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Terms in this set (44)
Purpose of chemistry
Chemistry is the study of matter and its transformations, and no aspect of human activity is untouched by it.
properties are consistent and predictable.
Scientific Method (diagram)
Experimental test of hypothesis
include the temperature at which a substance melts (changes from a solid to a liquid) or freezes (changes from liquid to solid), color, and density (Figure 1.5). A pure substance undergoes physical chang-es (freezing, melting, evaporation, and condensation), illustrated in Figure 1.6, without losing its identity
used to separate liquids from solids.
ability of a pure substance to chemically react with other pure sub-stances. In a chemical reaction (Figure 1.7), substances lose their chemical identities and form new substances with new physical and chemical properties.
consist of two or more pure substances in varying pro-portions.
are visibly discontinuous; the different components are easy to distinguish.
a solid, liquid, or gaseous mixture that has the same proportions of its components throughout any given sample.
A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
a substance formed when two or more chemical elements are chemically bonded together. ... Water: two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom.
Decomposable pure substances
a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons: another way of saying this is that all of a particular element's atoms have the same atomic number. Elements are chemically the simplest substances and hence cannot be broken down using chemical reactions.
can neither be separated chemically into simpler substances nor be created by combining simpler substances.
Pure Substances (category of matter)
Elements and compounds
homogeneous and heterogeneous
Derived units (4)
Area = m^2
Volume = m^3
Density = kg/m^3
1 gigagram= ? grams
1 megagram= ? grams
1 kilogram= ? grams
1 hectogram= ? grams
1 dekagram= ? grams
1 decigram= ? grams
1 centigram= ? grams
1 milligram= ? grams
1 microgram= ? grams
1 nanogram= ? grams
1 picogram= ?grams
A trailing zero, as in 4.130, is significant.
4 sig figs
A zero within a number, as in 35.06 cm, is significant.
4 sig figs
A zero before the first nonzero digit, as in 0.082, is not significant.
2 sig figs
A number ending in zero with no decimal point, as in 20, is ambiguous.
scientific notation (1 sig fig) 2.0 x 10^1
adding and subtracting sig figs
least number of decimal places (numbers after the decimal)
multiplying and dividing sig figs
least number of sig figs
1 in.= 2.54 cm
What are two of matter's fundamental properties?
Mass and Volume
a measure of the quantity of matter.
The amount of space an object takes up or occupies.
is a property of substances in any physical state—gaseous, liquid, or solid. It is used to evaluate the purity of solids and liquids. Density is also used to estimate the amount of dissolved solids in solutions. The density of a solution rises as the amount of a dissolved solid increases.
K 5 °C 1 273
Fahrenheit degrees = °C x 9°F/5°C
Celisus degrees= °F x 5°C/9°F
a form of energy.
Specific heat (symbol, Cp).
CP= joules/(grams x change in °C
Properties that do change the chemical nature of matter. Examples of physical properties are:
viscosity and density.
Reactivity with other chemicals
Enthalpy of formation
Heat of combustion
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