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Anatomy of the Digestive System

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Alimentary Canal
Another name for the GI Tract; it contains the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum & anus. These organs directly process & digest food.
Accessory Organs
Salivary glands, Liver, Gallbladder, & Pancreas; These organs NEVER touch food directly, but they release various enzymes & fluids to help the digestion process
Ingestion
Process by which food/fluid enters the mouth
Absorption
Process by which nutrients are taken into the small intestine
Defacation
Process by which indigestible material is removed from the digestive tract
Incisors
Front teeth of the mouth; they are responsible for biting
Canines
Also known as Bicuspids, these teeth have sharp, pointy edges that tear food
Premolars (Cuspids) & Molars
Teeth found near the back of the mouth that help to grind food
Enamel
The protective white covering on the crown of the tooth
Crown
The upper portion of the tooth that is exposed above the gum
Root
The lower portion of the tooth that is connected to the jawbone below the gum
Dentin
The secondary layer of the tooth, deep to the enamel
Pulp
The fleshy part of the tooth that contains nerve endings and blood vessels
Lingual Frenulum
The piece of tissue that attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth
Sublingual Glands
Salivary glands found under the tongue
Submandibular Glands
Salivary glands found under the jaw
Parotid Glands
Salivary glands found near the cheek/ear
Pharynx
The throat
Esophagus
The food tube that connects the mouth to the stomach
Bolus
The ball of food formed after it is chewed by the teeth and mixed with saliva
Epiglottis
The piece of cartilage that closes over the trachea when swallowing to prevent food from "going down the wrong pipe"
Peristalsis
Series of wave-like muscle contractions that moves food through the digestive tract (mainly the esophagus and intestines)
Gastroesophageal Sphincter
Muscle that connects the esophagus and stomach, and helps keep the stomach contents in the stomach
Cardia
Portion of the stomach that surrounds the opening
Fundus
Portion of the stomach that is found to the left of the cardia
Body of the Stomach
Portion of the stomach that is found in the center of the stomach, below the Fundus
Pylorus
Narrow, inferior region of the stomach
Rugae
Large gastric folds inside the stomach that smooth out when the stomach fills with food so it can stretch
Chyme
Pasty fluid that is a combination of partially digested food and gastric juice
Pyloric Sphinchter
The muscle that slowly releases chyme from the stomach into the small intestine
Duodenum
1st part of the small intestines that attach to the stomach
Jejunum
Midsection of the small intestine
Ileum
Last part of the small intestine that attaches to the large intestines
Villi
Fingerlike projectsion inside the tube of the small intestine that further increase surface area
Microvilli
Microscopic projections found on the villi of the small intestines
Mesentery
The thin tissue on the outside of the small intestine that connects the digestive system with the cardiovascular system; it is filled with blood vessels to carry the absorbed nutrients into the bloodstream
Small Intestine
Part of the digestive system responsible for absorbing the nutrients that are in food
Stomach
Digestive organ that is responsible for temporarily storing food and mixing it with gastric juices to break it down
Large Intestine
Digestive organ that is responsible for removing all of the indigestible material from the digestive system, as well as re-absorbing water and making Vitamin K
Liver
Digestive organ that MAKES bile, in addition to filtering the blood, storing various Vitamins & Minerals, and regulating blood components
Pancreas
Digestive organ that regulates the hormones Insulin and Glucagon
Gall Bladder
Digestive organ that STORES bile until it is needed by the small intestine
Hepatocytes
Specialized cells in the liver that make bile
Glycogen
Storage form of glucose
Acini
Specialized cells in the pancreas that secrete pancreatic juice
Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans)
Specialized cells in the pancreas that secrete Insulin & Glucagon