9.2 The First Civilizations

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adapt
to change
affect
to have an effect on; to make a difference to
Africa
the second largest continent located south of the Mediterranean Sea, east of the Atlantic Ocean, and west of the Indian Ocean
agriculture
farming
Ancient Egypt
(3000-2000 BCE) an early river valley civilization established on the Nile River
Antarctica
the southernmost continent
Asia
the largest continent, which is on the Eurasian landmass, located east of Europe, west of the Pacific Ocean and north of the Indian Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
the second largest ocean in the world which borders Europe, Africa, North America, and South America
Australia
the smallest continent which is located southeast of Asia
Babylonian Empire
(1895-539 BCE) empire in Mesopotamia; Hammurabi was one of its rulers
civilization
an advanced state of development of a society as judged by such things as having a system of government and laws, using a written language, and keeping written records
Code of Hammurabi
a law code enacted by Hammurabi, the king of Babylonia around 1772 BC
corroborate
to compare pieces of evidence to see where they agree or disagree.
crop
a plant grown for food
domesticate
to change a wild plant or animal so it can be grown or raised by humans; to tame
domestication
the process of changing a wild plant or animal so it can be grown or raised by humans
early river valley civilization
the first civilizations in human history which were located in river valleys
effect
something that happens because something else happened
enduring issue
a challenge or problem that has been debated or discussed across time
environment
the area around us in which we live
environmental
related to the area around us in which we live
Europe
the second smallest continent which is on the Eurasian landmass, located west of Asia, north of the Mediterranean Sea, and east of the Atlantic Ocean
evidence
information or details from a source that can be used for a specific purpose
fertile
able to produce farm crops or other plant life
Fertile Crescent
the area of land between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in the Middle East, also known as Mesopotamia, where the first human civilizations emerged
geographic context
where a historical event took place and why it took place there; includes location, location relative to other places, geographic features, and climate
geographic feature
naturally occurring landforms, bodies of water, or ecosystems
geography
the physical features of the earth/ the study of the earth's surface
historical circumstances
the events that led to an event; includes the time period and larger historical trends as well as causes
historical context
the events that led to an event; includes the time period and larger historical trends as well as causes
Indian Ocean
the third largest body of water, which borders Asia, Africa, and Australia
Indus River Valley Civilization
(2500-1700 BCE) an early river valley civilization located in the present-day countries of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India that included the cities Mohenjo-daro and Harappa
innovate
to make changes by introducing new methods, ideas, or products
innovation
a new method of addressing a problem
irrigation
the act of supplying water to land or crops
Judaism
the world's oldest monotheistic religion which was the basis for both Christianity and Islam; Jewish people follow the Ten Commandments
law code
a set of laws
Mediterranean Sea
a body of water connected to the Atlantic Ocean which is nearly surrounded by Africa, Asia, and Europe
Mesopotamia
(3500-1650 BCE) a region in the Middle East between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers where the first early river valley civilizations started
Middle East
a region in Western Asia that includes parts of northern Africa and borders the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and Arabian Sea
Neolithic Revolution
(starting in 10,000 BCE) a turning point in history that changed the way Paleolithic people lived their lives. People shifted from hunting and gathering for food to agriculture. Instead of living as nomads, people settled down in permanent settlements. The Neolithic Revolution led to the first civilizations.
nomad
a person who lives a nomadic lifestyle, moving from one place to another following food sources
North America
a continent in the northern and western hemispheres
Pacific Ocean
the largest body of water in the world, bordered by Asia, Australia, North America, and South America
Paleolithic
having to do with the Paleolithic Period, or Old Stone Age, the time period from 2 million B.C.E. to about 10,000 B.C.E., characterized by the use of stone tools
river
a body of water that flows into a larger body of water
river valley
the area of land nearby and parallel to a river
settlement
a place where people start a new place to live
Shang China
(3950-1500 BCE) an early river valley civilization in China established on the Huang He (Yellow) River
social class
a grouping of people in a society based usually based on wealth, religion, ethnicity, or other factors
source
something historians use to learn about the past
South America
a continent in the southern and western hemispheres which today is predominantly Spanish speaking
Southern Ocean
the southernmost ocean that surrounds Antarctica
technology
the collection of tools, including machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures used by humans
Ten Commandments
the moral code of Judaism and Christianity that according to the Torah was given to Moses by God
terrace farming
the technique of creating flat farmland on a hill by digging into the slope, leveling off a horizontal area, and using the soil that was dug out to support the field by building a wall above it.
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
rivers in the Middle East that form the region called Mesopotamia where the first civilizations were established
Torah
the holy book of Judaism
turning point
an event that leads to lasting change
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