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Schemes and Tropes
Mr. Alexander's AP language and composition 11 classes
Terms in this set (24)
A scheme in which the same word or phrase is repeated at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences. Example: "I will fight for you. I will fight to save Social Security. I will fight to raise the minimum wage."
A scheme that makes use of contrasting words, phrases, sentences, or ideas for emphasis (generally used in parallel grammatical structures). Example: " Americans in need are not strangers, they are citizens, not problems, but priorities."
A scheme in which a person or an abstract quality is directly addressed, whether present or not. Example: "Freedom! You are a beguiling mistress."
A trope composed of exaggerated words or ideals used for emphasis and not to be taken literally. Example: "I've told you a million times not to call me a liar!"
A trope in which a word or phrase is used to mean the opposite of its literal meaning. Example: "I just love scrubbing the floor."
A trope in which one makes a deliberate understatement for emphasis. Example: Young lovers are kissing and an observer says: "I think they like each other."
A trope in which a word or phrase is transferred from its literal meaning to stand for something else. Unlike a simile, in which something is said to be "like" something else, a metaphor says something is something else. Example: "Debt is a bottomless sea."
A trope that substitutes an associated word for one that is meant. Example: Using "top brass" to refer to military officers.
A trope that connects two contradictory terms. Example: "Bill is a cheerful pessimist."
A trope in which human qualities or abilities are assigned to abstractions or inanimate objects. Example: "Integrity thumbs its nose at pomposity."
A play on words in which a homophone is repeated but used in a different sense. Examples: "She was always game for any game."
A trope in which one states a comparison between two things that are not alike but have similarities. Unlike metaphors, similes employ "like" or "as." Example: "Her eyes are as blue as a robin's egg."
A trope in which a part stands for the whole. Example: "Tom just bought a fancy new set of wheels."
A trope in which one verb governs several words, or clauses, each in a different sense. Example: "He stiffened his drink and his spine."
repetition of initial consonant sounds
repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause
lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses or words "I came, I saw, I conquered"
Listing phrases or events in order of ascending importance. "A man's duty is himself, his country, his God"
the act of positioning close together (or side by side) "Niccolo Paganini, the famous violinist, ..."
"I can't tell you how much she sucks at acting
Asking a rhetorical question to the audience
(logic) a self-contradiction
insertion of some verbal unit in a position that interrupts the normal syntactical flow of the sentence
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