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18 terms

DNA Replication

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Helicase
an enzyme that untwists the double helix at the replication forks, separating the two parental strands and making them available as template strands
Replication fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
DNA Polymerase III
Adds new DNA nucleotides to a replicating DNA molecule
DNA Polymerase II
enzyme that proofreads the daughter strand of replicated DNA and corrects any base pairing errors
Ligase
Glues together fragments of DNA
Okasaki fragments
short segments of DNA synthesized in the lagging strand during DNA replication
Primase
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.
RNA primer
Sequence of RNA primers bound to a region of single-stranded DNA to initiate DNA replication.
leading strand
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
Lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
Pyrimidine
single-ring nitrogenous base, found in DNA and RNA; either cytosine, thymine, or uracil
Purine
double-ring nitrogenous base, found in DNA and RNA; either adenine or guanine
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
Semiconservative replication
Replicated molecule of DNA containing one strand from the original template molecule and one newly synthesized strand.
Guanine
a purine (nitrogenous base) component of nucleotides and nucleic acids; links with cytosine in DNA
Adenine
purine base found in DNA and RNA; pairs with thymine in DNA and with uracil in RNA
Thymine
a pyrimidine component of nucleic acids and nucleotides; pairs with adenine in DNA
Cytosine
a base found in DNA and RNA and derived from pyrimidine; pairs with guanine