Laws and Treaties
Terms in this set (19)
Clean Air Act (1970, 1977, 1990)
Sets goals and standards for the quality and purity of air in the United States. By law, it is periodically reviewed. A significant set of amendments in 1990 toughened air quality standards and placed new emphasis on market forces to control air pollution.
US Clean Water Act (1977, 1981, 1987)
Establishes and maintains goals and standards for U.S. water quality and purity. It has been amended several times, most prominently in 1987 to increase controls on toxic pollutants, and in 1990, to more effectively address the hazard of oil spills.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (1980, 1986, 1990)
Requires the cleanup of sites contaminated with toxic waste. This law is commonly refered to as "Superfund." In 1986 major amendments were made in order to clarify the level of cleanup required and degrees of liability. CERCLA is retroactive, which means it can be used to hold liable those responsible for disposal of hazardous wastes before the law was enacted in 1980.
Energy Policy Act
set goals, created mandates, and amended utility laws to increase clean energy use and improve overall energy efficiency in the United States.
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938, 1954, 1958)
Is the nation's major law regulating contaminants in food, including pesticides. The Food and Drug Administration implements most of this law; the Environmental Protection Agency carries out its pesticide standard setting provisions (with FDA enforcement). See also Food Quality Protection Act.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1988)
Controls the sale, distribution and application of pesticides; amended in 1972, 1988, and 1996. See also Food Quality Protection Act.
Food Quality Protection Act (1996)
Is designed to ensure that levels of pesticide residues in food meet strict standards for public health protection. Under this law, which overhauled the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, the Environmental Protection Agency is required to better protect infants and children from pesticides in food and water and from indoor exposure to pesticides.
The Lacey Act protects both plants and wildlife by creating civil and criminal penalties for a wide array of violations. It prohibits trade in wildlife, fish, and plants that have been illegally taken, transported or sold.
Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988
banned ocean dumping of municipal sewage sludge and industrial waste
The Safe Drinking Water Act (1974, 1984, 1996)
Establishes drinking water standards for tap water safety, and requires rules for groundwater protection from underground injection; amended in 1986 and 1996. The 1996 amendments added a fund to pay for water system upgrades, revised standard: setting requirements, required new standards for common contaminants, and included public "right to know" requirements to inform consumers about their tap water.
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
Is intended to ensure that coal mining activity is conducted with sufficient protections of the public and the environment, and provides for the restoration of abandoned mining areas to beneficial use.
The Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)
Authorizes the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate the manufacture, distribution, import and processing of certain toxic chemicals.
The Kyoto Protocol
An international agreement setting binding limits on emissions of greenhouse gases from industrialized countries. This agreement was adopted in Kyoto Japan in December 1997 and supplements the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change adopted in 1992.
International agreement signed by more than 150 countries to limit the production of substances harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer, such as CFCs.
The Endangered Species Act (1973, 1982, 1985, 1988)
A law requiring the federal government to protect all species listed as endangered.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (1973)
CITES is a multilateral treaty to protect endangered plants and animals. It was drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the International Union for Conservation of Nature.
Oil Pollution Act of 1990
Enacted a year after the disastrous Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska's Prince William Sound, this law streamlines federal response to oil spills by requiring oil storage facilities and vessels to prepare spill-response plans and provide for their rapid implementation. The law also increases polluters' liability for cleanup costs and damage to natural resources and imposes measures -- including a phaseout of single-hulled tankers -- designed to improve tanker safety and prevent spills.
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
Selected rivers in the United States are preserved for possessing outstandingly, remarkable scenic, recreational, geologic, fish and wildlife, historic, cultural, or other similar values.
created the National Wilderness Preservation System and recognized wilderness as "an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain."