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Terms in this set (48)
Goals of psychology
describe, explain, predict, and control behaviors and mental process
an evidence-based method that draws on observation and experimentation.
Francis Bacon & John Locke
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions.
Mind and body are separate and non-identical entities.
Nothing exists except physical matter, the mind is a function of the brain (they are inseparable).
-in 1879, he established the 1st psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany.
-Founder of scientific psychology
- used introspection
1st psychological school of thought
Used introspection to search for the mind's structural elements
-Wrote the 1st psychology textbook: Principles of Psychology (1890)
Father of American Psychology
Influenced by Charles Darwin's Evolutionary Theory
Developed by Edward Titchener & Wundt
Focused on breaking mental processes down into their fundamental components in order to understand the mind as a whole
Focused on the adaptive qualities of mental processes and behaviors in order to understand what function these things serve
The why; influenced by evolutionary theory
Mary Whiton Calkins
In 1905,she became the 1st female president of the American Psychological Association (APA)
Margaret Floy Washburn
In 1894, she was the 1st woman to be granted a PhD in psychology
the scientific study of observable behaviors.
Ignored mental processes
Popularized by John Watson & B. F. Skinner
John B. Watson
Traumatized "Little Albert"
Showed that fear could be learned
Worked with Watson on "Little Albert"
B. F. Skinner
Consequences shape behavior
Freudian psychology emphasized the ways our unconscious mind and childhood experiences affect our behavior
Gestalt psychology: an organized whole; emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
focused on our needs for love and acceptance and on environments that nurture or limit personal growth.
Led by Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
the study of mental processes, such as occur when we perceive, learn, remember, think, communicate, and solve problems.
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
the study of behavior and mental processes.
: is anything an organism does - any action we can observe and record.
: are the internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior.
genetics versus experience.
In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origins of Species
nature selects traits that best enable an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, & Democratic
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
the scientific study of human flourishing, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.
Created by Martin Seligman
Levels of analysis
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
Natural selection & genes
Genes & environment
Mental processes/the mind
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
help people to cope with challenges and crises
assess and treat people with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs, may also provide psychotherapy, and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders.
work to create social and physical environments that are healthy for all.
enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information.
a study method incorporating five steps - Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review
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