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the first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means "land between the rivers;" Sumerian culture.

Fertile Crescent

a geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates.

Indus Valley

a river valley in modern Pakistan where one of the earliest civilizations began.


an ancient Sumerian city in Southern Iraq, near the Euphrates.


the former center of the Roman empire.


the capital of Tang dynasty; population of 2 million, larger than any other city in the world at that time.


the first major metropolis in Mesoamerica, collapsed around 800 CE. It is most remembered for the gigantic "pyramid of the sun".


a Moslem city built on the Silk Road that was one of the first cities to reach a population of over 1 million.


temple cities abandoned in 1431.


an Indus Valley city laid out in a grid pattern. Had a complex irrigation and sewer system.

Silk Road

an ancient trade route between China and Europe.


to hunt or search for food.


pertaining to land or its cultivation.


a settlement ruled by a more powerful empire.


the organized action of making of goods and services for sale.

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