages vary and what principles underlie this variation. The data-driven approach considers system external factors or input as the basis.
The theory-driven perspective which looks at in-depth analysis of the properties of language to determine highly abstract principles of grammar. System internal factors are those found in cognitive and linguistic processes.
Behaviorist Theory
This theory suggests that external stimuli (extrinsic) can elicit an internal response which in turn can elicit an internal stimuli (intrinsic) that lead to external responses.
The learning process has been described by S-R-R theorists as a process forming stimulus-response-reward chains. These chains come about because of the nature of the environment and the nature of the learner.The environment provides the stimuli and the learner provides the responses. Comprehension or production of certain aspects of language and the environment provide the reward.
The environment plays a major role in the exercise of the learners' abilities since it provides the stimuli that can shape responses selectively rewarding some responses and not others.
Nativist Theory
Nativist Theory views language acquisition as innately determined. Theorists believe that human beings are born with a built-in device of some kind that predisposes them to acquire language.This predisposition is a systematic perception of language around us, resulting in the construction of an internalized system of language.
Nativists are on the opposite end of the theoretical continuum and use more of a rationalist approach in explaining the mystery of language acquisition.
Chomsky (1965) claimed the existence of innate properties of language that explain a child's mastery of his/her native language in a short time despite the highly abstract nature of the rules of language.
This innate knowledge, according to Chomsky, is embodied in a "little black box" of sorts called a Language Acquisition Device (LAD).
Cognitivist Theory
views human beings as having the innate capacity to develop logical thinking. This school of thought was influenced by Jean Piaget's work where he suggests that logical thinking is the underlying factor for both linguistic and non-linguistic development.
The process of association has been used to describe the means by which the child learns to relate what is said to particular objects or events in the environment. The bridge by which certain associations are made is meaning. The extent and accuracy of the associations made are said to change in time as the child matures. Cognitivists say that the conditions for learning language are the same conditions that are necessary for any kind of learning. The environment provides the material that the child can work on.Cognitivists view the role of feedback in the learning process as important for affective reasons, but non-influential in terms of modifying or altering the sequence of development.
Language Learning as a Cognitive Process
Learning a language involves internal representations that regulate and guide performance. Automatic processing activates certain nodes in memory when appropriate input is present. Activation is a learned response. Memory is a large collection of nodes. Controlled processing is not a learned response. It is a temporary activation of nodes in a sequence. Skills are learned and routinized only after the earlier use of controlled processes have been used.
Learner strategies contain both declarative knowledge i.e. knowing the 'what' of the language-internalized rules and memorized chunks of language, and procedural knowledge i.e. know the 'how' of the language system to employ strategies.
Social Interactionist Theory
supports the view that the development of language comes from the early interactions
between infants and caregivers. Social interactionists stress: the importance of a child's interactions with parents and other caregivers; the importance of "motherese"; contributions of context and world knowledge; and the importance of goals
Glew (1998) claims that learners have to be pushed in their negotiation of meaning to produce comprehensible output. The classroom context needs to provide adequate opportunities for target language use to allow learners to develop competence in the target language.Social interactionists believe that:Human language emerged from the social role that language plays in human interaction;The environment plays a key role in language development;
Adults in the child's linguistic environment are viewed as instrumental in language acquisition. Social interactions are the key element in language processing and input from social interactions provides a model for negotiation opportunities.
Context-Embedded/Cognitively Undemanding Tasks
are supported by the use of pictures, illustrations, demonstrations, connections with life experiences, etc. Language learning is non-threatening and learners are able to depend on environmental cues for assistance. Some sample tasks include:
developing survival vocabulary; following demonstrated directions; playing simple games; engaging in face-to-face interactions; and participating in art, music and physical education activities
Context-Embedded/Cognitively Demanding Tasks
are those activities that provide some environmental cues, but are more cognitively demanding. Language learners are exposed to more complex tasks that include some context-embedded cues.
Examples of these tasks include:
participating in hands-on science and mathematics activities; making maps, models, charts, and graphs; solving math computational problems; making brief oral presentations; understanding academic presentations through the use of visuals, demonstrations, active participation, realia, etc.; and writing academic reports with the aid of outlines, structures, etc.
Context-Reduced/Cognitively Undemanding Tasks
are those activities that are simple to carry out but do not contain any environmental cues to assist the language learner.
Some sample tasks include: engaging in telephone conversations; reading for personal purposes; and writing for personal purposes: notes, lists, sketches, etc.
Context-Reduced/Cognitively Demanding Tasks
are those that require more academically demanding language, are more abstract and are decontextualized. Some examples of these tasks include: understanding academic presentations without visuals or demonstrations (lectures); making formal oral presentations; solving math word problems without illustrations;
writing compositions, essays, and research reports in content areas; reading for information in content areas; and
taking standardized achievement tests.
Four Components of Communicative Competence
Canale and Swain Identified:
1) grammatical competence
2) sociolinguistic competence
3) discourse competence
4) strategic competence
Grammatical Competence
means understanding the skills and knowledge necessary to speak and write accurately. It includes Mastery of language code
Lexicon (vocabulary)
Word formation rules
Sentence formation rules
Pronunciation rules
Spelling
Sociolinguistic Competence
involves knowing how to produce and understand the language in different sociolinguistic contexts, taking into consideration such factors as:
1) the status of the participants
2) the purpose of the interaction; and
3) the norms or conventions of the interaction. Mastery of appropriate language use in different contexts
How to speak to a friend
How to speak to someone in authority
How to speak socially vs. professionally
Strategic Competence
involves the manipulation of language in order to meet communicative goals. It involves both verbal and non-verbal behaviors. Speakers employ this competence for two main reasons:
1) to compensate for breakdowns in communication such as when the speaker forgets or does not know a term and is forced to paraphrase or gesture to get the idea across; and
2) to enhance the effectiveness of communication such as when a speaker raises or lowers the voice for effect.
Mastery of verbal and non-verbal strategies to compensate for breakdowns in communication
Examples:
How to ask for help
How to rephrase a statement
Selinker's Interlanguage Theory
maintains the separateness of a second language learner's system and gives the system a structurally intermediate status between the native and target languages.
According to Selinker, second language learners are producing their own self-contained linguistic system. The system is not a native language or target language system, rather it falls between the two.
Stages of Interlanguage Development include:
1) random errors (presystematic);
2) experimentation and inaccurate guessing;
3) emergent-growing in consistency in linguistic production;
4) backsliding-appears to have grasped but later regressed and unable to correct errors;
5) systematic stage-ability to correct errors on their own; rules may not be well-formed but display more internal self-consistency;
6) stabilization-few errors are made, have mastered the system to the point of fluency; and
7) intralingual-inconsistencies within the target language; Global errors-affect meaning;local errors-close similarities in word form (i.e. spelling).
Interlanguage Continuum
Identification of Learner Errors
An error can be defined as a deviation from the norms of the target language although questions are raised as to which variety of the target language should serve as the norm.The general practice where classroom learners are concerned is to select the standard written dialect as a norm.
The distinction between errors and mistakes is a concern in this type of research. Errors take place when the deviation arises as a result of lack of knowledge. Mistakes occur when learners fail to perform their competence. Overt errors are deviations in form i.e. I runned all the way. Covert errors occur in utterances that are superficially well-formed but which do not mean what the learner intended them to mean i.e. It was stopped. What does it refer to?
There are three types of interpretation of errors: 1) normal- can assign a meaning to an utterance based on the rules of the target language; 2) authoritative-involves asking the learner to say what the utterance means in order to make an authoritative reconstruction; and 3) plausible-can be obtained by referring to the context in which the utterance was produced or by translating the sentence literally into the learner's L1.
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
Contrastive analysis is a way of comparing languages in order to determine potential errors for the ultimate purpose of isolating what needs to be learned and what does not need to be learned in a second language learning situations. Lado detailed that one does a structure-by-structure comparison of the sound system, morphological system, syntactic system and even the cultural system of two languages for the purpose of discovering similarities and differences.
The ultimate goal of contrastive analysis is to predict areas that will be either easy or difficult for learners. There are two positions that developed with regard to CA: (1) strong (2) weak. The strong version (predictive) maintained that one could make predictions about learning and hence about the success of language teaching materials based on a comparison between two languages.The weak version (explanatory) starts with an analysis of learners' recurring errors (error analysis). It begins with what learners do and then attempts to account for those errors on the basis of native language-target language differences.
Preproduction Stage of Second Language Acquisition
the student has minimal comprehension, does not verbalize, nods yes and no, and draws and points. The approximate time frame in this stage is 0-6 months. Teachers use prompts such as "show me", "circle the", "Where is..." and "Who has...?" The Preproduction stage lasts from zero to six months and is also known as "the silent period," because it's likely you won't hear students speak any English at all during this stage.
Early Production Stage of Second Language Acquisition
the student has limited comprehension, produces one or two-word responses, participates using key words and familiar phrases and uses present-tense verbs. The approximate time frame in this stage is 6 months to 1 year. Teacher uses yes/no questions, either/or questions, one or two word answers, lists and labels. Early Production, students begin using single words or two-word phrases, yes/no responses, names, and repetitive language patterns (e.g., "How are you?").
Speech Emergence Stage of Second Language Acquisition
the student has good comprehension, can produce simple sentences, makes grammar and pronunciation errors, frequently misunderstands jokes. The approximate time frame is 1-3 years. Teacher uses "Why...?", "How...?" "Explain...", and phrase or short sentence answers. At the Speech Emergence stage, students are able to say simple sentences (e.g., "I walked home").
Intermediate Fluency Stage of Second Language Acquisition
the student has excellent comprehension and makes few grammatical errors. The time frame in this stage is 3-5 years. Teacher uses "What would happen if...?" and "Why do you think...?" Intermediate Fluency stage, students can use sentences of increasing length and complexity.
Advanced Fluency Stage of Second Language Acquisition
the student has near-native level of speech. The time frame is 5-7 years. Teacher uses "decide if..." and "retell..." Advanced Fluency stage, they demonstrate a near-native level of fluency
Teaching Strategies for Pre-production Stage
Do not force production (speech). Students will begin to use English when they are ready. Provide materials in the native language. Use visuals such as pictures, objects, or gestures to aid in comprehension. Modify your speech: speak more slowly, emphasize key words, simplify grammar and vocabulary, do not talk out of context, and do not speak more loudly. Involve students in activities that require them to listen and do. Such activities might include making art projects, drawing pictures, following simple classroom directions.
Teaching Strategies for Early Production
Use questioning techniques including: yes/no questions such as, Is this your coat?; choice questions such as, Is this your coat or Maria's?; questions which can be answered with a single word such as, What is in your hand?; open sentence with a pause for a response such as, Lin is wearing blue pants, but Lou is wearing ____ pants. Do not overtly correct student errors as this may inhibit students from using language. Subtle forms of modeling may be used as indicated by the following interaction:
▪ Student: I goed to the store last night.
▪ Teacher: Oh, you went to the store. What did you buy?
Expand student responses when possible.
Continue to use activities indicated for the Comprehension stage, but encourage students to use their language to give commands and describe pictures. Have students keep dialogue journals. Use shared reading.
Teaching Strategies for Speech Emergence
Involve students in activities that encourage them to compare/contrast, sequence, and problem solve with charts, graphs, tables, maps, and other visuals. Use skits and role play to contextualize situations for students. Play games. Use the Language Experience Approach to encourage reading and writing. Use semantic mapping to develop vocabulary.
Teaching Strategies for Intermediate Fluency
Students need to be included in content-area activities at all stages, but at this stage in particular, activities that encourage both content-area development and language development need to be included.
Phonology
Phonology includes knowing all of the sounds that are included in a language and knowing how the sounds are combined. For example, the English letter combinations sc, sp, and st, do not exist in Spanish at the beginning of words. Thus, to pronounce these letter combinations, native Spanish speakers learning English tend to add an /e/ sound to the beginning of these letter combinations (e.g. /esc/, /esp/, as in eschool, especial) because in Spanish words with sc, sp, and st combinations begin with an /e/ sound (e.g. "escuela", "especial").
Syntax
Syntax is grammar, the rules that govern word order in sentences. Knowing the grammatical rules allows the speaker to produce an infinite set of sentences that can be easily understood by any individual proficient in that language. For example, the sentence: "The green turtle ran across the street to look for her friend the duck," can be understood by proficient native English speakers even though it is unlikely that the individual has encountered this particular sentence before.
Morphology
Morphology is the study of word formation. Morphemes represent the minimal unit of meaning in words. For example, the word fitness is made up of two morphemes: fit and ness. Ness is considered a bound morpheme because it can never be a word by itself, while fit is defined as a free morpheme because it is a word in and of itself like the words man, woman, and moon. Words can be created by adding morphemes, as in entangle: dis+entangle, dis+entangl+ing.
Semantics
Semantics is the study of meaning. Knowledge of the semantics of a language also includes knowledge of the reference of words, word combinations, and limitation of word meanings. For example, in English the word bank has multiple meanings. When a reader encounters the word bank in text such as "The children sat very close to the river bank admiring the elegant movements of the swans," he knows from the context that the word bank is being used to represent a margin. Knowing that words may have multiple meanings, and knowing those meanings, allows listeners and readers to interpret messages appropriately. Word combinations also affect the meaning of a sentence. For example, the meaning of the sentence: "The dog bit the man" is different from the meaning of "The man bit the dog" although both sentences include exactly the same words.
Pragmatics
Pragmatics refers to the way language is used in context. For example, when a teacher says: "Eyes on me," a direction is being given and the expectation is that students will look at the teacher. The teacher is not suggesting she has eyes on her body somewhere. Word order has also an effect on pragmatics. For example, when a child orders a chocolate and vanilla ice cream cone, the order of the flavors may be important to understand which flavor comes first and which comes second.
The Universal Grammar Model
refers to the system of principles, conditions, and rules that are properties or elements of all human languages. At the same time, each language has grammatical rules that vary from one language to another. Thus, different languages have a limited possibility of different grammatical structures (Chomsky, 1975). Therefore, second language learners base their second language acquisition on universal principles common to all languages, and on the constraints of the particular rules of each language. For example, adjectives in English usually precede nouns. By contrast, in Spanish adjectives follow nouns. Although adjectives in both languages have the same function, their position depends on the constraints of each of the languages.
The Competition Model
is based in the assumption that forms of natural language are created to communicate. Thus, second language learners are faced with the conflict between native language and target language cues and cue strengths. Learners will first resort to their native language interpretation strategies, and when these do not match the target language, then they resort to a universal selection of meaning based on cues as opposed to syntax-based cues. Positive and negative evidence is necessary for learners to realize which cues are correct for the target language.
The Monitor Model
This model is based on five Krashen hypotheses: the Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis (acquisition occurs unconsciously, learning is conscious knowledge of the second language); the Natural Order Hypothesis (language rules are acquired in a predictable order); the Monitor Hypothesis (the learned system acts as a monitor of the acquired system), the Input Hypothesis; and the Affective Filter Hypothesis (motivation, attitude, self-confidence, and anxiety affect second language acquisition).
Language Universals
Some features are believed to be common to all languages. These shared characteristics are called Universal Grammar. They are:
A) vowels and consonants
b) stress and tone
c) nouns, verbs and categories of words that include terms for color and size
d) notions (possessions, plurality, and tense
e) function or ways of using a language
f) vocal system precedes the written system
g) steps involved in acquiring the languages are similar
Nieto's Second Language Acquisition Theory
emphasis is placed on using a student's cultural background as a launching point into the learning of another culture. A student's background is used as a place of reference and similarities between the culture the student comes from an the culture they are learning are accentuated and frequently used in the construction of the curriculum. Nieto also emphasized the power of support for the home language. The use of the home language is used as a cultural reference as well and a means of communication in the classroom. Nieto also thought that the relationships between students and teachers are of utmost importance, and that the entire process of teaching and learning is primarily about relationships. Nieto shared this opinion with Cummins.
Wong-Filmore Theory of Second Language Acquisition
Emphasis on social interaction between students, such as an English language learner student being paired with a native speaker for the school year. Thought that students who are not proficient in the target language do not provide adequate and effective models for each other to learn the target language. The structure of lessons for English language learners must be consistent and well organized, have familiar formats, with clear and simple beginnings and endings. Familiar routines provide a scaffold for learning new language skills.
Freire Theory of Second Language Acquisition
Known for his work entitled "pedagogy of the oppressed" dialogue. Referred to in a discussion about informal education. Involves respect and cooperation. A "libertarian" model where the teacher and students are partners. Praxis Action that is linked to certain values, enhancing community and building social capital; leading us to act in ways that results in justice and human flourishing.
Connectionists Approach
This approach emphasizes the understanding that the human brain itself is a neural network of, or group of networks, that consists of nodes that operate in non-linear ways when stimulated. The structure of the networks that make up the brain controls and sometimes constrains the type of information the brain can internalize, the specific tasks it can perform, and the information it can store. The Connectionist Approach also goes on to state that the brain is pre-equipped through millions of years of evolution to deal with symbolic representations, which form the foundation of language.
Effective Communicative Approach
emphasizes the use of direct communication between individuals as being a primary means of language development. During communication knowledge and information is shared, and in so sharing, the information is modified and adapted. This negotiation of meaning is crucial aspect of language development.
Interaction Patterns
In ESOL these are different ways that learners and teachers or learners and learners interact. Different interaction patterns are used for different kinds of activities.
Corpus Linguistics
is the study of language as it is expressed in "real world" text. Corpora are now largely derived by computer programs and are utilized by means of sophisticated concordancing programs for purposes of language analysis. This runs counter to Chomsky's theory of grammatical competence. Chomsky views real language as riddled with performance-related errors.
Guided Discovery
is regarded by many teachers as an important tool. Also known as an inductive approach, it is a technique where a teacher provides examples of a language item and helps the learners to find the rules themselves. It encourages independence, makes learning more memorable, and if analysis is done in groups is a meaningful communicative task.
Speech Acts
can be categorized in many different ways. Some of the most common are: representatives, directives, commissives, expressives and declarations.
Language Learning Skills
There are four main language skills: speaking, listening, writing and reading. They are often divided into sub-skills like scanning or skimming for reading, editing skills in writing, recognizing connected speech in listening, and using intonation in speaking.
Formal Syllabus
This syllabus would have knowledge focus on forms, systems and rules of phonology, morphology, vocabulary, grammar, and discourse as text. A functional syllabus would focus more on the social uses of language; a task-based and process syllabus would focus on meanings derived and created through unified systems of linguistic forms and interpersonal conventions.
IELTS-(International English Language Testing Service)
is the most widely used test for assessing a person's ability to use and understand their second language for academic and/or employment purposes. For instance if a student from Belgium would like to attend an American college, he or she will have to show a certain proficiency in English in order to do that.
Lingua Franca
is the language for routine communication between (groups of) people who have different L1s. Some English language learners aim for the ability to use English as a lingua franca for communication in international settings, often with a variety of other non-native speakers.
Discourse Analysts
work with utterances (sequences of words written or spoken in specific contexts) rather than with sentences (sequences of words conforming, or not, to the rules of grammar for the construction of phrases, clauses and more). They are not as interested in grammatical analysis as they are in the studying language independent of the sentence.
Conceptualization
speaker draws on background knowledge, knowledge about the topic, about the speech situation and on the knowledge of patterns of discourse.
Applied Linguistics
is a general term that covers many aspects of language acquisition and use. Applied linguists seek to provide practical applications of theory and research to solving problems in sub-disciplines such as speech pathology, language learning and communication practices, among others
Internalization
is the process of learning something so that it can be used as the basis for production. Once language is internalized, it can then be retained and retrieved when needed for communication.
Push-in
this type of teaching allows an ESL teacher to come into the classroom to "co-teach" with the non-ESL teacher. It is a collaborative method of teaching ESOL students that has many detractors.
Stern's Integrated Curriculum
A syllabus of syllabuses proposal considers a syllabus as having several strands to address complementary and interrelated goals. His integrated language curriculum consists of: language syllabus, culture syllabus, communicative activities syllabus and general language education syllabus.
IRF- Initiation-Response-Feedback
It is a pattern of discussion between the teacher and learner. The teacher initiates, the learner responds, the teacher gives feedback.
Barrett's Taxonomy
Is a scale of comprehension (introduced at a conference in 1968) has five levels. They are (from the lowest to the highest): literal, sequential, inferential, evaluation and appreciation.
Mnemonic
this strategy is put in place mainly for memorization purposes. An example of a mnemonic strategy is the use of the acronym HOMES to remember the Great Lakes: Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior.
Whole-word Method
is an alternative to the phonics approach in the teaching of initial reading. In this method learners are encouraged to acquire a sight vocabulary, largely through memorization. This method stresses meaning and the experience of creating and understanding text.
Jigsaw
is a kind of information gap exercise. Learners hear or read different parts of a story and then exchange information with others in order to complete a task. This task is an excellent way to integrate language learning skills.
Paralinguistics
are the aspects of spoken communication that do not involve words. These may add emphasis or shades of meaning to what people say. Body language, gestures, facial expressions, tone and pitch of voice are all examples of this linguistic feature.
Heritage Language Program
is a bilingual education models in which the non-dominant language is not used as a medium of instruction but is valued as a target language to be learned.
Neruo-linguistic Programming
is based on a model of communication and psychotherapy. It says that we all have different learning and perceptual preferences, and in order to learn well we need to both exploit our preferred styles and develop our less preferred ones. To use this model teachers need to use a variety of techniques, resources and methodologies to address different types of intelligence in learners.
Rhythm
Rhythm is one of the features taken into account in suprasegmentals. It relates to the sequence of strong and weak elements in language, such as the patterns made up by stressed and unstressed syllables.
Triangulation
There are four different types of triangulation: data triangulation which uses different sources of data; theory triangulation which allows various theories to be brought to bear in a study; researcher triangulation in which more than one researcher contributes to the observation; and methods triangulation, which entails the use of multiple methods to collect data.
Peer Correction
Peer correction is a classroom technique where learners correct each other, rather than the teacher doing this. The situation set forth in the question is an example of this. Peer correction is a useful technique since learners can feel less intimidated being helped by others in the class
Maze
A maze is a task where learners have to make decisions about what to do at certain points, in order to continue towards a final goal. Students learn agreeing and disagreeing, suggesting, reaching decision, etc.
Extension Task
An extension task is an activity that is assigned after a class is complete, often as homework. It is still centered on the aims of a class but it takes place after it. Extension tasks can provide different forms of practice and, as a result, make classroom learning more meaningful since they give learners a chance to personalize language and content.
Semi-lingualism
When a person has not learned either of two languages properly it impedes his or her development in the new language.
Empowerment
Empowerment refers to giving learners the power to make their own decisions about learning rather than the teacher having all of the control. Learners can become more independent by doing this.
De-contextualized
De-contextualized language is a term that describes language that is presented as an isolated item rather than with a meaningful and real context. The teacher and the learners focus on the target language only, often through an example at sentence level.
Transactional Language
Transactional language is used to do something that has a certain result. The student is asking for information and when it is received it will be that certain result.
Student Talking Time
Student Talking Time (STT) is the time learners spend talking rather than the teacher. It can be compared with Teacher Talking Time (TTT). It can be a useful category for observation of teaching, or for self-reflection about teaching.
Four Major Processes of Speech Production
Conceptualization (planning the message content); formulation (finding the right words and phrases for the message); articulation (involvement of the articulatory organs like the tongue and lips); and self-monitoring (identifying and self-correcting mistakes.
The Five Hypotheses used in the Natural Approach
acquisition/learning hypothesis, monitor hypothesis, natural order hypothesis, input hypothesis and affective filter hypothesis.
English for Academic Purposes
English for academic purposes (EAP) is more than a teaching approach. It is also a branch of applied linguistics consisting of research into effective teaching and assessment approaches, methods of analysis of the academic language needs of students, analysis of the linguistic and discoursal structures of academic texts and the analysis of the textual practices of academics.
Lexico-grammar
Lexico-grammar is the term for the relationship between vocabulary and grammar. These forms of language organization are normally studied separately but, increasingly, lexico-grammatical patterns are being seen as central to language description and learning.
Dogme Approach
Dogme is an approach to teaching that is learner-focused and not driven by the resources available, including course books. It is a recent movement in ELT that says that if learners are not interested they will not learn and therefore all material should be generated by the learners and the lessons directed by them, rather than the teacher.
Accelerative Integrated Method
The Accelerative Integrated Method (AIM) uses gestures, music, dance, and theater to help students learn a language. This method works from the premise that students will learn and remember when they do something that goes along with the words they are saying.
Presentation, Practice, Production
PPP is a paradigm or model used to describe typical stages of a presentation of new language. It means presentation, practice and production. Despite current doubts about the usefulness of the practice stage in the PPP model, it is still a common framework to find in classes and in materials.
Segmentals and Suprasegmentals
Segmentals involve the teaching of consonants, vowels, diphthongs, digraphs and clusters with the aid of a phonetic alphabet. Suprasegmentals involve teaching anything that has to do with putting words together to pronounce a sentence (syllables, rhythm, stress, reduction, and linking, among others).
Transformation Exercise
A transformation exercise is an exercise where learners are given one sentence and need to complete a second sentence so that it means the same. The second sentence usually has a prompt. These exercises involve learners in consciously manipulating language patterns, and can raise their awareness of structure.
The Six Major Language Learning Strategies
cognitive, mnemonic, metacognitive, compensatory, affective and social.