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17 terms

Environmental Studies A2 ~ Practical Skills

STUDY
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Hypothesis
the theory or explanation that is being investigated.
(states that a relationship exists)
Independent Variable (IV)
the factor that is deliberately altered or measured to see if it affects the dependent factor
Dependent Variable (DV)
the factor that may be controlled by the IV, i.e. the 'results' that are measured
Null Hypothesis
the no-link theory against which the hypothesis is being tested.
(states that there is no relationship)
Random sampling
the sampling sites within the study area can be chosen using a table of random numbers, or the random number function of a scientific calculator, to select coordinates on a grid
Systematic sampling
this involves samples taken using a chosen pattern or spacing. (it can be considered to be random in that the samples are not chosen based on observable differences in the study area)
Stratified sampling
if a study area has clear sub-areas with differences that will influence the results then it may be necessary to study each area individually, then combine the results
Homogenous
evenly mixed
Quadrat
an area, usually square or circular, in which samples are taken
Pitfall trap
a method of sampling animal populations by collecting individuals that fall into traps set into the ground
Transect
a line or belt of sampling sites across an area
DAFOR abundance scale
a qualitative scale that judges the abundance of organisms:
D = dominant
A = abundant
F = frequent
O = occasional
R = rare
Lincoln index
a catch, mark, release, recapture method of estimating animal populations:
Total Population = No. in 1st sample x No. in 2nd sample / No. in 2nd sample that have marks
Kick sampling
the riverbed is disturbed by kicking so that mobile invertebrates are washed into a net downstream
Surber sampler
an aquatic invertebrate sampling frame and net that provides more quantitative data than kick sampling
Pooter
a mouth-suction device to pick up invertebrates in soil or leaf litter
Sweep Nets
lightweight newts with large diameter that can be swept through vegetation to collect invertebrates.
If number and length of the sweeps are standardized then semi-quantitative data can be collected.