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HUMNNTR Exam 1
Terms in this set (70)
Outline the characteristics of an essential nutrient.
Has at least one specific biological function
Omission of the nutrient from the diet leads to a decline in biological functions
Replacing the omitted nutrient in the diet
heat energy needed to raise 1000 g or 1 L of water 1 degree celsius
list six classes of essential nutrients
lipids, carbs, protein, vitamins, minerals, water
how many lbs are in a kg
specific nutrient content ÷ kcal content
energy content ÷ weight of food
recommended physical activity for adults
150 minutes a week (75 minutes aerobic in episodes of at least 10 minutes)
even better = 300 minutes (150 aerobic)
muscle strengthening at least twice a week
Amount of fruits, veggies, grains, protein and dairy per 2000 calories recommended
fruits = 2 cups
veggies = 2.5 cups
grains = 6 oz
protein = 5.5 oz
dairy = 3 cups
major nutrients provided by grains
carbs, vitamins like thiamin, minerals such as iron, fiber
major nutrients provided by veggies
carbs, vitamins such as plant pigments that form vitamin a, minerals such as magnesium, fiber
major nutrients provided by fruits
carbs, vitamins (folate, C), minerals such as potassium, fiber
nutrients from dairy
carbs, protein, vitamin D, minerals (calcium and phosphorous)
nutrients from protein foods
protein, vitamins such as B-6, minerals such as iron or zinc
exam of physical appearance and function
estimation of food and beverage intake
living conditions, education level, ability to purchase, transport and cook food
97% of population
further research needed before definitive recommendation
Estimated Energy Requirement. Use to estimate calorie needs of the average person within a specific height, weight, gender, age, and physical activity pattern.
tolerable upper intake levels; safety
fat or saturated fat free
levels of organization in body
cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
made of a double layer of phospholipids (i.e., phospholipid bilayer) with cholesterol, carbohydrates, and proteins embedded in it.
Compound that speeds the rate of chemical reactions, but is not altered by the reaction
Enzymes can be used and reused many times.
Most enzymes are proteins.
connection between nutrition status and organ systems
Recognize that nutritional status affects the function of organ systems and that the function of organ systems can affect nutritional status.
Recall the significance the hepatic portal vein for transport of absorbed nutrients to the liver.
Hepatic relates to the liver.
The hepatic portal vein carries nutrient-rich blood from the gastrointestinal tract directly to the liver.
order of digestive system
mouth/salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
Differentiate between the organs of the gastrointestinal tract and the accessory organs.
Food passes through the GI tract (mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum).
Although food does not touch the accessory organs (liver, gallbladder, pancreas), these organs produce important secretions for digestion of foods and absorption of nutrients.
Lower esophageal sphincter (cardiac sphincter)
prevents backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus
controls the passage of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine
Sphincter of Oddi:
controls the flow of pancreatic juice and bile from the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively, into the small intestine
prevents the backflow of feces from the large intestine into the small intestine
controls the excretion of feces from the large intestine
movement of food matter through the GI tract
acid in stomach
promotes digestion, destroys pathogens, solubilizes some minerals, activates some enzymes
made in liver, aids in fat digestion in small intestine
made in pancreas and small intestine, neutralizes stomach acid when it reaches small intestine
stimulate production and/or release of acid, enzymes, bile, and bicarbonate
help regulate peristalsis and overall GI tract flow
made in stomach, facilitates absorption of vitamin B-12 in small intestine
mixture of partially digested food and digestive juices in the stomach or small intestine
parts of small intestine
Duodenum: first section (~10 inches); bile and pancreatic juice are secreted into this segment of the small intestine
Jejunum: middle section (~4 feet)
Ileum: last section (~5 feet)
parts of large intestine
Recall two vitamins that can be synthesized by bacteria in the large intestine.
major sites of nutrient absorption
stomach, small intestine, large intestine
healthy bacteria that colonizes the large intestine
fuel for healthy bacteria that reside in the large intestine
Define enterohepatic circulation (recycling of bile).
Bile is produced by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine when a fat-containing meal is eaten.
After bile has performed its job (emulsification of fats), some components of bile can be reabsorbed from the small intestine and returned to the liver to be reused.
Describe how peptic ulcers form.
Stomach acid erodes the lining of the stomach or small intestine
Two leading causes:
Infection by Helicobacter pylori
Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
Describe the physiological cause of heartburn.
Dysfunction of lower esophageal sphincter
Backflow of stomach contents into esophagus erodes esophageal lining
swollen veins in anus
dietary strats to relieve constipation
fiber and fluid
Define irritable bowel syndrome.
Condition characterized by cramps, gassiness, bloating, and irregular bowel function (frequent episodes of diarrhea, constipation, or both)
Dysregulated bowel motility (hormones, nervous system)
Gut dysbiosis (imbalance of good and bad bacteria)
Intolerance to poorly digested carbohydrates
Describe dietary strategies that may be helpful for people with IBS.
Low-FODMAP diet (more on this topic in Chapter 4)
Increase viscous fiber
Limit or eliminate caffeine
Small, frequent, low-fat meals
Identify the goal of diet therapy for a person with diarrhea
Restore hydration/prevent dehydration
Special diet is not usually required
List dietary and lifestyle strategies to prevent gallstones.
Maintain healthy body weight
Avoid rapid weight loss
Choose plant proteins more often and choose animal proteins less often
Adequate fiber intake
Regular physical activity
Moderate or no caffeine
chronic, immune-mediated disease precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten; causes damage to small intestine
nonceliac gluten sensitivity
immune-related condition precipitated by exposure to dietary gluten; does not cause damage to small intestine
Describe the role of the gluten-free diet in treatment of celiac disease and nonceliac gluten sensitivity.
Complete avoidance of gluten (found in wheat, barley, and rye) is currently the only treatment
Nutrients that provide energy
carbs, fats, proteins
Nutrients that regulate body process
proteins, lipids, vitamins, minerals, water
Nutrients that promote growth
proteins, lipids, minerals, water
moves down a concentration gradient (no energy required); no carrier required
moves down a concentration gradient (no energy required); carrier required
moves against a concentration gradient (energy required); carrier required
Phagocytosis or pinocytosis
moves against a concentration gradient (energy required); cell membrane engulfs the substance
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