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AP HuGe Unit 6 Vocab
For Ms. Brown's Class
Terms in this set (56)
The growth of manufacturing activity in the economy or a region and usually occurs alongside a decrease in the number of primary economic activities within a country.
Location theory/Industrial location theory
an element of contemporary human geography that seeks answers to a wide range of questions-some theoretical, some practical.
Friction of distance
The increase in time and cost that usually comes with increasing distance.
Least cost theory model
Least cost theory/least-cost location
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
This type of industry produces goods that weigh more than the raw materials that went into making them. The higher weight of the finished products encourages the industry to locate closer to its markets than to its source of raw material to reduce transport costs.
This type of industry produces goods that weigh less than the raw materials that went into making them. The higher weight of the raw materials encourages the industry to locate closer to its source of raw materials than to its markets to reduce transport costs.
In the production of a good where one raw material is heavier than the other; the industrial production will be closer to the heavier item (ex. Potato chips made with potatoes and oil/salt)
the concentration of businesses in one particular area.
A process through which tendencies for economic growth are self-reinforcing; an expression of the multiplier effect, it tends to favor major cities and core regions over less-advantaged peripheral regions
Industries choose to move away from each other called deglomeration. Essentially it is the "unclumping" of factories due to the negative effects and higher costs of industrial overcrowding.
the location of industries can't be understood without reference to the location of other industries of like kind. (A two dimensional model.)
a region with extremely dense industry. It is usually heavily urbanized (India, Japan, Korea, Poland)
A trading post where merchandise can be imported and exported without paying import duties
Includes South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, each of which is currently experiencing rapid economic growth as a result of its industrial base and the exporting of items to areas like the United States and Europe.
Foreign direct investment
Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country
Trade amongst nation of equal value
The finished product(s) weight is less than the raw materials
Therefore, it cost more to ship the raw materials than to ship the finished product. Industry location would be the closest to the source of raw materials!
Assembly-line production for mass consumption. Each person on the system performs a particular task for an area of expertise.
Labor intensive production such as agriculture and textiles required more work directly from the worker. Most of the clothes we wore had to be handmade.
modern production; producers can move production sites & renegotiate contracts more easily (technology, more tertiary industries)
Multinational companies/transnational corporations
Companies that operate in a number of different countries. Because of their economic power, they can at times dictate prices paid to producers in developing countries.
Being or seeming to be everywhere at the same time
Costs that change as output changes
Costs that do not vary with the quantity of output produced
How fast innovations diffuse depends on the connectedness of two places
Method of inventory management made possible by efficient transportation and communication systems, whereby companies keep on hand just what they need for nearterm production, planning that what they need for longerterm production will arrive when needed.
Global division of labor/international division of labor
Labor is concentrated in the global economic periphery and semiperiphery to take advantage of lower labor costs, whereas research and development is primarily located in the core.
a feature of econmic development in peripherial countries where by the host country establishes areas with favorable tax regulatory,and trade agrements in order to attract foriegn manufacturing operations the goods manufactured in these zones are primarily destined for the export global market
Footloose industries with no allegiance to any country, can locate anywhere in the world typically for tax purposes.
a process by which companies move industrial jobs to other regions.
To turn over in part or in total to a thir party, in reference to prodcution
Countries in the periphery
With respect to a country, making progress in technology, production, and socioeconomic welfare.
Gross national product, GNP
is a measure of the total value of the officially recorded goods and services produced by the citizens and corporations of a country in a given year, and includes things produced both inside and outside the country's territory.
Gross domestic product, GDP
encompasses only goods and services produced within a country during a given year.
Gross national income, GNI
monetary worth of what is produced within a country plus income received from investments outside the country minus income payments to other countries.
the legal economy that governments tax and monitor.
uncounted or illegal economy that governments do not tax and keep track of.
The contrast between the technology available in developed core regions and that present in peripheral areas of underdevelopment.
Technology transfer process
The amount of time that it takes a new techonology to leave the laboratory and arrive on shelves for citizens to purchase
Human development index (HDI)
Indicator of level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Physical quality of life index (PQLI)
an attempt to measure the quality of life or well-being of a country. The value is the average of three statistics: basic literacy rate, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age one
The development cycle is initiated by investment in a takeoff industry that allows the country to grow a comparative advantage, which sparks greater economic gain that eventually diffused throughout the country's economy. Consumers will save and invest personal wealth to improve their situation, causes exponential growth!
Drawbacks: does not identify cultural and historical difference in development trajectories based upon the Western World.
Stages of growth model
linear theory of development that developed countries go through a common patterns 1)Traditional Society, 2)Transitional Stage 3)Take Off 4)Drive to Maturity and 5)High Mass Consumption
the major world powers continue to control the economies of the poorer countries, even though the poorer countries are now politically independent states.
Holds that the political and economic relationships between countries and regions of the world control and limit the economic development possibilities of poorer areas.
Immanuel Wallerstein's world-systems theory
Three-tier structure—the core, periphery, and semiperiphery—helps explain the interconnections between places in the global economy.
When core processes are embedded in a place, wealth is generated for the people in that place.
Peripheral processes require little education, lower technologies, and lower wages and benefits.
The semiperiphery exhibits both core and peripheral processes, and semiperipheral places serve as a buffer between the core and periphery in the world-economy.
A group of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant system of global control of finance and commerce
Export process zones (EPZs)
offer favorable tax, regulatory, and trade arrangements to foreign firms.
industrial plants located in Mexico (near the border of USA) that produce goods or assemble US parts with relatively inexpensive labor to sell the products in the US at a huge profit instead of being made in the US.
Special economic zones (SEZ)
Specific area within a country in which tax incentives and less stringent environmental regulations are implemented to attract foreign business and investment.
Islands of development
a government or corporation builds up and concentrates economic development in a certain city or small region.
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
In the most rural, impoverished regions of less prosperous countries, some nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) try to improve the plight of people.
Each NGO has its own set of goals, depending on the primary concerns outlined by its founders and financiers.
give loans to poor people, particularly women, to encourage development of small businesses.