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Unit 01 - Review Packet
Terms in this set (45)
new legal code created under the orders of Emperor Justinian; it has been the basis for the legal system of almost every country in the Western World
a plague which swept through Asia and Europe in the mid-500's CE, it killed millions of people, including many men in Justinian's army limiting the Byzantine empire's ability to fight wars
a major riot which occurred in 532 CE as a result of unpopular taxes by Emperor Justinian; it ended when Justinian sent in troops who slaughtered 30,000 rioters
(literally "Holy Wisdom") the most famous basilica constructed under Emperor Justinian's orders, it was considered one of the greatest architectural achievements of the Byzantine Empire due to the complexity of the dome ceiling
images of holy people such as Jesus, Mary, and the saints; outlawed and destroyed during the Byzantine Iconoclasm
literally, "icon breaking"; referring to the destruction of icons which began under Byzantine Emperor Leo III
a person who followed the emperor's orders to destroy icons during the iconoclasm
a religious community; community of monks who have devoted their lives to prayer and study
the event that divided Christianity into Western Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Christianity; occurred in 1054 when the Pope and Patriarch of Constantinople excommunicated each other; issues leading to this division include: church authority, right of clergy to marry, use of icons, and the language of church service
Eastern Orthodox Church
The branch of christianity practiced in the East after the Great Schism divided Christianity in 1054; Different from the Western Churches in the following ways: Byzantine emperor controlled Church affairs, rejected pope's claim to authority over all Christians, Clergy kept right to marry, Greek was language of the Church, Easter was main holy day, Emperor outlawed the use of icons, or holy images
Roman Catholic Church
The branch of christianity practiced in the West after the Great Schism divided Christianity in 1054; Different from the Eastern Churches in the following ways: Pope controlled Church affairs; People accepted pope's claim to authority over all Christians; Clergy prohibited from marrying; Latin was language of the Church; Christmas was main holy day; Use of icons permitted.
The bishop of Rome who claimed power over the other bishops He believed he was a successor to Peter, disciple of Jesus because Peter was the first bishop of Rome. The Byzantines rejected the claim of the pope. They believed the patriarch of Constantinople and other bishops were equal to the pope. One issue leading to the Great Schism
Byzantium / Constantinople
originally the city of Byzantium, it was renamed by Constantine in 330 CE; capital of the Byzantine Empire
A large program of increased education (literacy) and artistic revival which occurred during the Macedonian Dynasty (870-1025)
Describe TWO positive and negative achievements of the emperor Justinian.
Expanded the empire to its greatest size
Created Justinian Code
Built many buildings, aqueducts, and churches (ex. Hagia Sophia)
Encouraged study of literature and philosophy
Strengthened and spread Eastern Orthodox Christianity/ unifying the empire
Costly wars weakened the empire
Created many enemies
Restricted the rights + killed non-Christians and non-Orthodox Christians
Spent large sums of money on art/architecture - weakening the empire
Why were Icons banned in the Byzantine Empire?
Some Byzantines did not approve of the use of icons because they thought it was a form of idol worship forbidden by God. Byzantine Emperors also had political reasons for banning icons including the fact that the Byzantine Army did not approve of icons and the Emperor needed to keep their soldier's support.
Who ruled the Eastern Christian Churches? How was this different from the Western Churches?
The Emperor ruled the Eastern Christian churches. This is different from the west because Churches in the west were led by the Bishop of Rome, called the Pope.
How did the invasions of the Visigoths and Vandals impact the Western Roman Empire?
Attacks by both the Visigoths and the Vandals weakened the Western Roman Empire and contributed to its collapse in 476 CE.
Eastern Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
Last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire
Germanic tribe who captured Rome in 410 CE
Byzantine Emperor known for a series of military campaigns against the Persians, Slavs and Avars
an adviser to Emperor Justinian's chief general Belisarius on several of his campaigns; wrote both an official history and Secret History about these events
Germanic group who entered Rome in 455 CE
Byzantine Emperor who banned Icons
King of the Huns who invaded parts of the Roman Empire
Lombards, Slavs, Avars, and Bulgars
Groups who invaded the Byzantine Empire throughout its history
Emperor of Rome who moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium renaming the city Constantinople
Empress of the Byzantine Empire and wife of Justinian; famously convinced her husband to stay in the empire during the Nika Revolt
Roman emperor who divided the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves
Byzantine Emperor who nearly fled during the Nika Riot; famous for waging wars to reunite the empire
Group who successfully overran Constantinople in 1453; first to bring d
Germanic general who overthrew the emperor of Western Rome in 476 CE
Sultan who led the Ottoman Turks in their successful 15th century invasion of Constantinople
People who lived in the Byzantine Empire
Date that the Great Schism divided the Christian Church
Date Icons are banned in the Byzantine Empire
Date Rome divides into Eastern and Western Empires
Date Constantinople becomes a Crusader State
Germanic general Odoacer conquered Rome and the Western Roman Empire Collapsed