688 terms

Literature - Various Books and Facts

Novels and Authors, Latin American Authors, Japanese Authors, Poetry and Poems, Works of Non-Fiction, Greek Plays, Religious Texts, Shakespearean Villains
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The Great Gatsby
F. Scott Fitzgerald
The Catcher in the Rye
J.D. Salinger
The Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck
To Kill a Mockingbird
Harper Lee
The Color Purple
Alice Walker
Ulysses
James Joyce
Beloved
Toni Morrison
The Lord of the Flies
William Golding
1984
George Orwell
The Sound and the Fury
William Faulkner
Lolita
Vladimir Nabokov
Of Mice and Men
John Steinbeck
The Pearl
John Steinbeck
East of Eden
John Steinbeck
Charlotte's Web
E.B. White
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
James Joyce
Catch-22
Joseph Heller
Brave New World
Aldous Huxley
Animal Farm
George Orwell
The Sun Also Rises
Ernest Hemingway
As I Lay Dying
William Faulkner
Absalom, Absalom!
William Faulkner
A Farewell to Arms
Ernest Hemingway
Heart of Darkness
Joseph Conrad
Winnie the Pooh
A.A. Milne
Their Eyes Were Watching God
Zora Neale Hurston
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea
Jules Verne
Journey to the Center of the Earth
Jules Verne
Song of Solomon
Toni Morrison
Gone With the Wind
Margaret Mitchell
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest
Ken Kesey
War of the Worlds
H.G. Wells
The Time Machine
H.G. Wells
The Invisible Man
H.G. Wells
Slaughterhouse Five
Kurt Vonnegut
For Whom the Bell Tolls
Ernest Hemingway
Through the Looking-Glass
Lewis Carroll
On the Road
Jack Kerouac
The Dharma Bums
Jack Kerouac
Billy Budd
Herman Melville
Moby Dick
Herman Melville
The Scarlet Letter
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Go Tell it on the Mountain
James Baldwin
The Call of the Wild
Jack London
Anne of Green Gables
Lucy Maud Montgomery
Wuthering Heights
Emily Bronte
The Awakening
Kate Chopin
Jane Eyre
Charlotte Bronte
The Old Man and the Sea
Ernest Hemingway
The Hobbit
J.R.R. Tolkein
The Fellowship of the Ring
J.R.R. Tolkein
The Two Towers
J.R.R. Tolkein
The Return of the King
J.R.R. Tolkein
The Fountainhead
Ayn Rand
Atlas Shrugged
Ayn Rand
Anthem
Ayn Rand
The Jungle
Upton Sinclair
Wonderful World of Oz
L. Frank Baum
A Room with a View
E.M. Forster
The Red and the Black
Stendhal
The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Mark Twain
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
Mark Twain
The Celebrating Jumping Frog of Calaveras County
Mark Twain
A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court
Mark Twain
Life on the Mississippi
Mark Twain
Sense and Sensibility
Jane Austen
Fahrenheit 451
Ray Bradbury
The Martian Chronicles
Ray Bradbury
2001: A Space Odyssey
Arthur C. Clarke
In Cold Blood
Truman Capote
Breakfast at Tiffany's
Truman Capote
Things Fall Apart
Chinua Achebe
All the King's Men
Robert Penn Warren
Sleepy Hollow
Washington Irving
My Antonia
Willa Cather
O Pioneers!
Willa Cather
The Idiot
Fyodor Dostoevsky
The Rabbit series
John Updike
Peyton Place
Grace Metalious
The World According to Garp
John Irving
The Cider House Rules
John Irving
Stranger in a Strange Land
Robert Heinlein
Doctor Zhivago
Boris Pasternak
Death Comes for the Archbishop
Willa Cather
Tender Buttons
Gertrude Stein
The Hollow Men
T.S. Eliot
The Brothers Karamazov
Fyodor Dostoevsky
The Tale of Genji
Lady Murasaki Shikibu
The Metamorphosis
Franz Kafka
Tarzan of the Apes
Edgar Rice Burroughs
The Naked Lunch
William Burroughs
The Judgment
Franz Kafka
The Castle
Franz Kafka
Hansel and Gretel
The Brothers Grimm
The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood
Howard Pyle
Robinson Crusoe
Daniel Defoe
Moll Flanders
Daniel Defoe
Daisy Miller
Henry James
Jaws
Peter Benchley
The Maltese Falcon
Dashiell Hamlett
The Art of Writing
Robert Louis Stevenson
Treasure Island
Robert Louis Stevenson
The School for Scandal
Richard Sheridan
The Satanic Verse
Salmon Rushdie
In Our Time
Ernest Hemingway
An American Tragedy
Theodore Dressier
Ethan Frome
Edith Wharton
Age of Innocence
Edith Wharton
Babbit
Sinclair Lewis
Arrowsmith
Sinclair Lewis
Main Street
Sinclair Lewis
It Can't Happen Here
Sinclair Lewis
Franny and Zooey
J.D. Salinger
Howard's End
E.M. Forster
Tender is the Night
F. Scott Fitzgerald
The Beautiful and the Damned
F. Scott Fitzgerald
This Side of Paradise
F. Scott Fitzgerald
The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy series
Douglas Adams
Little House on the Prairie
Laura Ingalls Wilder
The Handmaid's Tale
Margaret Atwood
Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus
Mary Shelley
Around the World in 80 Days
Jules Verne
I, Robot
Isaac Asimov
From the Earth to the Moon
Jules Verne
A Separate Peace
John Knowles
Cat's Cradle
Kurt Vonnegut
Breakfast of Champions
Kurt Vonnegut
Don Quixote
Miguel Cervantes
One Hundred Years of Solitude
Gabriel Garcia-Marquez
Love in the Time of Cholera
Gabriel Garcia-Marquez
The Strange Case of Doctor Jekyll and Mister Hyde
Robert Louis Stevenson
The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
The Red Pony
John Steinbeck
The Red Badge of Courage
Stephen Crane
The Good Earth
Pearl S. Buck
The Chronicles of Narnia series
C.S. Lewis
Song of Ice and Fire (Game of Thrones)
George R.R. Martin
The Tale of the Argonauts
Bret Harte
A Wrinkle in Time
Madeline L'Engle
Parasite Pig
William Sleator
The Phantom Limb
William Sleator
The Phantom of the Opera
Gaston Laroux
The Maze Runner series
James Dashner
The Hunger Games series
Suzanne Collins
The Picture of Dorian Gray
Oscar Wilde
Percy Jackson series
Rick Riordan
Tess of the D'Urbervilles
Thomas Hardy
House of the Seven Gables
Nathaniel Hawthorne
All Quiet on the Western Front
Erich Maria Remarque
Ivanhoe
Sir Walter Scott
Divergent series
Veronica Roth
Twilight series
Stephanie Meyer
50 Shade of Grey series
E.L. James
David Copperfield
Charles Dickens
Oliver Twist
Charles Dickens
A Tale of Two Cities
Charles Dickens
A Christmas Carol
Charles Dickens
Great Expectations
Charles Dickens
The Three Musketeers
Alexander Dumas
The Count of Monte Cristo
Alexander Dumas
Paper Towns
John Green
The Fault in Our Stars
John Green
The Most Dangerous Game
Richard Connell
Looking for Alaska
John Green
Tuesdays with Morrie
Mitch Albom
The Bell Jar
Sylvia Plath
The Jungle Book
Rudyard Kipling
Kim
Rudyard Kipling
The Tale of Peter Rabbit
Beatrix Potter
Rip Van Winkle
Washington Irving
Foundation series
Isaac Asimov
A Clockwork Orange
Anthony Burgess
The Hunchback of Notre Dame
Victor Hugo
Les Miserables
Victor Hugo
Native Son
Richard Wright
Black Boy
Richard Wright
Invisible Man (not THE Invisible Man)
Ralph Ellison
The Pit and the Pendulum
Edgar Allan Poe
The Tell-Tale Heart
Edgar Allan Poe
Murders in the Rue Morgue
Edgar Allan Poe
Fall of the House of Usher
Edgar Allan Poe
Ugly Duckling
Hans Christian Andersen
The Devil and Daniel Webster
Stephen Vincent Benet
The Devil and Tom Walker
Washington Irving
The Waves
Virginia Woolf
Mrs. Dalloway
Virginia Woolf
The Shining
Stephen King
Carrie
Stephen King
Roots
Alex Haley
The Outsiders
S.E. Hinton
Black Beauty
Anne Sewell
Little Women
Louisa May Alcott
The Prince and the Pauper
Mark Twain
The Giver
Lois Lowry
The Secret Life of Walter Mitty
James Thurber
The Secret Garden
Frances Hodgson Burnett
Northanger Abbey
Jane Austen
The Scarlet Pimpernel
Baroness Orczy
If on a Winter's Night a Traveler
Italo Calvino
The Story of Mankind
Hendrik van Loon
The Crossover
Kwame Alexander
Insvisible Cities
Italo Calvino
War and Peace
Leo Tolstoy
Lady Chatterley's Lover
D.H. Lawrence
The Stranger
Albert Camus
The Bridge on the River Kwai
Pierre Boulle
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Lewis Carroll
Gulliver's Travels
Jonathan Swift
Rebecca
Daphne du Maurier
The Lottery
Shirley Jackson
Dragon's Teeth
Upton Sinclair
The Deerslayers
James Fenimore Cooper
The Last of the Mohicans
James Fenimore Cooper
A Confederacy of Dunces
John Kennedy O'Toole
The Chocolate War
Robert Cormier
The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test
Tom Wolfe
Tom Jones
Henry Fielding
The Winter of Our Discontent
John Steinbeck
The Portrait of a Lady
Henry James
The Prince of Tides
Pat Conroy
The Bridge of San Luis Rey
Thornton Wilder
Interview with the Vampire
Anne Rice
The Joy Luck Club
Amy Tan
Ragged Dick
Horatio Alger
Jurassic Park
Michael Crichton
The Right Stuff
Tom Wolfe
Peter Pan
Sir James Barrie
The Godfather
Mario Puzo
The Caine Mutiny
Herman Wouk
Dracula
Bram Stoker
The Natural
Bernard Malamud
Dandelion Wine
Ray Bradbury
Something Wicked This Way Comes
Ray Bradbury
The Gilded Age
Mark Twain
Boule de Suif
Guy de Maupassant
Madame Bovary
Gustave Flaubert
The Bourgeois Gentleman
Moliere
The Imaginary Invalid
Moliere
White Man and Yellow Man
Endo Shusaku
John Brown's Body
Stephen Vincent Benet
The Stranger
Albert Camus
Candide
Voltaire
Anna Karenina
Leo Tolstoy
Pilgrim's Progress
John Bunyan
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Harriet Beecher Stowe
The Crucible
Arthur Miller
Antigone
Sophocles
A Raisin in the Sun
Lorraine Hansberry
Pygmalion
George Bernard Shaw
Island of Doctor Moreau
H.G. Wells
Macbeth
William Shakespeare
The Canterbury Tales
Geoffrey Chaucer
Hamlet
William Shakespeare
Oedipus Rex
Sophocles
The Divine Comedy
Dante
Inferno
Dante
The Art of War
Sun Tzu
Romeo and Juliet
William Shakespeare
Walden
Henry David Thoreau
Leaves of Grass
Walt Whitman
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Nature
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Civil Disobedience
Henry David Thoreau
The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas
Gertrude Stein
Faust
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
The Clouds
Aristophanes
Medea
Euripides
The Bacchae
Euripides
Oresteia
Aeschylus
Twelfth Night
William Shakespeare
Seven Against Thebes
Aeschylus
The Birds
Aristophanes
The Frogs
Aristophanes
Lysistrata
Aristophanes
Analects
Confucius
Much Ado About Nothing
William Shakespeare
Merchant of Venice
William Shakespeare
Dune
Frank Herbert
King Lear
William Shakespeare
Crime and Punishment
Fyodor Dostovesky
Othello
William Shakespeare
Vanity Fair
William Makepeace Thackeray
Aeneid
Virgil
Julius Caesar
William Shakespeare
Antony & Cleopatra
William Shakespeare
A Streetcar Named Desire
Tennessee Williams
Metamorphoses
Ovid
The Metamorphis
Franz Kafka
The Turn of the Screw
Henry James
Tropic of Cancer
Henry Miller
The Glass Menagerie
Tennessee Williams
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Edward Albee
The Merry Wives of Windsor
William Shakespeare
Emperor's New Clothes
Hans Christian Andersen
Shiiku
Oe Kenzaburo
Tar Baby
Toni Morrison
The Night of the Iguana
Tennessee Williams
The Planet of the Apes
Pierre Boulle
Magic Mountain
Thomas Mann
Mourning Becomes Electra
Eugene O'Neill
Long Day's Journey Into Night
Eugene O'Neill
The Iceman Cometh
Eugene O'Neill
Our Town
Thornton Wilder
The Japanese Lover
Isabel Allende
Eva Luna
Isabel Allende
The House of the Spirits
Isabel Allende
Sor Juana, or, the Traps of Faith
Octavio Paz
The Labyrinth of Solitude.
Octavio Paz
The Death of Artemio Cruz
Carlos Fuentes
The Poisonwood Bible
Barbara Kingslover
The Bean Trees
Barbara Kingslover
The Lost Honor of Katharina Blum
Heinrich Boll
The Train Was On Time
Heinrich Boll
Billiards at Half-Past Nine
Heinrich Boll
The Jolly Story
Henry James
The Financier
Theodore Dreiser
Sister Carrie
Theodore Dreiser
Trilogy of Desire
Theodore Dreiser
The Voyage Out
Virginia Woolf
The Overcoat
Nikolai Gogol
Dead Souls
Nikolai Gogol
The Inspector General
Nikolai Gogol
An Ideal Husband
Oscar Wilde
The Cairo Trilogy:
Palace Walk, Sugar Street and Palace of Desire
Naguib Mahfouz
After Dark
Haruki Murakami
Norwegian Wood
Haruki Murakami
1Q84
Haruki Murakami
The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle
Haruki Murakami
In the Penal Colony
Franz Kafka
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
Roald Dahl
Fantastic Mr. Fox
Roald Dahl
Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret
Judy Blume
Fudge series
Judy Blume
Forever
Judy Blume
Tales of a Fourth Grade Nothing
Judy Blume
Diary of a Wimpy Kid
Jeff Kinney
Oh the Places You Go
Dr. Seuss
Lorax
Dr. Seuss
Siddhartha
Herman Hesse
The Black Cat
Edgar Allan Poe
The Cask of Amontilado
Edgar Allan Poe
Terms of Endearment
Jeff McMurtry
Lonesome Dove
Jeff McMurtry
The Cherry Orchard
Anton Chekov
Uncle Vanya
Anton Chekov
Gift of the Magi
O. Henry
African Slavery in America
Age of Reason
Rights of Man
Common Sense
Thomas Paine
Waiting for Godot
Samuel Beckett
July's People
The Burgher's Daughter
Nadine Gordimer
​Snow Upon the Desert
Agatha Christie
Death on the Nile
Agatha Christie
Murder on the Orient Express
Agatha Christie
The Mysterious Affair at Styles
Agatha Christie
The Phantom Tollbooth
Norton Juster
Eyeless in Gaza
Aldous Huxley
Crome Yellow
Aldous Huxley
The American Scholar
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Self-Reliance
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Where the Red Fern Grows
Wilson Rawls
Midnight's Children
Salmon Rushdie
Two Years Eight Months and Twentyeight night
Salmon Rushdie
Principia Mathematica
Isaac Newton
Arrow of God
Chinua Achebe
Gabriel García-Marquez
The master of magic realism, his birthplace of Aracataca was the model for the fictional town of Macondo.

(1928-present, Colombia; Nobel Prize for Literature 1982).
Gabriel García-Marquez
The town of Macondo played a prominent role in many of his works, such as Leaf Storm and his seminal novel, One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967), which details the decline of the Buendía family over seven generations.

(1928-present, Colombia; Nobel Prize for Literature 1982).
Gabriel García-Marquez
A newspaper journalist in the 1950s,he exposed a naval scandal (chronicled in The Story of a Shipwrecked Sailor).
Gabriel García -Marquez
Other prominent novels include In Evil Hour, Love in the Time of Cholera, and The General in His Labyrinth, a depiction of Simón Bolívar's final years.

(1928-present, Colombia; Nobel Prize for Literature 1982).
Pablo Neruda
Born Neftalí Reyes, he adopted the surname of the 19th century Czech poet Jan Neruda. Gabriela Mistral was the head of his school in the small city of Temuco.

(1904-1973, Chile; Nobel 1971)
Pablo Neruda
1923 saw the publication of his best-known work, Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair, which led to diplomatic appointments.

(1904-1973, Chile; Nobel 1971)
Pablo Neruda
As a penniless consul in Burma in the 1930s, he wrote the surrealist collection Residence on Earth. He served in the Chilean senate in the 1940s, though government opponents forced him into exile over his Communist views.

(1904-1973, Chile; Nobel 1971)
Pablo Neruda
Crossing the Andes on horseback inspired his epic Canto general (1950). He died of cancer days after his friend Salvador Allende was executed.

(1904-1973, Chile; Nobel 1971)
Jorge Luis Borges
One-quarter English,he learned that language before he learned Spanish.

(1899-1986, Argentina)
Jorge Luis Borges
Educated in Europe during WWI, he met a circle of avant-garde poets in Spain, which inspired him to found the ultraismo movement and publish the collection Fervor of Buenos Aires (1923) when he returned to Argentina.

(1899-1986, Argentina)
Jorge Luis Borges
While working in a library, he developed his greatest short stories, collected in A Universal History of Infamy (1935), Ficciones (1944), and The Aleph (1949).

(1899-1986, Argentina)
Jorge Luis Borges
By his fifties, a disorder inherited from his father had taken his eyesight, but in 1962 he completed the influential story collection Labyrinths.

(1899-1986, Argentina)
Isabel Allende
Actually born in Peru, at age three she moved to her mother's native Chile.

(1942-present, Chile)
Isabel Allende
A successful news reporter in her twenties, she and her family fled to Venezuela after General Augusto Pinochet deposed and executed her uncle, setting up a dictatorship.

(1942-present, Chile)
Isabel Allende
Her formal literary career began at age 40, when she published The House of the Spirits, a magic realist work that chronicles several generations of the Trueba family.

(1942-present, Chile)
Isabel Allende
Other works of fiction include the short-story collection Eva Luna (1989) and Paula (1995), which detailed Allende's care for her terminally ill daughter.

(1942-present, Chile)
Gabriela Mistral
The first Latin American to win the Nobel Literature Prize, she was actually named Lucila Godoy Alcayaga, but took her pen name from the Italian and French poets Gabriele D'Annunzio and Frédéric Mistral respectively.

(1889-1957, Chile; Nobel 1945)
Gabriela Mistral
At first a prominent educator, she wrote "Sonnets of Death" (1914) after the suicide of her fiancé. Those sonnets later appeared in her most famous collection, Desolation (1922).

(1889-1957, Chile; Nobel 1945)
Gabriela Mistral
A native Chilean, she served as a diplomat both in the United States and Europe. Langston Hughes translated a portion of Mistral's poetry into English just after she died.

(1889-1957, Chile; Nobel 1945)
Octavio Paz
A prominent poet and essayist, he supported leftist causes in Mexico; he fought briefly for the Republicans during the Spanish Civil War.

(1914-1998, Mexico; Nobel 1990)
Octavio Paz .
He published the poetry collection Luna silvestre at age 19, and his 584-line poem The Sun Stone deals with the planet Venus, an important symbol to the Aztecs.

(1914-1998, Mexico; Nobel 1990)
Octavio Paz
While studying in Los Angeles, he observed flamboyantly dressed Mexican-American pachucos ("zoot-suiters"), who inspired him to write about Mexico and its Native American/mestizo heritage in his pivotal essay collection, The Labyrinth of Solitude (1950).

(1914-1998, Mexico; Nobel 1990).
Octavio Paz
Another prose work, In the Light of India (1997), reflected his part-(East) Indian heritage.

(1914-1998, Mexico; Nobel 1990).
José Martí
Best known as a poet and a revolutionary, he fought tirelessly for Cuban independence.

(1853-1895, Cuba)
José Martí
His Ill-Omened Friendship (1885) is considered the first Spanish modernist novel, and his poetry collections include Our America and Simple Verses; the poem "Guantanamera" was the inspiration for several songs.

(1853-1895, Cuba)
José Martí
Imprisoned at age 16 and exiled from the island several times, he settled in New York for the last fifteen years of his life, where he wrote essays on Walt Whitman, Jesse James, and the threat of Latin American economic dependence on the United States.

(1853-1895, Cuba)
José Martí
He was killed in a skirmish at Dos Ríos while participating in an invasion with other Cuban exiles.

(1853-1895, Cuba)
Mario Vargas Llosa
hile attending military school in Lima, he wrote the play The Escape of the Inca (1952), but the harsh treatment he received there was the basis for his best-known novel, The Time of the Hero.

(1936-present, Peru).
Mario Vargas Llosa
Conversation in the Cathedral (1969) was Vargas Llosa's serious take on living under the dictatorship of Manuel Odría, while in 1977 he published the lighter, autobiographical Aunt Julia and the Scriptwriter, about soap operas.

(1936-present, Peru)
Mario Vargas Llosa
Other important works include The War of the End of the World and A Fish in the Water, which discusses his political career; Vargas Llosa ran for president of Peru in 1990 but was defeated by Alberto Fujimori.

(1936-present, Peru)
Miguel Asturias
Left his native Guatemala in 1923 to study in Paris. There he discovered Mayan mythology, and translated the Popol Vuh into Spanish; the theme would pervade his work, such as 1963's Mulata de tal.

(1899-1974, Guatemala; Nobel 1967)
Miguel Asturias
He most famous novel, El señor presidente (1946), was a satire against the oppressive Guatemalan dictatorship.

(1899-1974, Guatemala; Nobel 1967)
Miguel Asturias
He also completed a trilogy that blasted exploitation by the American-led United Fruit Company, and the short-story collection Weekend in Guatemala (1956), based on the CIA-led overthrow of president Jacobo Arbenz's liberal government.

(1899-1974, Guatemala; Nobel 1967)
Carlos Fuentes
Though born into a well-to-do family, he has often dealt with the betrayed ideals from the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the subject of both his first novel, Where the Air is Clear (1958), and his most successful book, The Death of Artemio Cruz (1962).

(1928-present, Mexico)
Carlos Fuentes
Other notable novels include Terra nostra, set during the reign of King Philip II of Spain, and The Old Gringo, which portrays Ambrose Bierce's last days in Mexico.

(1928-present, Mexico)
Carlos Fuentes
He has also penned absurdist plays and essay collections on Mexican and American art and literature.

(1928-present, Mexico)
Murasaki Shikibu
Novelist, diarist, and courtesan. She was the author of the Tale of Genji (Genji monogatari), the first known novel; the diary, Murasaki Shikibu nikki; and a collection of tanka poems.
Murasaki Shikibu
The daughter of the court official Fujiwara Tametoki, she sat in on the classical Chinese literature lessons that her brother received, in spite of the Heian traditions against higher education for women.
Sei Shonagan
Like Lady Murasaki, Sei Shonagan was a lady-in-waiting of the Empress. Since Lady Murasaki and herwere contemporaries and known for their wit, they were often rivals.
Sei Shonagan )
Her only work is the Pillow Book (Makura no soshi), which is considered the best source of information about life at the Japanese court during the Heian period (784-1185).
Zeami
The second master of the Kanze theatrical school, which had been founded by his father, he is regarded as the greatest playwright of the No theater.

(also called Kanze Motokiyo)
Zeami
He provided 90 of the approximately 230 plays in the modern repertoire. Among his best works are Atsumori, The Robe of Feathers, Birds of Sorrow, and Wind in the Pines.

(also called Kanze Motokiyo)
Zeami
Also a drama critic, he established the aesthetic standards by which plays have been judged ever since. His Fushi kaden (The Transmission of the Flower of Acting Style) is a manual for his pupils.

(also called Kanze Motokiyo)
Matsuo Basho
Generally acknowledged as the master of the haiku form, the most notable influences on his work were Zen Buddhism and his travels throughout Japan.

pseudonym of Matsuo Munefusa
Matsuo Basho
He is noted for works like The Narrow Road to the Deep North (Oku no hosomichi), which includes descriptions of local sights in both prose and haiku.

pseudonym of Matsuo Munefusa)
Matsuo Basho
He took his pseudonym from the name of the simple hut where he retired: Basho-an, which means "Cottage of the Plaintain Tree."

pseudonym of Matsuo Munefusa
Chikamatsu Monzaemon
He was Japan's first professional dramatist. Originally named Sugimori Nobumori, he wrote more than 150 plays for both the bunraku (puppet theater) and the kabuki (popular theater).
Chikamatsu Monzaemon
His scripts fall into two categories: historical romances (mono) and domestic tragedies (wamono).
Chikamatsu Monzaemon
One of his most popular plays was The Battles of Coxinga, an historical melodrama about an attempt to re-establish the Ming dynasty in China.
Chikamatsu Monzaemon
He is also largely responsible for developing the sewamono (contemporary drama on contemporary themes) in the joruri, a style of chanted narration adapted to bunraku.
Akutagawa Ryunosuke
His mother died insane while he was a child, and his father was a failure who gave him up to relatives.
Akutagawa Ryunosuke
In 1927 he committed suicide by overdosing on pills, and his suicide letter A Note to a Certain Old Friend became a published work.
Akutagawa Ryunosuke
Despite this inauspicious childhood, his 1915 short story Rashomon brought him into the highest literary circles and started him writing the macabre stories for which he is known.
Akutagawa Ryunosuke
Rashomon also was key to his international fame, when Kurosawa Akira made it into a film in 1951. One of Japan's two most prestigious literary prizes is named for Akutagawa; it is awarded for the best serious work of fiction by a new Japanese writer.
Kawabata Yasunari
Recipient of the 1968 Nobel Prize for Literature, he was the first Japanese author to be so honored. His works combine classic Japanese values with modern trends and often center on the role of sex in people's lives.
Kawabata Yasunari
His works are often only a few pages long, a form given the name "palm-of-the-hand."
Kawabata Yasunari
He is best known for three novels: Thousand Cranes, based on the tea ceremony and inspired by The Tale of Genji; The Sound of the Mountain, about the relationship of an old man and his daughter-in-law; and Snow Country, about an aging geisha.
Kawabata Yasunari
A friend of Mishima Yukio, he was also associated with right-wing causes and openly protested the Cultural Revolution in China. He committed suicide two years after Mishima.
Mishima Yukio
He was a novelist whose central theme was the disparity between traditional Japanese values and the spiritual emptiness of modern life. He failed to qualify for military service during World War II, so worked in an aircraft factory instead.

(pseudonym of Hiraoka Kimitake)
Mishima Yukio
His first novel, Confessions of a Mask (Kamen no kokuhaku), was successful enough to allow him to write full time.
Mishima Yukio
His 4 volume epic, The Sea of Fertility (Hojo no umi, consisting of Spring Snow, Runaway Horses, The Temple of Dawn, and The Decay of the Angel), is about self-destructive personalities and the transformation of Japan into a modern, but sterile, society.

pseudonym of Hiraoka Kimitake
Mishima Yukio
He organized the Tate no kai, a right-wing society stressing physical fitness and the martial arts, committed ritual suicide after a public speech failed to galvanize the armed forces into overthrowing the government.

(pseudonym of Hiraoka Kimitake)
Endo Shusaku
He converted to Catholicism at the age of 11, and majored in French literature. His first works, White Man and Yellow Man, explored the differences between Japanese and Western values and national experiences.
Endo Shusaku
Silence tells of the martyrdom of Catholic converts of Portuguese priests. The Samurai recounts the tale of a samurai sent to establish trade relations between his shogun & Mexico, Spain, & Rome. These 2 books are considered to be his greatest achievement
Oe Kenzaburo
Novelist and recipient of the 1994 Nobel Prize for Literature.
Oe Kenzaburo
His early works are filled with insanity, abuse, perverse sex, and violence
Oe Kenzaburo
His fiction centers on the alienation following Japan's surrender and his political writings focus on the search for cultural and ideological roots.
Oe Kenzaburo
His first work, Shiiku (The Catch in the Shadow of the Sunrise), describes a friendship between a Japanese boy and a black American POW, and won him the Akutagawa award while he was still a student.
Oe Kenzaburo
His later works (including A Personal Matter (Kojinteki-na taiken) and The Silent Cry (Man'en gannen no futtoboru)) reflect the experience of being the father of a brain-damaged child.
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(aka Li Bo)
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(aka Li Bo)
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Tonight, I Can Write the Saddest Lines​
The third line of this poem states, "The night wind revolves in the sky and sings." Name this poem in which the author opens by describing what he plans to do for the evening.
​Tonight, I Can Write the Saddest Lines​
Pablo Neruda
Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair
Pablo Neruda
Canto General
Pablo Neruda
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The Frogs
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The Clouds
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Lysistrata
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The Frogs by Aristophanes
This comedy centers on the god Dionysus, who journeys to the underworld with his much smarter slave Xanthias. Dionysus is unhappy with the low quality of contemporary theater, and plans to bring the playwright Euripides back from the dead.
The Frogs by Aristophanes
As the ferryman Charon rows Dionysus to the underworld (Xanthias is forced to walk), a chorus of the title creatures appears and repeatedly chants the phrase "Brekekekex, ko-ax, ko-ax."
The Frogs by Aristophanes
Dionysus & Xanthais find Euripides arguing with Aeschylus as to which is the better author. After the dramatists "weigh" their verses on a scale, & offer advice on how to save Athens, Dionysus judges that it is Aeschylus who should be brought back to life.
The Frogs by Aristophanes
Dionysus and Xanthias then have a series of misadventures, during which they alternately claim to be Heracles.
The Birds by Aristophanes
At the start of this comedy, two Athenians named Peisthetaerus and Euelpides seek out Tereus, a human king who was transformed into a a bird called a hoopoe (some translations refer to Tereus as "Epops," the Greek word for hoopoe).
The Birds by Aristophanes
Peisthetaerus convinces Tereus & his fellow birds to build a city in the sky, which would allow the birds to demand sacrifices from humans, & to blockade the Olympian gods.
The Birds by Aristophanes
Peisthetaerus & Euelpides eat a root that gives them wings, and aid the birds in the construction of the city Nephelokokkygia, or "Cloudcuckooland."
The Birds by Aristophanes
Peisthetaerus also drives away objectionable visitors, such as a poet, an oracle-monger, and a dealer in decrees. After the messenger goddess Iris is found in the city, the residents of Cloudcuckooland demand concessions from the Olympians.
The Birds by Aristophanes
On the advice of Prometheus, Peisthetaerus demands that Zeus give up his mistress Basileia, or Sovereignty, from whom "all things come." Peisthetaerus marries Basileia, and is crowned king.
The Clouds by Aristophanes
This comedy lampoons Athenian philosophers, especially Socrates and his Sophist followers, whose insubstantial, obfuscating arguments are inspired by the title goddesses.
The Clouds by Aristophanes
The protagonist Strepsiades fears that his horse-obsessed son, Pheidippides, is spending too much money. He wants Pheidippides to enroll in the Phrontisterion, or Thinkery of Socrates to learn specious arguments that can be used to avoid paying debts.
The Clouds by Aristophanes
Pheidippides refuses, so Strepsiades enrolls in the Thinkery himself. There, Strepsiades learns about new discoveries, such as a technique to measure how far a flea can jump.
The Clouds by Aristophanes
Pheidippides is also pressured into studying at the Thinkery, where he and Strepsiades are instructed by the beings Just and Unjust Discourse.
The Clouds by Aristophanes
Strepsiades believes that the education will enable Pheidippides to foil all creditors, but Pheidippides instead uses his new-found debating skills to justify beating up his father. In response, Strepsiades leads a mob to destroy the Thinkery.
Lysistrata by Aristophanes
Title character of this comedy is an Athenian woman who decides to end the Peloponnesian War, which was still raging when the play premiered in 411 BC. She assembles a secret Council of Women whose members represent many parts of Greece.
Lysistrata by Aristophanes
Once the women have gathered, the title character reveals her proposal: all Greek women should abstain from having sex until the men agree to stop fighting in the Peloponnesian war
Lysistrata by Aristophanes
Her plan draws protests from her bawdy neighbor Calonice, and from the amorous wife Myrrhine, the Spartan Lampito reluctantly supports the idea, and helps to convince the other women. As Athenian women capture the Acropolis, the female representatives from other regions return home to enlist their compatriots in the plan.
Lysistrata by Aristophanes
The ensuing events include conflicts between a chorus of old women and a chorus of old men, and a personal plea to Myrrhine from her husband, Cinesias. Both genders suffer from sexual deprivation, but the women of Greece remain united. With the aid of a beautiful girl called Diallage, or Reconciliation, the title character convinces the frenzied men to agree to an equitable peace.
Oedipus Rex by Sophocles
This tragedy tells the story of a man who became king of Thebes by defeating a monster called the sphinx. After a mysterious plague devastates Thebes, he sends his brother-in-law Creon to ask the Oracle at Delphi about the cause of the affliction
Oedipus Rex by Sophocles
The Oracle attributes the plague to the fact that the murderer of Laius, the previous king of Thebes, has never been caught & punished. The king then seeks information from the prophet Teiresias, who is provoked into revealing that the king himself was the killer.
Oedipus Rex by Sophocles
The king initially rejects the claim that he is the killer, but begins to have doubts after talking with his wife Jocasta, who was once married to Laius. Jocasta recalls a prophecy that Laius would be killed by his own son, but she claims that this prophecy did not come true, because Laius was murdered by highwaymen.
Oedipus Rex by Sophocles
This leads the king to recall killing a man who resembled Laius, and a prophecy which had claimed that the king would kill his own father, and marry his own mother.
Oedipus Rex by Sophocles
A shepherd from Mount Cithaeron reveals the awful truth: in response to the prophecy about their son, Laius and Jocasta had tried to expose the infant king in the wilderness. Not knowing his true heritage, the king eventually left home to avoid harming the people whom he believed to be his parents, but unknowingly fulfilled the prophecy by killing Laius and marrying Jocasta
Oedipus Rex by Sophocles
Upon learning this, Jocasta commits suicide, and the king blinds himself with Jocasta's brooches. Creon assumes control of Thebes as the king begs to be exiled along with his daughters, Ismene and Antigone.
Antigone by Sophocles
Along with Oedipus Rex and Oedipus at Colonus, this is one of the three surviving "Theban plays" by Sophocles that center on the family of Oedipus. The tragedy takes place in the immediate aftermath of a battle in which Oedipus's two sons, Polyneices and Eteocles, killed each other while struggling to control Thebes.
Analects
One of the "Four Books" used by the ancient Chinese for civil service study, it contains the sayings (aphorisms) of Confucius.
Analects
The philosopher Confucius did not write or edit the words that make up this text; his disciples compiled them in the 5th or 4th century BC.
Analects
Confucianism is more of a philosophical system than a religion, and Confucius thought of himself more as a teacher than as a spiritual leader.
Analects
It also contain some of the basic ideas found in Confucianism, such as ren (benevolence) and li (proper conduct).
Apocrypha
Protestants and Jews assign lower authority to this text because it was written between 300 and 100 BC.
Apocrypha
Catholics and Orthodox Christians consider the books that make up this text to be "deuterocanonical," meaning that they are just as important and divinely-inspired as other parts of the Old Testament.
Apocrypha
"Apocryphal" in general means "something outside an accepted canon," and, in particular, in ancient Greek it meant "hidden things."
Apocrypha
Scholars differ as to which books make up this text, but Tobit, Judith, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Sirach (or Ecclesiasticus), and Baruch are almost always included.
Avesta
Sacred scripture of Zoroastrianism.

(or Zend-Avesta)
Avesta
The Gathas may be as old as the 7th century BC, when Zoroaster is thought to have lived, but most of this text was put together by the Sassanid Persian dynasty, between 200 and 640.

(or Zend-Avesta)
Avesta
It consists of five parts: Gathas (poems written by Zoroaster), Visparat (homages to spiritual leaders), Vendidad (legal and medical doctrine), Yashts (hymns to angels and heroes), and Khurda (lesser rituals and hymns).

(or Zend-Avesta)
Avesta
Zoroastrianism centers on the eternal struggle between a good entity (Ahura Mazda, or Ormuzd) and its evil counterpart (Angra Mainyu, or Ahriman);

(or Zend-Avesta)
Zoroastrianism
the religion is still practiced by about 120,000 Parsees in Bombay and a few thousand adherents in Iran and Iraq.
Bhagavad-Gita
Sanskrit for "The Song of God," it is a poem found in Book Six of the Hindu epic Mahabharata. Likely formalized in the 1st or 2nd century.
Bhagavad-Gita
It begins on the eve of a battle, when the prince Arjuna asks his charioteer Krishna (an avatar of Vishnu) about responsibility in dealing with the suffering that impending battle will cause.
Bhagavad-Gita
Krishna tells Arjuna that humans possess a divine self within a material form, and that Arjuna's duty is to love God and do what is right without thinking of personal gain--some of the main tenets of Hinduism.
Tao Te Ching
Philosophical text behind Daoism, a religion-philosophy founded by the semi-legendary Laozi in the sixth century BC, though scholars now believe it was written about 200 years later, during the Warring States period of the late Zhou Dynasty.

Dao de Jing (or The Way and Its Power)
Tao Te Ching
It instructs adherents in restraint and passiveness, allowing the natural order of the universe to take precedent.

Dao de Jing (or The Way and Its Power)
Hadith
It is a report of the words or actions of a Muslim religious figure, most frequently the Prophet Muhammad.
Hadith
Each consists of a matn, or text of the original oral law itself, as well as an isnad, or chain of authorities through which it has been passed by word of mouth through the generations.
Hadith
Collectively, it points Muslims toward the Sunna, or practice of the Prophet, which together with the Qur'an forms the basis for shari'a , usually translated as Islamic law.
Book of Mormon
Published in 1830 by founder, Joseph Smith. Followers believe that the prophet Moroni revealed the location of this book to Smith, and then Smith translated it from a "reformed Egyptian" language.
Book of Mormon
It is inscribed on thin gold plates
Book of Mormon
Documents the history of a group of Hebrews who migrated to America ca 600 BC. Group divided into 2 tribes: the Lamanites (ancestors of US Indians) & the highly civilized Nephites, a chosen people instructed by Jesus but killed by the Lamanites around 421
Qur'an
Arabic for "recitation," it is the most sacred scripture of Islam. It is subdivided into 114 chapters, called suras, which, with the exception of the first one, are arranged in descending order of length.
Qur'an
According to Muslim belief, the angel Jibril [Gabriel] visited the prophet Muhammad in 610 and revealed the work to him.
Qur'an
Various suras discuss absolute submission to Allah [God], happiness in Heaven versus torture in Hell, and the mercy, compassion, and justice of Allah.
Qur'an
The third caliph, Uthman (644-656), formalized the text after many of his oral reciters were killed in battle.
Talmud
Hebrew for "instruction," the Talmud is a codification of Jewish oral and written law, based on the Torah. It consists of the Mishnah (the laws themselves), and the Gemara (scholarly commentary on the Mishnah).
Talmud
The Gemara developed in two Judaic centers: Palestine and Babylonia, so there are two parts of the text (Palestinian & Babylonian), the latter considered more authoritative by Orthodox Jews. Rabbis & lay scholars finished the Babylonian text around 600.
Upanishads
Also called Vedanta, or "last part of the Vedas," they were written in Sanskrit between 900 and 500 BC.
Upanishads
Part poetry but mainly prose, the earlier versions laid the foundation for the development of several key Hindu ideas, such as connecting the individual soul (atman) with the universal soul (Brahman).
Upanishads
Spiritual release, or moksha, could be achieved through meditation and asceticism. The name means "to sit down close," as pupils did when a teacher recited them.
Vedas
Consist strictly of four hymnbooks: the Rig (prayers in verse), Sama (musical melodies), Yajur (prose prayers), and Atharva (spells and incantations).
Vedas
Each part, though, also contains a Brahmana (interpretation), and they also incorporate treatises on meditation (Aranyakas) as well as the Upanishads.
Vedas
Written in an archaic form of Sanskrit by early Aryan invaders, possibly between 1500 and 1200 BC, they concentrate on sacrifices to deities, such as Indra (god of thunder), Varuna (cosmic order), and Agni (fire).
Vedas
The major gods Vishnu and Shiva appear as minor deities in the text; their elevation, as well as the concept of karma, does not develop until the Upanishads.
I Ching
Basis for ancient Chinese philosophy and religion, it was created between 1500 and 1000 BC, though legend has it that the dragon-emperor Fuxi derived its eight trigrams from a turtle shell.

Yijing or Book of Changes
I Ching
The trigrams consist of three either broken (yin) or unbroken (yang) lines, and by reading pairs of these trigrams randomly, one could learn about humans, the universe, and the meaning of life.

Yijing or Book of Changes
I Ching
Qin emperor Shi Huangdi burned most scholarly books, but this one escaped because it was not seen as threatening.

Yijing or Book of Changes
Sully Prudhomme
Winner of the first ever Nobel Prize for Literature, for his idealistic poetry
"The Burial of the Dead," "A Game of Chess," "The Fire Sermon," "Death By Water," and "What the Thunder Said."
The five parts of T. S. Eliot's 1922 masterpiece "The Waste Land" are
Our Town by Thornton Wilder
A sentimental story that takes place in the village of Grover's Corners, New Hampshire just after the turn of the 20th century. It is divided into three acts: "Daily Life" (Professor Willard and Editor Webb gossip on the everyday lives of town residents); "Love and Marriage" (Emily Webb and George Gibbs fall in love and marry); and "Death" (Emily dies while giving birth, and her spirit converses about the meaning of life with other dead people in the cemetery). A Stage Manager talks to the audience and serves as a narrator throughout the drama, which is performed on a bare stage.
Long Day's Journey Into Night by Eugene O'Neill
Eugene O'Neill wrote it fifteen years earlier and presented the manuscript to his third wife with instructions that it not be produced until 25 years after his death. Actually produced three years after he died, it centers on Edmund and the rest of the Tyrone family but is really an autobiographical account of the dysfunction of O'Neill's own family, set on one day in August 1912. The father is a miserly actor, while the mother is a morphine addict, and the brother is a drunk; they argue and cut each other down throughout the play.
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? by Edward Albee
The author Virginia Woolf has little to do with the story, except that Martha sings the title to George when she is mad at him in Act I. In fact, Edward Albee got the title from graffiti he saw on a men's room wall. In the drama, George is a professor who married Martha, the college president's daughter, but the two dislike each other. Martha invites another couple, the instructor Nick and his wife Honey, for drinks after a party for her father. All four of them get drunk, and they end up bickering over their flawed marriages: Besides George and Martha's problems, Honey is barren, and Nick married her for her money.
A Streetcar Named Desire by Tennessee Williams
Blanche DuBois and Stanley Kowalski represent Williams's two visions of the South: declining "old romantic" vs. the harsh modern era. Blanche is a Southern belle who lost the family estate, and is forced to move into her sister Stella's New Orleans apartment. Stella's husband Stanley is rough around the edges, but sees through Blanche's artifice; he ruins Blanche's chance to marry his friend Mitch by revealing to Mitch that Blanche was a prostitute. Then, after Blanche confronts Stanley, he rapes her, driving her into insanity. The drama was developed into a movie, marking the breakthrough performance of method actor Marlon Brando.
A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry
Her father's 1940 court fight against racist housing laws provided the basis for Hansberry's play about the Younger family, who attempt to move into an all-white Chicago suburb but are confronted by discrimination. The first play by an African-American woman to be performed on Broadway, it also tore down the racial stereotyping found in other works of the time. The title comes from the Langston Hughes poem "Harlem" (often called "A Dream Deferred").
The Crucible by Arthur Miller
Miller chose the 1692 Salem witch trials as his setting, but the work is really an allegorical protest against the McCarthy anti-Communist "witch-hunts" of the early 1950s. In the story, Elizabeth Proctor fires servant Abigail Williams after she finds out Abigail had an affair with her husband. In response, Abigail accuses Elizabeth of witchcraft. She stands trial and is acquitted, but then another girl accuses her husband, John, and as he refuses to turn in others, he is killed, along with the old comic figure, Giles Corey. Also notable: Judge Hathorne is a direct ancestor of the author Nathaniel Hawthorne.
Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller
This play questions American values of success. Willy Loman is a failed salesman whose firm fires him after 34 years. Despite his own failures, he desperately wants his sons Biff and Happy to succeed. Told in a series of flashbacks, the story points to Biff's moment of hopelessness, when the former high school star catches his father Willy cheating on his mother, Linda. Eventually, Willy can no longer live with his perceived shortcomings, and commits suicide in an attempt to leave Biff with insurance money.
Mourning Becomes Electra by Eugene O'Neill
This play is really a trilogy, consisting of "Homecoming," "The Hunted," and "The Haunted." Though it is set in post-Civil War New England, O'Neill used Aeschylus's tragedy The Oresteia as the basis for the plot. Lavinia Mannon desires revenge against her mother, Christine, who with the help of her lover Adam Brant has poisoned Lavinia's father Ezra; Lavinia persuades her brother Orin to kill Brant. A distressed Christine commits suicide, and, after Orin and Lavinia flee to the South Seas, Orin cannot stand the guilt and kills himself as well, leaving Lavinia in the house alone.
The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams
Partly based on Williams' own family, the drama is narrated by Tom Wingfield, who supports his mother Amanda and his crippled sister Laura (who takes refuge from reality in her glass animals). At Amanda's insistence, Tom brings his friend Jim O'Connor to the house as a gentleman caller for Laura. While O'Connor is there, the horn on Laura's glass unicorn breaks, bringing her into reality, until O'Connor tells the family that he is already engaged. Laura returns to her fantasy world, while Tom abandons the family after fighting with Amanda.
The Iceman Cometh by Eugene O'Neill
A portrait of drunkenness and hopeless dreams. Regular patrons of the End of the Line Café anticipate the annual arrival of Theodore "Hickey" Hickman, but in 1912 he returns to them sober. After the patrons reveal their "pipe dreams," Hickey implores them to give up those dreams and lead productive lives. The "Iceman" is supposed to represent the "death" found in reality.
Cat on a Hot Tin Roof by Tennessee Williams
Centers on a fight between two sons (Gooper and Brick) over the estate of father "Big Daddy" Pollitt, who is dying of cancer. After his friend Skipper dies, ex-football star Brick turns to alcohol and will not have sex with his wife Maggie ("the cat"). Yet Maggie announces to Big Daddy that she is pregnant in an attempt to force a reconciliation with--and win the inheritance for--Brick.
The Little Foxes by Lillian Hellman
Set on a plantation in 1900, Hellman attempts to show that by this time any notion of antebellum Southern gentility has been destroyed by modern capitalism and industrialism. Three Hubbard siblings (Regina and her two brothers) scheme to earn vast riches at the expense of other family members, such as Regina's husband Horace and their daughter Alexandra. The title is taken from the Old Testament Song of Solomon: "the little foxes that spoil the vines."
Richard, Duke of Gloucester
Richard IIII

The quintessential antihero, he describes how his hunchbacked appearance has made him "determined to prove a villain" in a monologue that begins "now is the winter of our discontent / made glorious summer by this son of York." In the aftermath of a Yorkist victory in the Wars of the Roses, he plots against his brothers King Edward IV and George, Duke of Clarence, and causes Edward to imprison Clarence in the Tower of London. Assassins sent by him later kill Clarence, who is drowned in a "malmsey-butt," or cask of wine. He also marries and kills the Lady Anne, and orders the deaths of Edward's children (the "princes in the tower"). Although he becomes king, he soon faces a rebellion led by Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. On the eve of a battle at Bosworth Field, he is haunted by the ghosts of those he wronged. The battle turns against him (who cries "a horse! a horse! my kingdom for a horse!"), and Richmond is crowned as King Henry VII of England.
Lady Macbeth
Macbeth

Though Macbeth is the play's protagonist, his pursuit of the Scottish throne is largely driven by his wife's ambition. After three witches predict that Macbeth will be king, she fears that her husband is "too full 'o the milk of human kindness" to commit murder, and bids "spirits" to "unsex" her and imbue her with willpower. She insults Macbeth's masculinity, and urges him to "screw [his] courage to the sticking-place" and kill King Duncan. When Macbeth is unable to frame two grooms for the murder, she does so in his place. Later, she is wracked with guilt for her actions. While sleepwalking, she tries to wash imaginary blood from her hands, and cries "out, damned spot!" In the final act, the news of her death prompts Macbeth to deliver the "tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow" soliloquy.
Iago
The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice

The "ancient," or standard-bearer, of the general Othello, and is passed over for a promotion to lieutenant in favor of the less-experienced Michael Cassio. In addition, he believes that his wife, Emilia, may have cheated on him with Othello. Consequently, Iago vows revenge. At the start of the play, he and his associate Roderigo alert the Venetian senator Brabantio that Brabantio's daughter, Desdemona, has eloped with Othello. After Desdemona testifies that she married Othello willingly, the Duke of Venice places Othello in charge of defending Cyprus. On the island, he ingratiates himself with Othello, and deceitfully warns the general against the "green-eyed monster" of jealousy. He then places Desdemona's handkerchief in Cassio's room, causing Othello to believe that Desdemona and Cassio are having an affair. Once Othello has murdered Desdemona, Emilia exposes his plot. Before killing himself, Othello stabs him, who survives to be arrested by Cassio.
Tybalt
Romeo and Juliet

A hot-headed member of the Capulet family who is the beloved cousin of Juliet. During the public brawl that begins the play, he provokes the peaceful Benvolio. At a ball given by the Capulets, he recognizes the disguised Romeo and calls for a sword, but is prevented from fighting by Lord Capulet. He then demands a duel with Romeo, who does not wish to fight one of Juliet's kinsmen. Romeo's friend Mercutio is shocked by this "vile submission," and calls him "king of cats" while challenging him to a duel. (He shares his name with a feline character from medieval fables about Reynard the Fox.) Romeo tries to intervene in the duel, which allows him to kill Mercutio. Romeo then kills him, and is banished from Verona.
Claudius
Before the start of the play, he became the ruler of Denmark by pouring poison into the ear of his sleeping brother, King Hamlet. He then married Gertrude, King Hamlet's widow. In the play's first act, Prince Hamlet learns of his uncle's treachery by speaking to King Hamlet's ghost. Hamlet then arranges for a troupe of actors to perform a play titled The Murder of Gonzago, which Hamlet revises to increase the similarities to his father's death. He is disturbed by the performance, and storms out during the murder scene. Later, he prays for forgiveness, causing Hamlet to delay killing him out of fear that his soul would go to heaven. As Hamlet feigns madness, he sends him to England with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who unknowingly carry a letter calling for Hamlet's execution. After Hamlet escapes and returns to Denmark, he arranges for Hamlet to fight a duel with Laertes, who seeks revenge for the death of his father, Polonius, and sister, Ophelia. Laertes uses a poison-tipped sword, and he prepares a poisoned drink as a back-up. When Laertes falls in combat he reveals the plot, prompting Hamlet to stab him with the poisoned sword, and make him drink from the poisoned cup.
Parallel Lives
Plutarch

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