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Mod. 19- Set 1
Terms in this set (104)
pH, Electrolytes, Fluid volume and Fluid concentration
The urinary system assists in control the body's __, ___, fluid ___ and fluid ___
RBC, Blood calcium
The kidney's produce hormones that regulate ___ production and ___ ___ levels
Ureters, bladder and urethra
The urinary system consists of the ___, ___ and ___.
The ___ are positioned in the abdominal cavity between the posterior abdominal wall and the peritoneum.
Because the kidney's are only covered by the peritoneum they are said to be ___.
inferior thoracic vertebrae and superior lumbar vertebrae
The kidneys are located in the area of the ___ ___ vertebrae and the ___ ___ vertebrae.
The kidney's are partially protected by __ __ because the liver takes up so much space on the right side, the right kidney is slightly lower then the left.
Extending from each kidney is a ____
a connection between the kidney and the bladder and is also retroperitoneal.
Both ureters are connected to the ___
a hallow, distensible organ in the pelvic cavity, designed to hold and help excrete urine.
The bladder can hold an average of ___ mL of urine
Regulation of electrolytes
Which Urinary System Function? Control levels of various anions and cations
Regulation of pH
Which Urinary System Function? control pH by secreting H+ into the urine and returning HCO3- back to the blood
Regulation of Volume
Which Urinary System Function? Adjusts blood volume by conserving or eliminating urine
Regulation of blood pressure
Which Urinary System Function? adjusts blood pressure by conserving or eliminating Na+ and urine
Maintenance of blood osmolarity
Which Urinary System Function? control of blood concentration
Production of hormones
Which Urinary System Function? Calcitriol (active Vitamin D) to increase calcium levels; erythropoietin to increase RBC production
Regulation of blood glucose level
Which Urinary System Function? release of glucose, produced by gluconeogenesis, into the blood
Excretion of wastes
Which Urinary System Function? Excretion of ammonia, urea, bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid and other wastes
Renal Capsule; Adipose Capsule; Renal Fascia
What are the external layers of the kidney from deep to superficial
Which structure of the Kidney? Helps protect and maintain the shape of the kidney.
Which structure of the Kidney? Protects and maintain the position of the kidney in the abdominal cavity.
Which structure of the Kidney? Anchors the kidney to the abdominal wall and neighboring structures.
Renal Cortex and Medulla
Internally the kidney has what two distinct regions?
Internal region of the kidney that is more superficial, but extends between the renal pyramids in the medullary region to form the renal columns.
Triangular structures inside the kidney within the medulla that appear striated due to the presence of the renal tubules and ducts
Main functional unit of the kidneys, 1 million per kidney
Urine produced by the nephrons drains from the ___ of the pyramids.
The urine from each pyramid will enter a cup-like structure called a ___ __.
2-3 minor calyces drain into a __ ___
Each kidney has ____ major calyces
The major Calyx drains into one large cavity called the __ ___
Glmerular Capillaries; peritubular capillaries
The two unique vascular features of the kidneys
Renal Corpuscle; Renal tubules
Two groups of structures in the nephron.
glomerulus (glomerula capillary); glomerular capsule
The renal corpuscle consists of the ____ and the ___
Is the filtering structure of the nephron
The role of the ___ __ is to modify the filtrate to facilitate the final product of urine formation.
These are named based on their shape and/or their position related to the glomerulus in the nephron
Proximal Convoluted tubule
Is a tightly-coiled tube in the nephron attached directly to the glomerulus.
Loop of Henle
Forms a hair-pin turn in the nephron by connecting two lengths, or limbs of the tubule, the ascending and descending.
distal convoluted tubule
The final tubule of the nephron that is similar to the proximal tubule and it is tightly coiled but is farther away from the glomerulus.
Several distal convoluted tubules come together to form a single ___ ___.
Many collecting ducts merge to form a __ __, which empties into the minor calyx
Cortical and juxtamedullary
The two types of nephrons.
Length of the loope of Henle
What is the difference between the two types of nephrons?
80-85% of nephrons are _____
Which Nephron's loop of Henle only penetrate the outer regions of the medulla?
Which nephrons comprise the 15-20%.
Which nephrons loop of Henle extend into the deepest regions of the renal pyramids and play a role in the ability to concentrate the urine?
Is located in the cortex and is the strucutre of the nephron that filters the blood?
Glomerulus and Glomerular capsule
The corpuscle consists of two comonents the ___ and the __ ___
In the renal corpuscle this is the receptacle for the filtered blood before it enters the tubules.
Blood; glomerular filtrate; urine
The fluid enter the nephron is _____, within the nephron is ___ ___ and exiting the nephron is ____.
Is formed by a combination of cells from the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and an afferent arteriole for each nephron.
At the Juxtaglomerular apparatus the cells of the ascending limb are columnar in shape and tightly packed and are called ___ ____
Cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus that are arranged next to the afferent arteriole.
The wall of the afferent arteriole contain modified smooth muscle cells that control the arterioles diameter and because of their position these cells are called ___ ____
Juxtaglomerular cells and macula densa
Which two cells control the blood pressure within the kidney?
The goal of the ____ is to filter waste-laden blood and produce a final waste product (urine).
glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion.
The three mechanisms that carry out the goal of the nephron are?
Is a process within the nephron that takes waste-laden blood, passing it through a membrane and forming glomerular filtrate.
a process within the nephron that is a production of glomerular filtrate through the filtration of waste-laden blood by glomerulus.
The __ __ facilitates the process of glomerular filtration.
Once glomerular filtrate is formed, important nutrients that would otherwise make it into the urine and be lost must be brought back into the blood stream by a process called......
a process of returning important substances from the glomerular filtrate back to the blood stream.
process of removing a substance from the blood and transporting it into the filtrate to be excreted through the urine.
process of transporting substances from the bloodstream into the glomerular filtrate
renal tubule and duct cells
As filtrate flows through the tubules, ___ ___ cells and ___ ___ can secrete other substances
Capillary endothelium; basal lamina, podocytes
What are the three layers of tissue that form the filtration membrane?
Endothelium of the glomerular capillaries
Which filtration membrane? These capillaries are fenestrated capillaries so they are more permeable than the more common continuous capillaries of the vascular system. The limit the pass of formed elements.
Which filtration membrane? visceral layer of the glomerular capsule that forms unique cells called..
Which filtration membrane? these cells have numerous____ that extend from the podocytes.
Which filtration membrane? the pedicles have small spaces between them called ___ ___
Which filtration membrane? The permeability of the membrane can be controlled by the amount of space provided by the foot-process of _____
Which filtration membrane? a layer of connective tissue sandwiched between the endothelium and the podocytes
blood solutes; formed elements
The capillary endothelium allows the pass of all ___ ___ into the glomerular capsule but disallows the ___ ___
The basal lamina further limits filtration by ___ __ from being lost into the capsule
The ___ ___ limits pass of small proteins, only allowing less than 1% of even the smallest proteins to pass the three layer membrane
The process of ____ is the use of pressure to force fluids, including through a semi-permeable membrane.
large surface area, thin and porous; high
The filtration membrane helps the function of filtration because the glomerular capillaries provide a ___ ___ __, the membrane is __ and the capillary blood pressure is ____
Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
The amount of glomerular filtrate formed each minute is called the ___ ___ ___
The GFR of the body averages about ___ ml/min (men slightly higher than women), resulting in approximately ___ L of glomerular filtrate being produced per day.
The "net" result of all three pressure influences.
The __ ___ pressure is what determines wheather or not urine formation takes place.
The lower the filtration pressure the ____ urine is formed.
If the net pressure is zero or negative it is termed as ___ ____
Glomerular Blood (Capillary) hydrostatic pressure (GBHP)
Which pressure? caused by blood pressure in the capillaries, encourages filtration.
Capsular hydrostatic pressure (CHP)
Which pressure? caused by fluids present in the capsular space, opposes filtration.
Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)
Which pressure? Caused by osmotic pressure from proteins remaining in the plasma, opposes filtration.
The GFR needs to be held fairly constant, if the GFR drops too low, there is a buildup of ___ ___ in the blood.
If the GFR is too high, there may not be adequate time to reabsorp essential nutrients and they would be lost in the _____
Renal autoregulation, neural regulation and hormonal regulation
To maintain appropriate GFR which three mechanisms are used?
To keep the GFR constant in situations of sleep, exercise, anxiety etc. the kidneys can adjust the BP in and out of the glomerulus by constricting or dilating the afferent and efferent arterioles, this is called...
reduce blood flow; reduce GFR
During myogenic mechanism, if the BP is high the afferent arteriole can constrict to ___ ___ __ to the glomerulus, this would reduce the ____
Controlled by the juxtaglomerular apparatus, the cells of the macula densa detect increased amounts of electrolytes and water in the distal tubules of the nephron, to minimize the loss, JGA inhibits NO. This is known as.....
Myogenic Mechanism and tubuloglomerular feedback
Which two mechanisms are part of renal autoregulation of GFR
CONSTRICTION, LESS, LOWER
During neural regulation of GFR, if more norepinephrine is released, there is greater ___ of afferent arteriole, therefore ____ blood flow to the glomerulus and a ___ GFR
Sympathetic Nervous system; Norepinephrine
The renal blood vessels are mainly controlled by the __ ___ ___. ___ released causes both the afferent and efferent arterioles to constrict.
Which mechanism uses norepinephrine release to maintain appropriate GFR?
Angtiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptid (ANP)
What are the two main hormones that contribute to GFR?
Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, so with increased amounts of it the GFR will ____
Is a hormone produced by the atria of the heart and causes cells within glomerulus to relax and increase the GFR, also increasing glomerular surface area.
Hormonal Regulation of GFR
Angiotensin II and ANP are used for what kind of mechanism to control GFR?
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