42 terms

APES Terms Chapter 8

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Core
The innermost zone of Earth with two parts
Mantle
The second innermost layer of Earth that holds molten rock aka magma that circulates in convection cells
Asthenosphere
Outer most part of the mantle, is composed of semi molten, flexible rock
Lithosphere
Brittle, outermost layer of the Earth which includes the outermost layer of the solid upper mantle and the crust
Crust
The chemically distinct outermost layer of the lithosphere and the Earth
Hot spots
Places where molten material from the mantle reaches the lithosphere
Tectonic plates
Moving zones of the Earth that change it's geography over long periods of time. It's cycle is the sum of the processes that build up and break down the lithosphere
Subduction
The process of one tectonic plate moving under the other
Divergent boundary
Boundary at which plates move away from one another. Leads to seafloor spreading
Convergent boundary
Boundary at which plates move towards one another and collide, with the more dense plate going under the less dense plate
Transform boundary
Boundary at which two plates slide past each other
Fault Zones
A large expanse of rock where movement occurs.
Earthquake
Phenomenon that occurs when the rocks of the lithosphere rupture unexpectedly along a fault
Richter scale
A measure of the largest ground movement that occurs during an earthquake. Is logarithmic.
Minerals
Solid chemical substances with uniform (often crystalline) structures
Igneous rocks
Rocks that form directly from magma cooling
Sedimentary rocks
Rocks that form when sediments are compressed by overlying sediments over long periods of time and great pressure
Metamorphic rocks
Rocks that form when other rocks are subjected to high temperatures and pressures
Physical weathering
The mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals
Chemical weathering
The breakdown of rocks and minerals by chemical reactions, the dissolving of chemical elements, or both
Erosion
The physical removal of rock fragments from a landscape or ecosystem
Deposition
The accumulation or depositing of eroded material such as sediments, rock fragments, or soil
Soil
A mix of geologic and organic components that covers much of the Earth's surface and is vital in agriculture
Parent material
The rock material that underlies a soil from which its inorganic compounds are derived
Topography
The surface slope and arrangement of a landscape's height peaks
O horizon
The surface of most soils that is a layer of organic materials that are being decomposed
A horizon
The topsoil that is a zone of organic material and minerals that have been mixed together
E horizon
A zone of leeching that occurs above the B horizon
B horizon
A zone of subsoil that is composed primarily of mineral material and nutrients
C horizon
The least weathered zone of soil that is most similar to the parent material
Soil texture
The percentages of sand, silt, and clay that are found in a soil
CEC of a soil
The ability of a soil to absorb and release cations
Base saturation
A measure of the proportion of soil bases to soil acids
Soil degradation
The loss of some or all of the ability of soils to support plant growth
Ores
Concentrated accumulations of minerals from which economically valuable materials can be extracted
Metals
Elements with properties that allow them to conduct electricity and heat energy and perform other important functions
Known reserves
The known quantity of the resource that can be economically recovered
Strip mining
The removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore
Tailing
The unwanted waste material that is returned to the hole created when mining
Open-pit mining
The creation of a large pit or hole in the ground that is visible from Earth's surface. Used when the resource being mined is close to the Earth's surface.
Subsurface mining
Mining technique that is used when the desired resource is more than 100 meters below the Earth's surface. More dangerous to miners.
SMRCA law
Law that regulates surface mining of coal and the effects of subsurface mining. Requires that land must be minimally disturbed and must undergo reclamation after the mining is finished.