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Information Technology Project Management 6e Schwalbe

analogy approach

creating a WBS by using similar project's WBS as a starting point

bottom-up approach

creating a WBS by having team members identify as many specific tasks related to the project as possible and then grouping them into higher level categories


subdividing project deliverables into smaller pieces


a product, such as a report or segment of software code, produced as part of a project

joint application design (JAD)

using highly organized and intensive workshops to bring together project stakeholders - the sponsor, users, business analysts, programmers, and so on - to jointly define and design information systems

project scope management

the processes involved in defining and controlling what work is or is not included in a project

project scope statement

a document that includes, at a minimum, a description of the project, including its overall objectives and justification, detailed descriptions of all project deliverables, and the characteristics and requirements of products and services produced as parts of the project


developing a working replica of the system or some aspect of the system to help define user requirements


a condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system, product, service, result, or component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formal document

requirements management plan

a plan than describes how project requirements will be analyzed, documented, and managed

requirements traceability matrix (RTM)

a table that lists requirements, various attributes of each requirement, and the status of the requirements to ensure that all requirements are addressed


all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create them

scope baseline

the approved project scope statement and its associated WBS and WBS dictionary

scope creep

the tendency for project scope to keep getting bigger

top-down approach

creating a WBS by starting with the largest items of the project and breaking them into their subordinate items

use case modeling

a process for identifying and modeling business events, who initiated them, and how the system should respond to them


the difference between planned and actual performance

WBS dictionary

a document that describes detailed information about each WBS item

work breakdown structure (WBS)

a deliverable-oriented grouping of work involved in a project that defines the total scope of the project

work package

a task at the lowest level of the WBS

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